Abstract

We report on broadband absorption spectroscopy in the near IR using a multipass cell design based on highly reflecting mirrors in a confocal arrangement having the particular aim of achieving long optical paths. We demonstrate a path length of 314 m in a cell consisting of two sets of highly reflecting mirrors with identical focal length, spaced 0.5 m apart. The multipass cell covers this path length in a relatively small volume of 1.25 l with the light beam sampling the whole volume. In a first application, the absorption spectra of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and CO were measured. In these measurements we used a femtosecond fiber laser with a broadband spectral range spanning the near IR from 1.5 to 1.7 μm. The absorption spectra show a high signal-to-noise ratio, from which we derive a sensitivity limit of 6 ppmv for methane observed in a mixture with air.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Wang, N. Srivastava, B. A. Jones, and R. B. Reese, “A novel multiple species ringdown spectrometer for in situ measurements of methane, carbon dioxide, and carbon isotope,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 259–270 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. W. Busch and M. A. Busch, Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy: An Ultratrace-Absorption Measurement Technique, Vol. 720 of ACS Symposium Series (Oxford University, 1999).
  3. G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of the 1.5 μm band system of jet-cooled ammonia,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 131–138 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Dahnke, D. Kleine, W. Urban, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 971–975 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. B. Paul, L. Lapson, and J. G. Anderson, “Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4904–4910 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. S. Fry, G. W. Kattawar, and R. M. Pope, “Design of an integrating cavity absorption meter,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2055–2065 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, “Cw integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343–349 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. U. White, “Long optical paths of large aperture,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 285–288 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. G. Pilston and J. U. White, “A long path gas absorption cell,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 572 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Herriot, H. Kogelnik, and R. Kompfner, “Off-axis paths in spherical mirror interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 3, 523–526 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. M. Chernin and E. G. Barskaya, “Optical multipass matrix systems,” Appl. Opt. 30, 51–58 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Robert, “Simple, stable, and compact multiple-reflection optical cell for very long optical paths,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5408–5418 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebbabian, and M. S. Zahniser, “Astigmatic mirror multipass absorption cells for long-path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3336–3348 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. G. Lancaster, A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, and F. K. Tittel, “Difference-frequency-based tunable absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric formaldehyde,” Appl. Opt 39, 4436–4443 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Silver and W. R. Wood, “Miniature gas sensor for monitoring biological space environments,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 82–87 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Défarge, A. Grossel, P. Albéric, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075601 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, W. Ketterle, M. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, and J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Minutolo, C. Corsi, F. D’Amato, and M. De Rosa, “Self- and foreign-broadening and shift coefficients for C2H2 lines at 1.54 μm,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 175–179 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Gianella and M. W. Sigrist, “Infrared spectroscopy on smoke produced by cauterization of animal tissue,” Sensors 10, 2694–2708 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, and L. J. Wang, “Precision measurement of the refractive index of carbon dioxide with a frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3212–3214 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Qu and C. Gmachl, “Quasichaotic optical multipass cell,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033824 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, and D. D. Nelson, “Dual quantum cascade laser trace gas instrument with astigmatic Herriott cell at high pass number,” Appl. Opt. 50, A74–A85 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. F. Curl and F. K. Tittel, “Tunable infrared laser spectroscopy,” Annu. Rep. 98, 219–272 (2002).
  25. L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, Q.-S. Zhu, and Z. Hong, “Cylindrical mirror multipass Lissajous system for laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079–2085 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. A. Silver, “Simple dense-pattern optical multipass cells,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6545–6556 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. A. Silver, “Dense pattern optical multipass cell,” European patent1,621,867A1 (21July2005).
  28. V. L. Kasyutich and P. A. Martin, “Multipass optical cell based upon two cylindrical mirrors for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 125–130 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. Das and A. C. Wilson, “Very long optical path-length from a compact multi-pass cell,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 749–754 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. F. Doussin, R. Dominique, and C. Patrick, “Multiple-pass cell for very-long-path infrared spectrometry,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4145–4150 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. W. Steyert, J. M. Sirota, M. E. Mickelson, and D. C. Reuter, “Two new long-pass cells for infrared and visible spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4337–4343 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  32. X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  33. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

D. Das and A. C. Wilson, “Very long optical path-length from a compact multi-pass cell,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 749–754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Défarge, A. Grossel, P. Albéric, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, and D. D. Nelson, “Dual quantum cascade laser trace gas instrument with astigmatic Herriott cell at high pass number,” Appl. Opt. 50, A74–A85 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

M. Gianella and M. W. Sigrist, “Infrared spectroscopy on smoke produced by cauterization of animal tissue,” Sensors 10, 2694–2708 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

D. Qu and C. Gmachl, “Quasichaotic optical multipass cell,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, N. Srivastava, B. A. Jones, and R. B. Reese, “A novel multiple species ringdown spectrometer for in situ measurements of methane, carbon dioxide, and carbon isotope,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 259–270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2005 (1)

2002 (3)

A. Silver and W. R. Wood, “Miniature gas sensor for monitoring biological space environments,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 82–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Curl and F. K. Tittel, “Tunable infrared laser spectroscopy,” Annu. Rep. 98, 219–272 (2002).

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, Q.-S. Zhu, and Z. Hong, “Cylindrical mirror multipass Lissajous system for laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079–2085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

D. W. Steyert, J. M. Sirota, M. E. Mickelson, and D. C. Reuter, “Two new long-pass cells for infrared and visible spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4337–4343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Minutolo, C. Corsi, F. D’Amato, and M. De Rosa, “Self- and foreign-broadening and shift coefficients for C2H2 lines at 1.54 μm,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 175–179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Dahnke, D. Kleine, W. Urban, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 971–975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Paul, L. Lapson, and J. G. Anderson, “Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4904–4910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. G. Lancaster, A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, and F. K. Tittel, “Difference-frequency-based tunable absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric formaldehyde,” Appl. Opt 39, 4436–4443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, “Cw integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343–349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of the 1.5 μm band system of jet-cooled ammonia,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 131–138 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Doussin, R. Dominique, and C. Patrick, “Multiple-pass cell for very-long-path infrared spectrometry,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4145–4150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1964 (1)

1954 (1)

1942 (1)

Albéric, P.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Défarge, A. Grossel, P. Albéric, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. G.

Arnold, A.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barskaya, E. G.

Becker, H.

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of the 1.5 μm band system of jet-cooled ammonia,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 131–138 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K. W.

K. W. Busch and M. A. Busch, Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy: An Ultratrace-Absorption Measurement Technique, Vol. 720 of ACS Symposium Series (Oxford University, 1999).

Busch, M. A.

K. W. Busch and M. A. Busch, Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy: An Ultratrace-Absorption Measurement Technique, Vol. 720 of ACS Symposium Series (Oxford University, 1999).

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cassez, A.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Catoire, V.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Défarge, A. Grossel, P. Albéric, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, M.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Défarge, A. Grossel, P. Albéric, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chernin, S. M.

Coeur, C.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Corsi, C.

P. Minutolo, C. Corsi, F. D’Amato, and M. De Rosa, “Self- and foreign-broadening and shift coefficients for C2H2 lines at 1.54 μm,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 175–179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Croize, L.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cui, X.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

R. F. Curl and F. K. Tittel, “Tunable infrared laser spectroscopy,” Annu. Rep. 98, 219–272 (2002).

D’Amato, F.

P. Minutolo, C. Corsi, F. D’Amato, and M. De Rosa, “Self- and foreign-broadening and shift coefficients for C2H2 lines at 1.54 μm,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 175–179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dahnke, H.

H. Dahnke, D. Kleine, W. Urban, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 971–975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Das, D.

D. Das and A. C. Wilson, “Very long optical path-length from a compact multi-pass cell,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 749–754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Rosa, M.

P. Minutolo, C. Corsi, F. D’Amato, and M. De Rosa, “Self- and foreign-broadening and shift coefficients for C2H2 lines at 1.54 μm,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 175–179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dominique, R.

Dong, F.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Doussin, J. F.

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, Q.-S. Zhu, and Z. Hong, “Cylindrical mirror multipass Lissajous system for laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079–2085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fertein, E.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

D. G. Lancaster, A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, and F. K. Tittel, “Difference-frequency-based tunable absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric formaldehyde,” Appl. Opt 39, 4436–4443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gianella, M.

M. Gianella and M. W. Sigrist, “Infrared spectroscopy on smoke produced by cauterization of animal tissue,” Sensors 10, 2694–2708 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

D. Qu and C. Gmachl, “Quasichaotic optical multipass cell,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gogo, S.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Défarge, A. Grossel, P. Albéric, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grossel, A.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Défarge, A. Grossel, P. Albéric, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guimbaud, C.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Défarge, A. Grossel, P. Albéric, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hao, L.-Y.

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, Q.-S. Zhu, and Z. Hong, “Cylindrical mirror multipass Lissajous system for laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079–2085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hemberger, R.

Henry, B.

D. G. Lancaster, A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, and F. K. Tittel, “Difference-frequency-based tunable absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric formaldehyde,” Appl. Opt 39, 4436–4443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, W.

Hering, P.

H. Dahnke, D. Kleine, W. Urban, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 971–975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Herriot, D.

Hong, Z.

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, Q.-S. Zhu, and Z. Hong, “Cylindrical mirror multipass Lissajous system for laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079–2085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, B. A.

C. Wang, N. Srivastava, B. A. Jones, and R. B. Reese, “A novel multiple species ringdown spectrometer for in situ measurements of methane, carbon dioxide, and carbon isotope,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 259–270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasyutich, V. L.

V. L. Kasyutich and P. A. Martin, “Multipass optical cell based upon two cylindrical mirrors for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 125–130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

Kebbabian, P. L.

Ketterle, W.

Kleine, D.

H. Dahnke, D. Kleine, W. Urban, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 971–975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

Kollner, M.

Kompfner, R.

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laggoun-Défarge, F.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Défarge, A. Grossel, P. Albéric, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

D. G. Lancaster, A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, and F. K. Tittel, “Difference-frequency-based tunable absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric formaldehyde,” Appl. Opt 39, 4436–4443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lapson, L.

Lengignon, C.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. H.

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. A.

V. L. Kasyutich and P. A. Martin, “Multipass optical cell based upon two cylindrical mirrors for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 125–130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

Meienburg, W.

Meijer, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of the 1.5 μm band system of jet-cooled ammonia,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 131–138 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mickelson, M. E.

D. W. Steyert, J. M. Sirota, M. E. Mickelson, and D. C. Reuter, “Two new long-pass cells for infrared and visible spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4337–4343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minutolo, P.

P. Minutolo, C. Corsi, F. D’Amato, and M. De Rosa, “Self- and foreign-broadening and shift coefficients for C2H2 lines at 1.54 μm,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 175–179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monkhouse, P.

Mücke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Murtz, M.

H. Dahnke, D. Kleine, W. Urban, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 971–975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neckel, H.

Nelson, D. D.

Nicoullaud, B.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Défarge, A. Grossel, P. Albéric, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Keefe, A.

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, “Cw integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343–349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, C.

Paul, J. B.

J. B. Paul, L. Lapson, and J. G. Anderson, “Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4904–4910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, “Cw integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343–349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, R.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of the 1.5 μm band system of jet-cooled ammonia,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 131–138 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pilston, R. G.

Pomathiod, L.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Défarge, A. Grossel, P. Albéric, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qi, L.

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, Q.-S. Zhu, and Z. Hong, “Cylindrical mirror multipass Lissajous system for laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079–2085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiang, S.

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, Q.-S. Zhu, and Z. Hong, “Cylindrical mirror multipass Lissajous system for laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079–2085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qu, D.

D. Qu and C. Gmachl, “Quasichaotic optical multipass cell,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reese, R. B.

C. Wang, N. Srivastava, B. A. Jones, and R. B. Reese, “A novel multiple species ringdown spectrometer for in situ measurements of methane, carbon dioxide, and carbon isotope,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 259–270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, D. C.

D. W. Steyert, J. M. Sirota, M. E. Mickelson, and D. C. Reuter, “Two new long-pass cells for infrared and visible spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4337–4343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richard, G.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Défarge, A. Grossel, P. Albéric, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robert, C.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Défarge, A. Grossel, P. Albéric, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Robert, “Simple, stable, and compact multiple-reflection optical cell for very long optical paths,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5408–5418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, M.

Scherer, J. J.

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, “Cw integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343–349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schindler, K. P.

Sick, V.

Sigrist, M. W.

M. Gianella and M. W. Sigrist, “Infrared spectroscopy on smoke produced by cauterization of animal tissue,” Sensors 10, 2694–2708 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Silver, A.

A. Silver and W. R. Wood, “Miniature gas sensor for monitoring biological space environments,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 82–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

J. A. Silver, “Simple dense-pattern optical multipass cells,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6545–6556 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, “Dense pattern optical multipass cell,” European patent1,621,867A1 (21July2005).

Šimecková, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sirota, J. M.

D. W. Steyert, J. M. Sirota, M. E. Mickelson, and D. C. Reuter, “Two new long-pass cells for infrared and visible spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4337–4343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, N.

C. Wang, N. Srivastava, B. A. Jones, and R. B. Reese, “A novel multiple species ringdown spectrometer for in situ measurements of methane, carbon dioxide, and carbon isotope,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 259–270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steyert, D. W.

D. W. Steyert, J. M. Sirota, M. E. Mickelson, and D. C. Reuter, “Two new long-pass cells for infrared and visible spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4337–4343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suntz, R.

Tao, W.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

R. F. Curl and F. K. Tittel, “Tunable infrared laser spectroscopy,” Annu. Rep. 98, 219–272 (2002).

D. G. Lancaster, A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, and F. K. Tittel, “Difference-frequency-based tunable absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric formaldehyde,” Appl. Opt 39, 4436–4443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Urban, W.

H. Dahnke, D. Kleine, W. Urban, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 971–975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, N. Srivastava, B. A. Jones, and R. B. Reese, “A novel multiple species ringdown spectrometer for in situ measurements of methane, carbon dioxide, and carbon isotope,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 259–270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

Wang, Y.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wert, B.

D. G. Lancaster, A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, and F. K. Tittel, “Difference-frequency-based tunable absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric formaldehyde,” Appl. Opt 39, 4436–4443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

White, J. U.

Wilson, A. C.

D. Das and A. C. Wilson, “Very long optical path-length from a compact multi-pass cell,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 749–754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, J.

Wood, W. R.

A. Silver and W. R. Wood, “Miniature gas sensor for monitoring biological space environments,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 82–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, G.-R.

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, Q.-S. Zhu, and Z. Hong, “Cylindrical mirror multipass Lissajous system for laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079–2085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, W.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Q.-S.

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, Q.-S. Zhu, and Z. Hong, “Cylindrical mirror multipass Lissajous system for laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079–2085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rep. (1)

R. F. Curl and F. K. Tittel, “Tunable infrared laser spectroscopy,” Annu. Rep. 98, 219–272 (2002).

Appl. Opt (1)

D. G. Lancaster, A. Fried, B. Wert, B. Henry, and F. K. Tittel, “Difference-frequency-based tunable absorption spectrometer for detection of atmospheric formaldehyde,” Appl. Opt 39, 4436–4443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (10)

D. Herriot, H. Kogelnik, and R. Kompfner, “Off-axis paths in spherical mirror interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 3, 523–526 (1964).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chernin and E. G. Barskaya, “Optical multipass matrix systems,” Appl. Opt. 30, 51–58 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Fry, G. W. Kattawar, and R. M. Pope, “Design of an integrating cavity absorption meter,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2055–2065 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Doussin, R. Dominique, and C. Patrick, “Multiple-pass cell for very-long-path infrared spectrometry,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4145–4150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebbabian, and M. S. Zahniser, “Astigmatic mirror multipass absorption cells for long-path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3336–3348 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, W. Ketterle, M. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, and J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Paul, L. Lapson, and J. G. Anderson, “Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4904–4910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, “Simple dense-pattern optical multipass cells,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6545–6556 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Robert, “Simple, stable, and compact multiple-reflection optical cell for very long optical paths,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5408–5418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, and D. D. Nelson, “Dual quantum cascade laser trace gas instrument with astigmatic Herriott cell at high pass number,” Appl. Opt. 50, A74–A85 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (5)

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, N. Srivastava, B. A. Jones, and R. B. Reese, “A novel multiple species ringdown spectrometer for in situ measurements of methane, carbon dioxide, and carbon isotope,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 259–270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Dahnke, D. Kleine, W. Urban, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 971–975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Kasyutich and P. A. Martin, “Multipass optical cell based upon two cylindrical mirrors for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 125–130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Das and A. C. Wilson, “Very long optical path-length from a compact multi-pass cell,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 749–754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, “Cw integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343–349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of the 1.5 μm band system of jet-cooled ammonia,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 131–138 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

P. Minutolo, C. Corsi, F. D’Amato, and M. De Rosa, “Self- and foreign-broadening and shift coefficients for C2H2 lines at 1.54 μm,” Eur. Phys. J. D 17, 175–179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

X. Cui, C. Lengignon, W. Tao, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, L. Croize, W. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, and F. Dong, “Photonic sensing of the atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1300–1316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Défarge, A. Grossel, P. Albéric, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere–atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. Qu and C. Gmachl, “Quasichaotic optical multipass cell,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033824 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Silver and W. R. Wood, “Miniature gas sensor for monitoring biological space environments,” Proc. SPIE 4817, 82–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

D. W. Steyert, J. M. Sirota, M. E. Mickelson, and D. C. Reuter, “Two new long-pass cells for infrared and visible spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4337–4343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, Q.-S. Zhu, and Z. Hong, “Cylindrical mirror multipass Lissajous system for laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079–2085 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

M. Gianella and M. W. Sigrist, “Infrared spectroscopy on smoke produced by cauterization of animal tissue,” Sensors 10, 2694–2708 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. A. Silver, “Dense pattern optical multipass cell,” European patent1,621,867A1 (21July2005).

K. W. Busch and M. A. Busch, Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy: An Ultratrace-Absorption Measurement Technique, Vol. 720 of ACS Symposium Series (Oxford University, 1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Number of reflections as a function of the number of subareas in each mirror: points show the simulation results, and the dashed line is a linear fit.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SER as a function of the number of reflections.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic diagram of the multipass system. BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

2D and 3D intensity profiles of the observed spot patterns for mirrors (a) M1–4 and (b) M5–8.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectrum of the output laser beam with no gases leaked to the multipass cell.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured absorption spectra of CH4, CO, CO2 gases displayed in comparison with the laser spectrum (LS).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Total absorbance α of CH4 gas as a function of the wavelength. Only the central portion of the spectrum containing a strong absorption band is shown.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Total absorbance α of CO gas as a function of the wavelength.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Total absorbance α of CO2 gas as a function of the wavelength.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

HITRAN simulation of 6 CH4 absorption lines between λ=1.645μm and λ=1.646μm at room temperature 296 K, at 1 atmospheric pressure, 800 ppm methane, and 314 m absorption length.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Absorption line of CH4 having the highest absorbance at λ=1.645μm in comparison with the HITRAN database spectra (six overlapping lines; see Fig. 10).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α=ln[II0],
δα2δII.
S/N=αI2δI(n+1)Rn2δI.
ΔNασL(S/N).
N(CH4/cm3)=ln[II0]λσ(cm2/molecules)λ×L(cm),

Metrics