Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate and theoretically investigate a compact two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal biosensor implemented by a waveguide and cavity. Biomaterials such as DNA molecules and proteins trapped inside a hole cause resonant wavelength shifting at the output terminal. The quality factor and sensitivity were obtained at about 4000 and 1.63nm/fg, respectively. Also, we investigated this structure as a bulk refractive index sensor with a sensitivity of about 165.45nm/RIU (refractive index units). Then, we modified the structure as a multichannel biosensor. This biosensor has the capability of highly parallel operation because of special architecture that was obtained by lattice shifting of a single hole around the cavity. Each channel had a different resonant cavity wavelength and the filling of analyte in selected holes caused resonant wavelength shifting, independently. Plane wave expansion (PWE) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) methods were used to analyze and compute the sensor characteristics.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  35. F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173112 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

S. Olyaee and S. Najafgholinezhad, “A high quality factor and wide measurement range biosensor based on photonic crystal nanocavity resonator,” Sens. Lett. 11, 483–488 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Olyaee, S. Najafgholinezhad, and H. Alipour Banaei, “Four-channel label-free photonic crystal biosensor using nanocavity resonators,” Photon. Sens. 3, 231–236 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

S. Olyaee and A. A. Dehghani, “High resolution and wide dynamic range pressure sensor based on two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Photon. Sens. 2, 92–96 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Olyaee and F. Taghipour, “Ultra-flattened dispersion hexagonal photonic crystal fiber with low confinement loss and large effective area,” IET Optoelectron. 6, 82–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Yun, Y. Wan, J. Liang, F. Xia, M. Liu, and L. Ren, “Multi-channel biosensor based on photonic crystal waveguide and microcavities,” Optik 123, 1920–1922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Dar, J. Homola, B. M. Azizur Rahman, and M. Rajarajan, “Label-free slot-waveguide biosensor for the detection of DNA hybridization,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8195–8202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

D. Yang, H. Tian, and Y. Ji, “Nanoscale photonic crystal sensor arrays on monolithic substrates using side-coupled resonant cavity arrays,” Opt. Express 19, 20023–20034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Rostami, H. A. Banaei, F. Nazari, and A. Bahrami, “An ultra compact photonic crystal wavelength division demultiplexer using resonance cavities in a modified Y-branch structure,” Optik 122, 1481–1485 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Derbali, F. AbdelMalek, S. S. A. Obayya, H. Bouchriha, and R. Letizia, “Design of a compact photonic crystal sensor,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 42, 463–472 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

F. Hsiao and Ch. Lee, “Computational study of photonic crystals nano-ring resonator for biochemical sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1185–1191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, “Photonic crystal sensors: an overview,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 89–134 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Hallynck and P. Biensman, “Photonic crystal biosensor based on angular spectrum analysis,” Opt. Express 18, 18164–18170 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Pal, E. Guillermain, R. Sriram, B. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Microcavities in photonic crystal waveguides for biosensor applications,” Proc. SPIE 7553, 755304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

E. Guillermain and P. M. Fauchet, “Multi-channel biodetection via resonant microcavities coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Proc. SPIE 7167, 71670D (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Lee and J. Thillaigovindan, “Optical nanomechanical sensor using Si photonic crystals cantilever embedded with nanocavity resonator,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1797–1803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hsiao and C. Lee, “Novel biosensor based on photonic crystal nano-ring resonator,” Procedia Chem. 1, 417–420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Xiang and Ch. Lee, “Nanophotonics sensor based on microcantilever for chemical analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1323–1326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

D. Passaro, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, J. Lægsgaard, and A. Overgaard, “All-silica hollow-core microstructured Bragg fibers for biosensor application,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1280–1286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, “High sensitivity photonic crystal biosensor incorporating nanorod structures for enhanced surface area,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 131, 279–284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Lourtioz, “Photonic crystals and metamaterials,” C. R. Physique 9, 4–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Säynätjoki, M. Mulot, K. Vynck, D. Cassagne, J. Ahopelto, and H. Lipsanen, “Properties, applications and fabrication of photonic crystals with ring-shaped holes in silicon-on-insulator,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 42–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

2005 (1)

S.-W. Chung, D. S. Ginger, M. W. Morales, Z. Zhang, V. Chandrasekhar, M. A. Ratner, and C. A. Mirkin, “Top-down meets bottom-up: dip-pen nanolithography and DNA-directed assembly of nanoscale electrical circuits,” Small 1, 64–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Z. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, “Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3509–3515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425, 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1983 (1)

M. D. Bennett, J. S. Heslop-Harrison, J. B. Smith, and J. P. Ward, “DNA density in mitotic and meiotic metaphase chromosomes of plants and animals,” J. Cell Sci. 63, 173–179 (1983).

AbdelMalek, F.

J. Derbali, F. AbdelMalek, S. S. A. Obayya, H. Bouchriha, and R. Letizia, “Design of a compact photonic crystal sensor,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 42, 463–472 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ahopelto, J.

A. Säynätjoki, M. Mulot, K. Vynck, D. Cassagne, J. Ahopelto, and H. Lipsanen, “Properties, applications and fabrication of photonic crystals with ring-shaped holes in silicon-on-insulator,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 42–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425, 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alipour Banaei, H.

S. Olyaee, S. Najafgholinezhad, and H. Alipour Banaei, “Four-channel label-free photonic crystal biosensor using nanocavity resonators,” Photon. Sens. 3, 231–236 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425, 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Azizur Rahman, B. M.

Bahrami, A.

A. Rostami, H. A. Banaei, F. Nazari, and A. Bahrami, “An ultra compact photonic crystal wavelength division demultiplexer using resonance cavities in a modified Y-branch structure,” Optik 122, 1481–1485 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Balet, L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Banaei, H. A.

A. Rostami, H. A. Banaei, F. Nazari, and A. Bahrami, “An ultra compact photonic crystal wavelength division demultiplexer using resonance cavities in a modified Y-branch structure,” Optik 122, 1481–1485 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

J.-M. Lourtioz, H. Benisty, V. Berger, J.-M. Gerard, D. Maystre, and A. Tchelnokov, Photonic Crystals: Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2008).

Bennett, M. D.

M. D. Bennett, J. S. Heslop-Harrison, J. B. Smith, and J. P. Ward, “DNA density in mitotic and meiotic metaphase chromosomes of plants and animals,” J. Cell Sci. 63, 173–179 (1983).

Berger, V.

J.-M. Lourtioz, H. Benisty, V. Berger, J.-M. Gerard, D. Maystre, and A. Tchelnokov, Photonic Crystals: Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2008).

Biensman, P.

Blair, S.

Block, I. D.

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, “High sensitivity photonic crystal biosensor incorporating nanorod structures for enhanced surface area,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 131, 279–284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

Bouchriha, H.

J. Derbali, F. AbdelMalek, S. S. A. Obayya, H. Bouchriha, and R. Letizia, “Design of a compact photonic crystal sensor,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 42, 463–472 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cassagne, D.

A. Säynätjoki, M. Mulot, K. Vynck, D. Cassagne, J. Ahopelto, and H. Lipsanen, “Properties, applications and fabrication of photonic crystals with ring-shaped holes in silicon-on-insulator,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 42–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

J. Sun and C. C. Chan, “Photonic bandgap fiber for refractive index measurement,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 128, 46–50 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chan, L. L.

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061–1068 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Combined enhanced fluorescence and label-free biomolecular detection with a photonic crystal surface,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2351–2360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, V.

S.-W. Chung, D. S. Ginger, M. W. Morales, Z. Zhang, V. Chandrasekhar, M. A. Ratner, and C. A. Mirkin, “Top-down meets bottom-up: dip-pen nanolithography and DNA-directed assembly of nanoscale electrical circuits,” Small 1, 64–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chung, S.-W.

S.-W. Chung, D. S. Ginger, M. W. Morales, Z. Zhang, V. Chandrasekhar, M. A. Ratner, and C. A. Mirkin, “Top-down meets bottom-up: dip-pen nanolithography and DNA-directed assembly of nanoscale electrical circuits,” Small 1, 64–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cucinotta, A.

D. Passaro, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, J. Lægsgaard, and A. Overgaard, “All-silica hollow-core microstructured Bragg fibers for biosensor application,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1280–1286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, “High sensitivity photonic crystal biosensor incorporating nanorod structures for enhanced surface area,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 131, 279–284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Combined enhanced fluorescence and label-free biomolecular detection with a photonic crystal surface,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2351–2360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061–1068 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dar, T.

Dehghani, A. A.

S. Olyaee and A. A. Dehghani, “High resolution and wide dynamic range pressure sensor based on two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Photon. Sens. 2, 92–96 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Olyaee and A. A. Dehghani, “Nano-pressure sensor using high quality photonic crystal cavity resonator,” in IEEE, IET 8th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP, 2012), pp. 18–20.

S. Olyaee and A. A. Dehghani, “Ultrasensitive pressure sensor based on point defect resonant cavity in photonic crystal,” Sens. Lett. (in press).

Derbali, J.

J. Derbali, F. AbdelMalek, S. S. A. Obayya, H. Bouchriha, and R. Letizia, “Design of a compact photonic crystal sensor,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 42, 463–472 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dorfner, D.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

S. Pal, E. Guillermain, R. Sriram, B. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Microcavities in photonic crystal waveguides for biosensor applications,” Proc. SPIE 7553, 755304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Guillermain and P. M. Fauchet, “Multi-channel biodetection via resonant microcavities coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Proc. SPIE 7167, 71670D (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Lee and P. M. Fauchet, “Two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal based biosensing platform for protein detection,” Opt. Express 15, 4530–4535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Finley, J.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fiore, A.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Foroni, M.

D. Passaro, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, J. Lægsgaard, and A. Overgaard, “All-silica hollow-core microstructured Bragg fibers for biosensor application,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1280–1286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Francardi, M.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L. H.

Ganesh, N.

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, “High sensitivity photonic crystal biosensor incorporating nanorod structures for enhanced surface area,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 131, 279–284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Combined enhanced fluorescence and label-free biomolecular detection with a photonic crystal surface,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2351–2360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerard, J.-M.

J.-M. Lourtioz, H. Benisty, V. Berger, J.-M. Gerard, D. Maystre, and A. Tchelnokov, Photonic Crystals: Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2008).

Gerardino, A.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ginger, D. S.

S.-W. Chung, D. S. Ginger, M. W. Morales, Z. Zhang, V. Chandrasekhar, M. A. Ratner, and C. A. Mirkin, “Top-down meets bottom-up: dip-pen nanolithography and DNA-directed assembly of nanoscale electrical circuits,” Small 1, 64–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gosangari, S. L.

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061–1068 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guillermain, E.

S. Pal, E. Guillermain, R. Sriram, B. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Microcavities in photonic crystal waveguides for biosensor applications,” Proc. SPIE 7553, 755304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Guillermain and P. M. Fauchet, “Multi-channel biodetection via resonant microcavities coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Proc. SPIE 7167, 71670D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gurioli, M.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hallynck, E.

Hauke, N.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heslop-Harrison, J. S.

M. D. Bennett, J. S. Heslop-Harrison, J. B. Smith, and J. P. Ward, “DNA density in mitotic and meiotic metaphase chromosomes of plants and animals,” J. Cell Sci. 63, 173–179 (1983).

Ho, H. L.

Homola, J.

Hoo, Y. L.

Hsiao, F.

F. Hsiao and Ch. Lee, “Computational study of photonic crystals nano-ring resonator for biochemical sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1185–1191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, F.-L.

F.-L. Hsiao and C. Lee, “Novel biosensor based on photonic crystal nano-ring resonator,” Procedia Chem. 1, 417–420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hürlimann, T.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Intonti, F.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Y.

Jin, W.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2007).

Johnson, S. G.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2007).

Kjems, J.

Kristensen, M.

Lægsgaard, J.

D. Passaro, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, J. Lægsgaard, and A. Overgaard, “All-silica hollow-core microstructured Bragg fibers for biosensor application,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1280–1286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Lee, Ch.

F. Hsiao and Ch. Lee, “Computational study of photonic crystals nano-ring resonator for biochemical sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1185–1191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Xiang and Ch. Lee, “Nanophotonics sensor based on microcantilever for chemical analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1323–1326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. R.

Letizia, R.

J. Derbali, F. AbdelMalek, S. S. A. Obayya, H. Bouchriha, and R. Letizia, “Design of a compact photonic crystal sensor,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 42, 463–472 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. H.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

M. Yun, Y. Wan, J. Liang, F. Xia, M. Liu, and L. Ren, “Multi-channel biosensor based on photonic crystal waveguide and microcavities,” Optik 123, 1920–1922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lipsanen, H.

A. Säynätjoki, M. Mulot, K. Vynck, D. Cassagne, J. Ahopelto, and H. Lipsanen, “Properties, applications and fabrication of photonic crystals with ring-shaped holes in silicon-on-insulator,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 42–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

M. Yun, Y. Wan, J. Liang, F. Xia, M. Liu, and L. Ren, “Multi-channel biosensor based on photonic crystal waveguide and microcavities,” Optik 123, 1920–1922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lourtioz, J.-M.

J.-M. Lourtioz, “Photonic crystals and metamaterials,” C. R. Physique 9, 4–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Lourtioz, H. Benisty, V. Berger, J.-M. Gerard, D. Maystre, and A. Tchelnokov, Photonic Crystals: Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2008).

Mathias, P. C.

Maystre, D.

J.-M. Lourtioz, H. Benisty, V. Berger, J.-M. Gerard, D. Maystre, and A. Tchelnokov, Photonic Crystals: Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2008).

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2007).

Miller, B.

S. Pal, E. Guillermain, R. Sriram, B. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Microcavities in photonic crystal waveguides for biosensor applications,” Proc. SPIE 7553, 755304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mirkin, C. A.

S.-W. Chung, D. S. Ginger, M. W. Morales, Z. Zhang, V. Chandrasekhar, M. A. Ratner, and C. A. Mirkin, “Top-down meets bottom-up: dip-pen nanolithography and DNA-directed assembly of nanoscale electrical circuits,” Small 1, 64–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morales, M. W.

S.-W. Chung, D. S. Ginger, M. W. Morales, Z. Zhang, V. Chandrasekhar, M. A. Ratner, and C. A. Mirkin, “Top-down meets bottom-up: dip-pen nanolithography and DNA-directed assembly of nanoscale electrical circuits,” Small 1, 64–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mulot, M.

A. Säynätjoki, M. Mulot, K. Vynck, D. Cassagne, J. Ahopelto, and H. Lipsanen, “Properties, applications and fabrication of photonic crystals with ring-shaped holes in silicon-on-insulator,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 42–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nair, R. V.

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, “Photonic crystal sensors: an overview,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 89–134 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Najafgholinezhad, S.

S. Olyaee, S. Najafgholinezhad, and H. Alipour Banaei, “Four-channel label-free photonic crystal biosensor using nanocavity resonators,” Photon. Sens. 3, 231–236 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Olyaee and S. Najafgholinezhad, “A high quality factor and wide measurement range biosensor based on photonic crystal nanocavity resonator,” Sens. Lett. 11, 483–488 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nazari, F.

A. Rostami, H. A. Banaei, F. Nazari, and A. Bahrami, “An ultra compact photonic crystal wavelength division demultiplexer using resonance cavities in a modified Y-branch structure,” Optik 122, 1481–1485 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425, 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Obayya, S. S. A.

J. Derbali, F. AbdelMalek, S. S. A. Obayya, H. Bouchriha, and R. Letizia, “Design of a compact photonic crystal sensor,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 42, 463–472 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Olyaee, S.

S. Olyaee and S. Najafgholinezhad, “A high quality factor and wide measurement range biosensor based on photonic crystal nanocavity resonator,” Sens. Lett. 11, 483–488 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Olyaee, S. Najafgholinezhad, and H. Alipour Banaei, “Four-channel label-free photonic crystal biosensor using nanocavity resonators,” Photon. Sens. 3, 231–236 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Olyaee and F. Taghipour, “Ultra-flattened dispersion hexagonal photonic crystal fiber with low confinement loss and large effective area,” IET Optoelectron. 6, 82–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Olyaee and A. A. Dehghani, “High resolution and wide dynamic range pressure sensor based on two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Photon. Sens. 2, 92–96 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Olyaee and A. A. Dehghani, “Ultrasensitive pressure sensor based on point defect resonant cavity in photonic crystal,” Sens. Lett. (in press).

S. Olyaee and A. A. Dehghani, “Nano-pressure sensor using high quality photonic crystal cavity resonator,” in IEEE, IET 8th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP, 2012), pp. 18–20.

Overgaard, A.

D. Passaro, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, J. Lægsgaard, and A. Overgaard, “All-silica hollow-core microstructured Bragg fibers for biosensor application,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1280–1286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pal, S.

S. Pal, E. Guillermain, R. Sriram, B. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Microcavities in photonic crystal waveguides for biosensor applications,” Proc. SPIE 7553, 755304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Passaro, D.

D. Passaro, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, J. Lægsgaard, and A. Overgaard, “All-silica hollow-core microstructured Bragg fibers for biosensor application,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1280–1286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poli, F.

D. Passaro, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, J. Lægsgaard, and A. Overgaard, “All-silica hollow-core microstructured Bragg fibers for biosensor application,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1280–1286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rajarajan, M.

Rant, U.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ratner, M. A.

S.-W. Chung, D. S. Ginger, M. W. Morales, Z. Zhang, V. Chandrasekhar, M. A. Ratner, and C. A. Mirkin, “Top-down meets bottom-up: dip-pen nanolithography and DNA-directed assembly of nanoscale electrical circuits,” Small 1, 64–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ren, L.

M. Yun, Y. Wan, J. Liang, F. Xia, M. Liu, and L. Ren, “Multi-channel biosensor based on photonic crystal waveguide and microcavities,” Optik 123, 1920–1922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Riboli, F.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rostami, A.

A. Rostami, H. A. Banaei, F. Nazari, and A. Bahrami, “An ultra compact photonic crystal wavelength division demultiplexer using resonance cavities in a modified Y-branch structure,” Optik 122, 1481–1485 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, S. C.

Säynätjoki, A.

A. Säynätjoki, M. Mulot, K. Vynck, D. Cassagne, J. Ahopelto, and H. Lipsanen, “Properties, applications and fabrication of photonic crystals with ring-shaped holes in silicon-on-insulator,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 42–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Selleri, S.

D. Passaro, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, J. Lægsgaard, and A. Overgaard, “All-silica hollow-core microstructured Bragg fibers for biosensor application,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1280–1286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, C. Z.

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Skivesen, N.

Smith, J. B.

M. D. Bennett, J. S. Heslop-Harrison, J. B. Smith, and J. P. Ward, “DNA density in mitotic and meiotic metaphase chromosomes of plants and animals,” J. Cell Sci. 63, 173–179 (1983).

Song, B. S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425, 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sriram, R.

S. Pal, E. Guillermain, R. Sriram, B. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Microcavities in photonic crystal waveguides for biosensor applications,” Proc. SPIE 7553, 755304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

J. Sun and C. C. Chan, “Photonic bandgap fiber for refractive index measurement,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 128, 46–50 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taghipour, F.

S. Olyaee and F. Taghipour, “Ultra-flattened dispersion hexagonal photonic crystal fiber with low confinement loss and large effective area,” IET Optoelectron. 6, 82–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tchelnokov, A.

J.-M. Lourtioz, H. Benisty, V. Berger, J.-M. Gerard, D. Maystre, and A. Tchelnokov, Photonic Crystals: Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2008).

Tetu, A.

Thillaigovindan, J.

Tian, H.

Vignolini, S.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vijaya, R.

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, “Photonic crystal sensors: an overview,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 89–134 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vynck, K.

A. Säynätjoki, M. Mulot, K. Vynck, D. Cassagne, J. Ahopelto, and H. Lipsanen, “Properties, applications and fabrication of photonic crystals with ring-shaped holes in silicon-on-insulator,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 42–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wan, Y.

M. Yun, Y. Wan, J. Liang, F. Xia, M. Liu, and L. Ren, “Multi-channel biosensor based on photonic crystal waveguide and microcavities,” Optik 123, 1920–1922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. N.

Ward, J. P.

M. D. Bennett, J. S. Heslop-Harrison, J. B. Smith, and J. P. Ward, “DNA density in mitotic and meiotic metaphase chromosomes of plants and animals,” J. Cell Sci. 63, 173–179 (1983).

Watkin, K. L.

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061–1068 (2007).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2007).

Xia, F.

M. Yun, Y. Wan, J. Liang, F. Xia, M. Liu, and L. Ren, “Multi-channel biosensor based on photonic crystal waveguide and microcavities,” Optik 123, 1920–1922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, W.

W. Xiang and Ch. Lee, “Nanophotonics sensor based on microcantilever for chemical analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1323–1326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

Yun, M.

M. Yun, Y. Wan, J. Liang, F. Xia, M. Liu, and L. Ren, “Multi-channel biosensor based on photonic crystal waveguide and microcavities,” Optik 123, 1920–1922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zabel, T.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zani, M.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, “High sensitivity photonic crystal biosensor incorporating nanorod structures for enhanced surface area,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 131, 279–284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

S.-W. Chung, D. S. Ginger, M. W. Morales, Z. Zhang, V. Chandrasekhar, M. A. Ratner, and C. A. Mirkin, “Top-down meets bottom-up: dip-pen nanolithography and DNA-directed assembly of nanoscale electrical circuits,” Small 1, 64–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Apoptosis (1)

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061–1068 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Physique (1)

J.-M. Lourtioz, “Photonic crystals and metamaterials,” C. R. Physique 9, 4–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Xiang and Ch. Lee, “Nanophotonics sensor based on microcantilever for chemical analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1323–1326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (2)

D. Passaro, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, J. Lægsgaard, and A. Overgaard, “All-silica hollow-core microstructured Bragg fibers for biosensor application,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1280–1286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Hsiao and Ch. Lee, “Computational study of photonic crystals nano-ring resonator for biochemical sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1185–1191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IET Optoelectron. (1)

S. Olyaee and F. Taghipour, “Ultra-flattened dispersion hexagonal photonic crystal fiber with low confinement loss and large effective area,” IET Optoelectron. 6, 82–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Cell Sci. (1)

M. D. Bennett, J. S. Heslop-Harrison, J. B. Smith, and J. P. Ward, “DNA density in mitotic and meiotic metaphase chromosomes of plants and animals,” J. Cell Sci. 63, 173–179 (1983).

Nature (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425, 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Derbali, F. AbdelMalek, S. S. A. Obayya, H. Bouchriha, and R. Letizia, “Design of a compact photonic crystal sensor,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 42, 463–472 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Optik (2)

A. Rostami, H. A. Banaei, F. Nazari, and A. Bahrami, “An ultra compact photonic crystal wavelength division demultiplexer using resonance cavities in a modified Y-branch structure,” Optik 122, 1481–1485 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Yun, Y. Wan, J. Liang, F. Xia, M. Liu, and L. Ren, “Multi-channel biosensor based on photonic crystal waveguide and microcavities,” Optik 123, 1920–1922 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. (1)

A. Säynätjoki, M. Mulot, K. Vynck, D. Cassagne, J. Ahopelto, and H. Lipsanen, “Properties, applications and fabrication of photonic crystals with ring-shaped holes in silicon-on-insulator,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 42–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Sens. (2)

S. Olyaee and A. A. Dehghani, “High resolution and wide dynamic range pressure sensor based on two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Photon. Sens. 2, 92–96 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Olyaee, S. Najafgholinezhad, and H. Alipour Banaei, “Four-channel label-free photonic crystal biosensor using nanocavity resonators,” Photon. Sens. 3, 231–236 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

E. Guillermain and P. M. Fauchet, “Multi-channel biodetection via resonant microcavities coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Proc. SPIE 7167, 71670D (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Pal, E. Guillermain, R. Sriram, B. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Microcavities in photonic crystal waveguides for biosensor applications,” Proc. SPIE 7553, 755304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Procedia Chem. (1)

F.-L. Hsiao and C. Lee, “Novel biosensor based on photonic crystal nano-ring resonator,” Procedia Chem. 1, 417–420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. V. Nair and R. Vijaya, “Photonic crystal sensors: an overview,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 89–134 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (2)

J. Sun and C. C. Chan, “Photonic bandgap fiber for refractive index measurement,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 128, 46–50 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, “High sensitivity photonic crystal biosensor incorporating nanorod structures for enhanced surface area,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 131, 279–284 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Lett. (1)

S. Olyaee and S. Najafgholinezhad, “A high quality factor and wide measurement range biosensor based on photonic crystal nanocavity resonator,” Sens. Lett. 11, 483–488 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

S.-W. Chung, D. S. Ginger, M. W. Morales, Z. Zhang, V. Chandrasekhar, M. A. Ratner, and C. A. Mirkin, “Top-down meets bottom-up: dip-pen nanolithography and DNA-directed assembly of nanoscale electrical circuits,” Small 1, 64–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. Olyaee and A. A. Dehghani, “Nano-pressure sensor using high quality photonic crystal cavity resonator,” in IEEE, IET 8th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP, 2012), pp. 18–20.

S. Olyaee and A. A. Dehghani, “Ultrasensitive pressure sensor based on point defect resonant cavity in photonic crystal,” Sens. Lett. (in press).

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2007).

J.-M. Lourtioz, H. Benisty, V. Berger, J.-M. Gerard, D. Maystre, and A. Tchelnokov, Photonic Crystals: Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2008).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

2D photonic crystal biosensor (a) structure and (b) band gap.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Transmission with respect to the wavelength and resonant wavelength of the photonic crystal biosensor and (b) layout of cavity and labeled holes around the cavity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Output spectrum of (a) H2, (b) H3, and (c) H1 around the cavity with their symmetric holes for RI=1.45.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Transmission spectra of the designed biosensor with RI=1.45 and (b) the resonant wavelength shift as a function of the refractive index in the range of 1.33–1.45 for three holes H1, H2, and H3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectra of the sensor in the refractive index sensing application.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Layout of d variation and the effect of d variation on the (b) transmission spectra and (c) resonant wavelength in the range of 0–0.3 μm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Structure and (b) transmission spectra of the designed multichannel biosensor.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Transmission spectra and (b) resonant wavelength shift as a function of the refractive index in the range of 1.33–1.45 for channel 3 of the multichannel biosensor.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Simulation Results of the Designed Biosensor for RI=1.45

Tables Icon

Table 2. Simulation Results for RI in the Range of n=1.33 to n=1.45 for Three Holes Around the Cavity

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