Abstract

The potential exists to apply diffraction gratings to optical imaging systems to improve camera resolution and shorten optical length. However, we have noted the generation of striped flare lights, which differ from unnecessary-order diffraction lights, under intense lighting. We have elucidated the generation principle of these new striped lights and have discovered that they are caused by narrow diffraction grating rings. In this paper, using an analysis based on Fraunhofer diffraction, we suggest a way of minimizing them by designing an appropriate phase function structure, and test the efficacy of this design using our own manufactured prototype.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Klein, “Understanding the diffractive bifocal contact lens,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 70, 439–460 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Roberto, “Multifocal intraocular lenses,” Cararact. Surg. Lens Implantation 16, 33–37 (2005).
  3. M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Nakai and H. Ogawa, “Development of 3-layer diffractive optical elements employed for wide incident angle,” Technical Digest of ICO’04 International Conference Optics and Photonics in technology Frontier, Tokyo (2004).
  6. K. Suzuki, “Development of dual-contact PF (phase Fresnel) lens,” in Proceedings of the 30th Optical Symposium, Japan (2005), p. 69.
  7. Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number,” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Korenaga, “Diffractive optical element and method for manufacturing the same, and imaging apparatus using the diffractive optical element,” U.S. patent7,864,427 (January4, 2011).
  9. T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Explication of diffraction lights on an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 842916 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. K.-K. Wong, Optical Imaging in Projection Microlithography (SPIE, 2005).
  11. T. Takahashi, “Lens sekkei,” Tokaidaigakushuppankai 63, 64 (1994).

2012

T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Explication of diffraction lights on an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 842916 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number,” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. Roberto, “Multifocal intraocular lenses,” Cararact. Surg. Lens Implantation 16, 33–37 (2005).

1994

T. Takahashi, “Lens sekkei,” Tokaidaigakushuppankai 63, 64 (1994).

1993

S. Klein, “Understanding the diffractive bifocal contact lens,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 70, 439–460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ando, T.

T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Explication of diffraction lights on an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 842916 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number,” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, T.

M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iijima, T.

M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Imada, K.

M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, T.

M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klein, S.

S. Klein, “Understanding the diffractive bifocal contact lens,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 70, 439–460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Korenaga, T.

T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Explication of diffraction lights on an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 842916 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number,” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Korenaga, “Diffractive optical element and method for manufacturing the same, and imaging apparatus using the diffractive optical element,” U.S. patent7,864,427 (January4, 2011).

Moriguchi, S.

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murata, A.

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number,” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nagashima, M.

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, T.

T. Nakai and H. Ogawa, “Development of 3-layer diffractive optical elements employed for wide incident angle,” Technical Digest of ICO’04 International Conference Optics and Photonics in technology Frontier, Tokyo (2004).

Nishiwaki, S.

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, H.

T. Nakai and H. Ogawa, “Development of 3-layer diffractive optical elements employed for wide incident angle,” Technical Digest of ICO’04 International Conference Optics and Photonics in technology Frontier, Tokyo (2004).

Okada, Y.

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number,” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oyama, I.

M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roberto, B.

B. Roberto, “Multifocal intraocular lenses,” Cararact. Surg. Lens Implantation 16, 33–37 (2005).

Suenaga, T.

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number,” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, “Development of dual-contact PF (phase Fresnel) lens,” in Proceedings of the 30th Optical Symposium, Japan (2005), p. 69.

Suzuki, M.

T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Explication of diffraction lights on an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 842916 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number,” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tagome, M.

M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

T. Takahashi, “Lens sekkei,” Tokaidaigakushuppankai 63, 64 (1994).

Takai, A.

M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takami, F.

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takasu, Y.

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, S.

M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, A. K.-K.

A. K.-K. Wong, Optical Imaging in Projection Microlithography (SPIE, 2005).

Cararact. Surg. Lens Implantation

B. Roberto, “Multifocal intraocular lenses,” Cararact. Surg. Lens Implantation 16, 33–37 (2005).

Kobunshi Ronbunshu

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number,” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vis. Sci.

S. Klein, “Understanding the diffractive bifocal contact lens,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 70, 439–460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Explication of diffraction lights on an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 842916 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagashima, M. Suzuki, T. Korenaga, K. Imada, S. Tamaki, T. Iijima, I. Oyama, T. Hirasawa, T. Suenaga, M. Tagome, S. Nishiwaki, T. Ishikawa, and A. Takai, “New camera module with thin structure, high resolution and distance-detection capability,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 619609 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tokaidaigakushuppankai

T. Takahashi, “Lens sekkei,” Tokaidaigakushuppankai 63, 64 (1994).

Other

T. Nakai and H. Ogawa, “Development of 3-layer diffractive optical elements employed for wide incident angle,” Technical Digest of ICO’04 International Conference Optics and Photonics in technology Frontier, Tokyo (2004).

K. Suzuki, “Development of dual-contact PF (phase Fresnel) lens,” in Proceedings of the 30th Optical Symposium, Japan (2005), p. 69.

A. K.-K. Wong, Optical Imaging in Projection Microlithography (SPIE, 2005).

T. Korenaga, “Diffractive optical element and method for manufacturing the same, and imaging apparatus using the diffractive optical element,” U.S. patent7,864,427 (January4, 2011).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fraunhofer diffraction of annular circular slit.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fraunhofer diffraction at the off-axis field of view.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Method of deciding the position of diffraction grating rings.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Flowchart for analyzing Fraunhofer diffraction of grating lenses.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Intensity distribution of the striped diffraction lights (simulation).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Number of grating rings.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Striped pattern clarity.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Intensity distribution calculated based on optical path difference function (simulation).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Captured images of fluorescent lamps.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Photograph taken using a camera mounted with NC-WGL.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Specification of Optical Imaging Systems

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Circ(r,θ)=Circ(r)=Cr1rr2=0r<r1,r2<r.
U(ρ)=C02πdθ·r1r2rdr·exp(2πiρrcosθλR).
U(ρ)=Cπr22{2J1(2πρr2/λR)2πρr2/λRε22J1(ε2πρr2/λR)ε2πρr2/λR}.
I(ρ)=I0(1ε2)2{2J1(2πρr2/λR)2πρr2/λRε22J1(ε2πρr2/λR)ε2πρr2/λR}2.
R/2r2=Fno=12sinθ2.
I(ρ)=I0(1ε2)2{2J1(2πρsinθ2λ)2πρsinθ2λε22J1(ε×2πρsinθ2λ)ε×2πρsinθ2λ}2,
θ2=12(tan1Rhr2tan1Rh+r2)r2<h,θ2=12(π+tan1Rhr2tan1Rh+r2)r2>h.
ϕ(r)=2πλ0ψ(r),
ψ(r)=a1·r2+a2·r4+a3·r6+a4·r8+a5·r10.

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