Abstract

We present our design and fabrication scheme of a supermirror for hard x-ray telescopes to improve the performance of reflection. Supermirrors are designed to achieve target reflectivity profiles with small ripples in the interesting energy range with a limited number of layer pairs. Starting from conventional design methods, we optimized the thickness distribution of the structure using a numerical approach with the merit function established for this application. As an example, a platinum–carbon supermirror structure of 123 layer pairs with a varying d-space of 2–6 nm was designed to enhance the reflectivity in the energy range from 11 to 55 keV with a flat top at a grazing angle of 0.28 deg. The multilayer thus designed was deposited on a float glass by our DC magnetron sputtering system. The reflectivity profile was successfully measured to be ∼20% with little oscillation in all energy band of interest.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCuS,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 619–625 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Yamashita, “Development of Pt/C multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 529, 59–62 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. D. Joensen, P. Voutov, A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Roll, P. Gorenstein, P. Hoghoj, and F. E. Christensen, “Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7935–7944 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Yao, H. Kunieda, and Z. Wang, “The theoretical analysis of the hard X-ray block-structure supermirror,” Opt. Express 21, 008638 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. V. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of X-ray supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 424–443 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Cheng, Z. Wang, Z. Zhang, F. Wang, and L. Chen, “Design of X-ray super-mirrors using simulated annealing algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 265, 197–206 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, J. C. Peffen, and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Design and fabrication of depth-graded x-ray multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 493, 189–198 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Maury, F. Bridou, P. Troussel, E. Meltchakov, and F. Delmotte, “Design and fabrication of supermirrors for (2–10 keV) high resolution X-ray plasmas diagnostic imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621, 242–246 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, P. Troussel, and B. Villette, “Design and fabrication of X-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: apodization and shaping of their spectral response,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 680, 69–74 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Yamashita, “Multilayer X-ray optical systems for future X-ray astronomy missions,” in Workshop Proceedings: The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, Special Report , M. J. Turner and M. G. Watson, eds. (Leicester X-ray Astronomy Group, 1997), pp. 115–121.
  14. Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2805, 236–243 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. L. Windt, “IMD—software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
  17. X.-S. Yang, Introduction to Mathematical Optimization (Cambridge International Science, 2008).

2013 (1)

Y. Yao, H. Kunieda, and Z. Wang, “The theoretical analysis of the hard X-ray block-structure supermirror,” Opt. Express 21, 008638 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, P. Troussel, and B. Villette, “Design and fabrication of X-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: apodization and shaping of their spectral response,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 680, 69–74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

H. Maury, F. Bridou, P. Troussel, E. Meltchakov, and F. Delmotte, “Design and fabrication of supermirrors for (2–10 keV) high resolution X-ray plasmas diagnostic imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621, 242–246 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

X. Cheng, Z. Wang, Z. Zhang, F. Wang, and L. Chen, “Design of X-ray super-mirrors using simulated annealing algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 265, 197–206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Yamashita, “Development of Pt/C multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 529, 59–62 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, J. C. Peffen, and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Design and fabrication of depth-graded x-ray multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 493, 189–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

I. V. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of X-ray supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 424–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCuS,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 619–625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD—software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).

1997 (1)

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Akiyama, K.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Awaki, H.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baumgartner, W.

F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berendse, F.

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCuS,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 619–625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boggs, S.

F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bridou, F.

F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, P. Troussel, and B. Villette, “Design and fabrication of X-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: apodization and shaping of their spectral response,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 680, 69–74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Maury, F. Bridou, P. Troussel, E. Meltchakov, and F. Delmotte, “Design and fabrication of supermirrors for (2–10 keV) high resolution X-ray plasmas diagnostic imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621, 242–246 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bukreeva, I. N.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of X-ray supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 424–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. W.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. M. H.

F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

X. Cheng, Z. Wang, Z. Zhang, F. Wang, and L. Chen, “Design of X-ray super-mirrors using simulated annealing algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 265, 197–206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X.

X. Cheng, Z. Wang, Z. Zhang, F. Wang, and L. Chen, “Design of X-ray super-mirrors using simulated annealing algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 265, 197–206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chonko, J.

F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, F. E.

F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Joensen, P. Voutov, A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Roll, P. Gorenstein, P. Hoghoj, and F. E. Christensen, “Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7935–7944 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cook, W. R.

F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Craig, W.

F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delmotte, F.

F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, P. Troussel, and B. Villette, “Design and fabrication of X-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: apodization and shaping of their spectral response,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 680, 69–74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Maury, F. Bridou, P. Troussel, E. Meltchakov, and F. Delmotte, “Design and fabrication of supermirrors for (2–10 keV) high resolution X-ray plasmas diagnostic imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621, 242–246 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Furuzawa, A.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, P.

Gotou, A.

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haba, Y.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haga, K.

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hailey, C.

F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, F. A.

F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hidaka, Y.

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoghoj, P.

Ichimaru, S.

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iizuka, R.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, K.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Joensen, K. D.

Kitou, H.

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koglin, J.

F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kozhevnikov, I. V.

C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, J. C. Peffen, and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Design and fabrication of depth-graded x-ray multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 493, 189–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of X-ray supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 424–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kunieda, H.

Y. Yao, H. Kunieda, and Z. Wang, “The theoretical analysis of the hard X-ray block-structure supermirror,” Opt. Express 21, 008638 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lodha, G.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, K. K.

F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maury, H.

H. Maury, F. Bridou, P. Troussel, E. Meltchakov, and F. Delmotte, “Design and fabrication of supermirrors for (2–10 keV) high resolution X-ray plasmas diagnostic imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621, 242–246 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meltchakov, E.

H. Maury, F. Bridou, P. Troussel, E. Meltchakov, and F. Delmotte, “Design and fabrication of supermirrors for (2–10 keV) high resolution X-ray plasmas diagnostic imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621, 242–246 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miyaza, T.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morawe, C.

C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, J. C. Peffen, and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Design and fabrication of depth-graded x-ray multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 493, 189–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mori, H.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakajo, N.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, N.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Namba, Y.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ogasaka, Y.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCuS,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 619–625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ogi, K.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okajima, T.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCuS,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 619–625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Owens, S. M.

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCuS,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 619–625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peffen, J. C.

C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, J. C. Peffen, and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Design and fabrication of depth-graded x-ray multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 493, 189–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petre, R.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pivavoroff, M.

F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roll, J.

Serlemitsos, P. J.

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCuS,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 619–625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soong, Y.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Szentgyorgyi, A.

Takahashi, S.

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, S.

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tawara, Y.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Terashima, Y.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Troussel, P.

F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, P. Troussel, and B. Villette, “Design and fabrication of X-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: apodization and shaping of their spectral response,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 680, 69–74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Maury, F. Bridou, P. Troussel, E. Meltchakov, and F. Delmotte, “Design and fabrication of supermirrors for (2–10 keV) high resolution X-ray plasmas diagnostic imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621, 242–246 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, O.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsusaka, Y.

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tueller, J.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uesugi, K.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Villette, B.

F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, P. Troussel, and B. Villette, “Design and fabrication of X-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: apodization and shaping of their spectral response,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 680, 69–74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Voutov, P.

Wang, F.

X. Cheng, Z. Wang, Z. Zhang, F. Wang, and L. Chen, “Design of X-ray super-mirrors using simulated annealing algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 265, 197–206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Y. Yao, H. Kunieda, and Z. Wang, “The theoretical analysis of the hard X-ray block-structure supermirror,” Opt. Express 21, 008638 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, Z. Wang, Z. Zhang, F. Wang, and L. Chen, “Design of X-ray super-mirrors using simulated annealing algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 265, 197–206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, “IMD—software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).

Yamashita, K.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, “Development of Pt/C multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 529, 59–62 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, “Multilayer X-ray optical systems for future X-ray astronomy missions,” in Workshop Proceedings: The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, Special Report , M. J. Turner and M. G. Watson, eds. (Leicester X-ray Astronomy Group, 1997), pp. 115–121.

Yamauchi, S.

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.-S.

X.-S. Yang, Introduction to Mathematical Optimization (Cambridge International Science, 2008).

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, H. Kunieda, and Z. Wang, “The theoretical analysis of the hard X-ray block-structure supermirror,” Opt. Express 21, 008638 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, K.

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

X. Cheng, Z. Wang, Z. Zhang, F. Wang, and L. Chen, “Design of X-ray super-mirrors using simulated annealing algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 265, 197–206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, E.

C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, J. C. Peffen, and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Design and fabrication of depth-graded x-ray multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 493, 189–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of X-ray supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 424–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comput. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD—software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).

Exp. Astron. (1)

F. A. Harrison, F. E. Christensen, W. Craig, C. Hailey, W. Baumgartner, C. M. H. Chen, J. Chonko, W. R. Cook, J. Koglin, K. K. Madsen, M. Pivavoroff, S. Boggs, and D. Smith, “Development of the HEFT and NuSTAR focusing telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 20, 131–137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (5)

K. Yamashita, “Development of Pt/C multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 529, 59–62 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, J. C. Peffen, and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Design and fabrication of depth-graded x-ray multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 493, 189–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Maury, F. Bridou, P. Troussel, E. Meltchakov, and F. Delmotte, “Design and fabrication of supermirrors for (2–10 keV) high resolution X-ray plasmas diagnostic imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621, 242–246 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, P. Troussel, and B. Villette, “Design and fabrication of X-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: apodization and shaping of their spectral response,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 680, 69–74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of X-ray supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 424–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Cheng, Z. Wang, Z. Zhang, F. Wang, and L. Chen, “Design of X-ray super-mirrors using simulated annealing algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 265, 197–206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Y. Yao, H. Kunieda, and Z. Wang, “The theoretical analysis of the hard X-ray block-structure supermirror,” Opt. Express 21, 008638 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (5)

S. M. Owens, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, F. Berendse, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer coated thin foil mirrors for InFOCuS,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 619–625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, Y. Hidaka, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, T. Okajima, Y. Tsusaka, K. Yokoyama, and S. Takeda, “New design concept of multilayer supermirrors for hard x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 3766, 327–335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, H. Awaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, R. Iizuka, K. Ishibashi, T. Miyaza, H. Mori, Y. Namba, Y. Ogasaka, K. Ogi, T. Okajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Tamura, Y. Tawara, K. Uesugi, K. Yamashita, and S. Yamauchi, “Hard X-ray telescope to be onboard ASTRO-H,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Haga, K. Akiyama, A. Furuzawa, Y. Terashima, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Multilayer supermirror coating for hard-x-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2805, 236–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, T. Okajima, O. Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, and K. W. Chan, “Development of ballon borne hard-x-ray telescopes using a multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3113, 285–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. Yamashita, “Multilayer X-ray optical systems for future X-ray astronomy missions,” in Workshop Proceedings: The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, Special Report , M. J. Turner and M. G. Watson, eds. (Leicester X-ray Astronomy Group, 1997), pp. 115–121.

X.-S. Yang, Introduction to Mathematical Optimization (Cambridge International Science, 2008).

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