Abstract

We report the design, build, and test of a multispectral laser beam combining collimator with a spectral range in excess of three octaves. The device is based on a sapphire wedge prism, calcium fluoride, and sapphire collimating doublet lens and fiber optic inputs and is designed to operate from ultraviolet (355 nm) to mid-infrared (4075 nm) wavelengths. Five laser sources at different wavelengths were used to validate the concept. The device produced full-angle beam divergence of between 0.1 and 0.2 mrad from 355 to 1908 nm. The bore-sight error with respect to the design wavelength of 1064 nm was 0.07 mrad for 532 nm, 0.14 mrad for 355 and 1908 nm, and 2.4 mrad for 4075 nm. The results presented here represent, to the authors’ knowledge, the widest spectral range of a laser beam combiner yet demonstrated.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. B. Newbury, M. Nischan, R. Joseph, M. Iyengar, B. Willard, J. Libby, G. Swanson, B. Johnson, and H. Burke, “Detection of manmade objects,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 126–135 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, R. C. W. Sung, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, S. Henandez-Marin, G. J. Gibson, and R. Lamb, “Multi-spectral laser detection and ranging for range profiling and surface characterization,” J. Opt. A 7, S438–S444 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Giggenbach, B. L. Wilkerson, H. Henniger, and N. Perlot, “Wavelength-diversity transmission for fading mitigation in the atmospheric communications channel,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 63041H (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Minet, M. A. Vorotsov, G. Wu, and D. Dolfi, “Efficiency comparison of spatial and spectral diversity techniques for fading mitigation in free-space optical communications over tactical-range distances,” Proc. SPIE 8610, 86100X (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Levine and G. J. Monser, “Polarisation, ghost, and shading effects in dichroic beam splitters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 51, 783–789 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Daneu, A. Sanchez, T. Y. Fan, H. K. Choi, and C. C. Cook, “Spectral beam combining of a broad-stripe diode laser array in an external cavity,” Opt. Lett. 25, 405 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Andrusyak, V. Sminov, G. Venus, V. Rotar, and L. Glebov, “Spectral combining and coherent coupling of lasers by volume Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 344–353 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. J. Bochove, “Theory of spectral beam combining of fibre lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 432–445 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. J. Augst, J. K. Ranka, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez, “Wavelength beam combining of ytterbium fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 331–333 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2013

J. Minet, M. A. Vorotsov, G. Wu, and D. Dolfi, “Efficiency comparison of spatial and spectral diversity techniques for fading mitigation in free-space optical communications over tactical-range distances,” Proc. SPIE 8610, 86100X (2013).
[CrossRef]

2009

O. Andrusyak, V. Sminov, G. Venus, V. Rotar, and L. Glebov, “Spectral combining and coherent coupling of lasers by volume Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 344–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Giggenbach, B. L. Wilkerson, H. Henniger, and N. Perlot, “Wavelength-diversity transmission for fading mitigation in the atmospheric communications channel,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 63041H (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, R. C. W. Sung, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, S. Henandez-Marin, G. J. Gibson, and R. Lamb, “Multi-spectral laser detection and ranging for range profiling and surface characterization,” J. Opt. A 7, S438–S444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

E. J. Bochove, “Theory of spectral beam combining of fibre lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 432–445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

V. Daneu, A. Sanchez, T. Y. Fan, H. K. Choi, and C. C. Cook, “Spectral beam combining of a broad-stripe diode laser array in an external cavity,” Opt. Lett. 25, 405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Newbury, M. Nischan, R. Joseph, M. Iyengar, B. Willard, J. Libby, G. Swanson, B. Johnson, and H. Burke, “Detection of manmade objects,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 126–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1961

D. Levine and G. J. Monser, “Polarisation, ghost, and shading effects in dichroic beam splitters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 51, 783–789 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Andrusyak, O.

O. Andrusyak, V. Sminov, G. Venus, V. Rotar, and L. Glebov, “Spectral combining and coherent coupling of lasers by volume Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 344–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Augst, S. J.

Bochove, E. J.

E. J. Bochove, “Theory of spectral beam combining of fibre lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 432–445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G. S.

A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, R. C. W. Sung, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, S. Henandez-Marin, G. J. Gibson, and R. Lamb, “Multi-spectral laser detection and ranging for range profiling and surface characterization,” J. Opt. A 7, S438–S444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burke, H.

A. B. Newbury, M. Nischan, R. Joseph, M. Iyengar, B. Willard, J. Libby, G. Swanson, B. Johnson, and H. Burke, “Detection of manmade objects,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 126–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. K.

Cook, C. C.

Daneu, V.

Dolfi, D.

J. Minet, M. A. Vorotsov, G. Wu, and D. Dolfi, “Efficiency comparison of spatial and spectral diversity techniques for fading mitigation in free-space optical communications over tactical-range distances,” Proc. SPIE 8610, 86100X (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

Gibson, G. J.

A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, R. C. W. Sung, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, S. Henandez-Marin, G. J. Gibson, and R. Lamb, “Multi-spectral laser detection and ranging for range profiling and surface characterization,” J. Opt. A 7, S438–S444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giggenbach, D.

D. Giggenbach, B. L. Wilkerson, H. Henniger, and N. Perlot, “Wavelength-diversity transmission for fading mitigation in the atmospheric communications channel,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 63041H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L.

O. Andrusyak, V. Sminov, G. Venus, V. Rotar, and L. Glebov, “Spectral combining and coherent coupling of lasers by volume Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 344–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harkins, R. D.

A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, R. C. W. Sung, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, S. Henandez-Marin, G. J. Gibson, and R. Lamb, “Multi-spectral laser detection and ranging for range profiling and surface characterization,” J. Opt. A 7, S438–S444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henandez-Marin, S.

A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, R. C. W. Sung, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, S. Henandez-Marin, G. J. Gibson, and R. Lamb, “Multi-spectral laser detection and ranging for range profiling and surface characterization,” J. Opt. A 7, S438–S444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henniger, H.

D. Giggenbach, B. L. Wilkerson, H. Henniger, and N. Perlot, “Wavelength-diversity transmission for fading mitigation in the atmospheric communications channel,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 63041H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iyengar, M.

A. B. Newbury, M. Nischan, R. Joseph, M. Iyengar, B. Willard, J. Libby, G. Swanson, B. Johnson, and H. Burke, “Detection of manmade objects,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 126–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B.

A. B. Newbury, M. Nischan, R. Joseph, M. Iyengar, B. Willard, J. Libby, G. Swanson, B. Johnson, and H. Burke, “Detection of manmade objects,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 126–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, R.

A. B. Newbury, M. Nischan, R. Joseph, M. Iyengar, B. Willard, J. Libby, G. Swanson, B. Johnson, and H. Burke, “Detection of manmade objects,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 126–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, R.

A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, R. C. W. Sung, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, S. Henandez-Marin, G. J. Gibson, and R. Lamb, “Multi-spectral laser detection and ranging for range profiling and surface characterization,” J. Opt. A 7, S438–S444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Levine, D.

D. Levine and G. J. Monser, “Polarisation, ghost, and shading effects in dichroic beam splitters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 51, 783–789 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Libby, J.

A. B. Newbury, M. Nischan, R. Joseph, M. Iyengar, B. Willard, J. Libby, G. Swanson, B. Johnson, and H. Burke, “Detection of manmade objects,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 126–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, A.

A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, R. C. W. Sung, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, S. Henandez-Marin, G. J. Gibson, and R. Lamb, “Multi-spectral laser detection and ranging for range profiling and surface characterization,” J. Opt. A 7, S438–S444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minet, J.

J. Minet, M. A. Vorotsov, G. Wu, and D. Dolfi, “Efficiency comparison of spatial and spectral diversity techniques for fading mitigation in free-space optical communications over tactical-range distances,” Proc. SPIE 8610, 86100X (2013).
[CrossRef]

Monser, G. J.

D. Levine and G. J. Monser, “Polarisation, ghost, and shading effects in dichroic beam splitters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 51, 783–789 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, A. B.

A. B. Newbury, M. Nischan, R. Joseph, M. Iyengar, B. Willard, J. Libby, G. Swanson, B. Johnson, and H. Burke, “Detection of manmade objects,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 126–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nischan, M.

A. B. Newbury, M. Nischan, R. Joseph, M. Iyengar, B. Willard, J. Libby, G. Swanson, B. Johnson, and H. Burke, “Detection of manmade objects,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 126–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perlot, N.

D. Giggenbach, B. L. Wilkerson, H. Henniger, and N. Perlot, “Wavelength-diversity transmission for fading mitigation in the atmospheric communications channel,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 63041H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

Rotar, V.

O. Andrusyak, V. Sminov, G. Venus, V. Rotar, and L. Glebov, “Spectral combining and coherent coupling of lasers by volume Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 344–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A.

Sminov, V.

O. Andrusyak, V. Sminov, G. Venus, V. Rotar, and L. Glebov, “Spectral combining and coherent coupling of lasers by volume Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 344–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sung, R. C. W.

A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, R. C. W. Sung, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, S. Henandez-Marin, G. J. Gibson, and R. Lamb, “Multi-spectral laser detection and ranging for range profiling and surface characterization,” J. Opt. A 7, S438–S444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, G.

A. B. Newbury, M. Nischan, R. Joseph, M. Iyengar, B. Willard, J. Libby, G. Swanson, B. Johnson, and H. Burke, “Detection of manmade objects,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 126–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Venus, G.

O. Andrusyak, V. Sminov, G. Venus, V. Rotar, and L. Glebov, “Spectral combining and coherent coupling of lasers by volume Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 344–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vorotsov, M. A.

J. Minet, M. A. Vorotsov, G. Wu, and D. Dolfi, “Efficiency comparison of spatial and spectral diversity techniques for fading mitigation in free-space optical communications over tactical-range distances,” Proc. SPIE 8610, 86100X (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, A. M.

A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, R. C. W. Sung, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, S. Henandez-Marin, G. J. Gibson, and R. Lamb, “Multi-spectral laser detection and ranging for range profiling and surface characterization,” J. Opt. A 7, S438–S444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilkerson, B. L.

D. Giggenbach, B. L. Wilkerson, H. Henniger, and N. Perlot, “Wavelength-diversity transmission for fading mitigation in the atmospheric communications channel,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 63041H (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willard, B.

A. B. Newbury, M. Nischan, R. Joseph, M. Iyengar, B. Willard, J. Libby, G. Swanson, B. Johnson, and H. Burke, “Detection of manmade objects,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 126–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, G.

J. Minet, M. A. Vorotsov, G. Wu, and D. Dolfi, “Efficiency comparison of spatial and spectral diversity techniques for fading mitigation in free-space optical communications over tactical-range distances,” Proc. SPIE 8610, 86100X (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

E. J. Bochove, “Theory of spectral beam combining of fibre lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 432–445 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

O. Andrusyak, V. Sminov, G. Venus, V. Rotar, and L. Glebov, “Spectral combining and coherent coupling of lasers by volume Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 344–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, R. C. W. Sung, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, S. Henandez-Marin, G. J. Gibson, and R. Lamb, “Multi-spectral laser detection and ranging for range profiling and surface characterization,” J. Opt. A 7, S438–S444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

D. Levine and G. J. Monser, “Polarisation, ghost, and shading effects in dichroic beam splitters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 51, 783–789 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

A. B. Newbury, M. Nischan, R. Joseph, M. Iyengar, B. Willard, J. Libby, G. Swanson, B. Johnson, and H. Burke, “Detection of manmade objects,” Proc. SPIE 4132, 126–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Giggenbach, B. L. Wilkerson, H. Henniger, and N. Perlot, “Wavelength-diversity transmission for fading mitigation in the atmospheric communications channel,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 63041H (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Minet, M. A. Vorotsov, G. Wu, and D. Dolfi, “Efficiency comparison of spatial and spectral diversity techniques for fading mitigation in free-space optical communications over tactical-range distances,” Proc. SPIE 8610, 86100X (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of beam combining collimator developed under this work. Radiation enters from separate laser sources on left-hand side and propagates from fiber array, through a collimator, and onto a DOE.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Design of combining collimator aided by Zemax software.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photograph of top view of v-groove array, populated by optical fibers (from left to right: 355, 532, 1064, 1908, and 4075 nm, far right fiber not used). Epoxy holding fibers in place is seen in lower portion. Lid has yet to be located over v-grooves. Inset shows side view of array with lid in place.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Beam profile of 1064 nm channel in afocal space. Double beam profile arises from the sapphire prism birefringence. 1 and 2 mrad annuli shown for comparison.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Beam map in afocal space of each wavelength emerging from beam combining collimator, with each beam divergence to scale. For clarity, the 4075 nm data point has not been included.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured 355 nm beam profile at focal plane, showing ellipticity. Faint spot to the left is birefringence-induced beam, orthogonally polarized.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Modeled 355 nm channel with 2° angular misalignment between fiber array and achromatic doublet lens, giving a profile in reasonable agreement with the observed profile of Fig. 6.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of Optical Fibers Used in Input Array

Tables Icon

Table 2. Measured and Predicted Divergence and Bore-Sight Errors of Wavelengths from Combining Collimator

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