Abstract

Mid-infrared fiber optical parametric oscillators (MIR FOPOs) based on the degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) of tellurite photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are proposed and modeled for the first time. Using the DFWM coupled-wave equations, numerical simulations are performed to analyze the effects of tellurite PCFs, single-resonant cavity, and pump source on the MIR FOPO performances. The numerical results show that: (1) although a longer tellurite PCF can decrease the pump threshold of MIR FOPOs to a few watts only, the high conversion-efficiency of MIR idler usually requires a short-length optimum PCF with low loss; (2) compared with the single-pass DFWM configurations of the MIR fiber sources published previously, the stable oscillation of signal light in single-resonant cavity can significantly promote the MIR idler output efficiency. With a suggested tellurite PCF as parametric gain medium, the theoretical prediction indicates that such a MIR FOPO could obtain a wide MIR-tunable range and a high conversion efficiency of more than 10%.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Auerbach, M.

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Camerlingo, A.

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Chiang, T.-K.

Dasgupta, S.

de Matos, C. J. S.

Deng, Y.

Dikmelik, Y.

P. Q. Liu, A. J. Hoffman, M. D. Escarra, K. J. Franz, J. B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “Highly power-efficient quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 95–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Enbutsu, K.

A. Mori, K. Shikano, K. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fiber with a nonlinear coefficient γ of 675  W−1 km−1,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2004), paper Th3.3.6.

Escarra, M. D.

P. Q. Liu, A. J. Hoffman, M. D. Escarra, K. J. Franz, J. B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “Highly power-efficient quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 95–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fallnich, C.

Fan, J.-Y.

P. Q. Liu, A. J. Hoffman, M. D. Escarra, K. J. Franz, J. B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “Highly power-efficient quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 95–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Fiorentino, M.

Flanagan, J. C.

Foo, T.

Frampton, K. E.

Franz, K. J.

P. Q. Liu, A. J. Hoffman, M. D. Escarra, K. J. Franz, J. B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “Highly power-efficient quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 95–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Friberg, S. R.

L. J. Wang, C. K. Hong, and S. R. Friberg, “Generation of correlated photons via four-wave mixing in optical fibers,” J. Opt. B 3, 346–352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

George, A.

Gmachl, C. F.

P. Q. Liu, A. J. Hoffman, M. D. Escarra, K. J. Franz, J. B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “Highly power-efficient quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 95–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Hansen, K. P.

Hemming, A.

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Hoffman, A. J.

P. Q. Liu, A. J. Hoffman, M. D. Escarra, K. J. Franz, J. B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “Highly power-efficient quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 95–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. K.

L. J. Wang, C. K. Hong, and S. R. Friberg, “Generation of correlated photons via four-wave mixing in optical fibers,” J. Opt. B 3, 346–352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Ishaaya, A. A.

Jauregui, C.

Kagi, N.

Kato, M.

A. Mori, K. Shikano, K. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fiber with a nonlinear coefficient γ of 675  W−1 km−1,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2004), paper Th3.3.6.

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Khurgin, J. B.

P. Q. Liu, A. J. Hoffman, M. D. Escarra, K. J. Franz, J. B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “Highly power-efficient quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 95–98 (2010).
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Knight, J.

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Liao, M.

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Lin, Q.

Liu, P. Q.

P. Q. Liu, A. J. Hoffman, M. D. Escarra, K. J. Franz, J. B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “Highly power-efficient quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 95–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Lu, F.

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A. Mori, K. Shikano, K. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fiber with a nonlinear coefficient γ of 675  W−1 km−1,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2004), paper Th3.3.6.

Naganuma, K.

A. Mori, K. Shikano, K. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fiber with a nonlinear coefficient γ of 675  W−1 km−1,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2004), paper Th3.3.6.

Nodop, D.

Ohishi, Y.

Oikawa, K.

A. Mori, K. Shikano, K. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fiber with a nonlinear coefficient γ of 675  W−1 km−1,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2004), paper Th3.3.6.

Petropoulos, P.

Price, J. H.

Qin, G.

Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.

Richardson, D. J.

Russell, P.

Rutt, H. N.

Schimpf, D.

Shamir, A.

Sharping, J. E.

Shikano, K.

A. Mori, K. Shikano, K. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fiber with a nonlinear coefficient γ of 675  W−1 km−1,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2004), paper Th3.3.6.

Suzuki, T.

Taylor, J. R.

Tünnermann, A.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Walde, T.

Wang, L. J.

L. J. Wang, C. K. Hong, and S. R. Friberg, “Generation of correlated photons via four-wave mixing in optical fibers,” J. Opt. B 3, 346–352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

P. Q. Liu, A. J. Hoffman, M. D. Escarra, K. J. Franz, J. B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “Highly power-efficient quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 95–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, P.

White, N. M.

Windeler, R. S.

Yan, X.

Zhang, W.

J. Opt. B

L. J. Wang, C. K. Hong, and S. R. Friberg, “Generation of correlated photons via four-wave mixing in optical fibers,” J. Opt. B 3, 346–352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

P. Q. Liu, A. J. Hoffman, M. D. Escarra, K. J. Franz, J. B. Khurgin, Y. Dikmelik, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “Highly power-efficient quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 95–98 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

A. Herzog, A. Shamir, and A. A. Ishaaya, “Wavelength conversion of nanosecond pulses to the mid-IR in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37, 82–84 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Nodop, C. Jauregui, D. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Efficient high-power generation of visible and mid-infrared light by degenerate four-wave-mixing in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3499–3501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. Foo, R. C. Moore, W. Zhang, Y. Li, T. M. Monro, A. Hemming, and D. G. Lancaster, “Fluoride glass microstructured optical fiber with large mode area and mid-infrared transmission,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2861–2863 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor, and K. P. Hansen, “Continuous-wave, totally fiber integrated optical parametric oscillator using holey fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 983–985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Deng, Q. Lin, F. Lu, G. P. Agrawal, and W. H. Knox, “Broadly tunable femtosecond parametric oscillator using a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1234–1236 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Marhic, N. Kagi, T.-K. Chiang, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Broadband fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 573–575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Gross, M. E. Klein, T. Walde, E.-J. Boller, M. Auerbach, P. Wessels, and C. Fallnich, “Fiber-laser-pumped continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 27, 418–420 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, and R. S. Windeler, “Optical parametric oscillator based on four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1675–1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Mori, K. Shikano, K. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, and S. Aozasa, “1.5 μm band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fiber with a nonlinear coefficient γ of 675  W−1 km−1,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2004), paper Th3.3.6.

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