Abstract

We report on an airborne demonstration of atmospheric oxygen optical depth measurements with an IPDA lidar using a fiber-based laser system and a photon counting detector. Accurate knowledge of atmospheric temperature and pressure is required for NASA’s Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission, and climate modeling studies. The lidar uses a doubled erbium-doped fiber amplifier and single photon-counting detector to measure oxygen absorption at 765 nm. Our results show good agreement between the experimentally derived differential optical depth measurements with the theoretical predictions for aircraft altitudes from 3 to 13 km.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. “Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report (IPCC),” 2007, http://www.ipcc.ch/index.htm .
  2. National Research Council Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (National Academic, 2007).
  3. “NASA ASCENDS Workshop,” http://cce.nasa.gov/ascends/index.htm .
  4. C. L. Korb and C. Y. Wang, “Differential absorption lidar technique for measurement of the atmospheric pressure profile,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3759–3770 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. J. Ritter, “A high resolution spectroscopic study of absorption line profiles in the A-Band of molecular oxygen,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Maryland, 1986).
  6. G. K. Schwemmer, M. Dombrowski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, and R. H. Kagann, “A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226–2237 (1987).
  7. C. N. Flamant, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, K. D. Evans, and S. P. Palm, “Pressure measurements using and airborne differential absorption lidar. Part I: analysis of the systematic error sources,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 561–574 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Stephen, M. Krainak, H. Riris, and G. R. Allan, “Narrowband, tunable, frequency-doubled, erbium doped fiber-amplified transmitter,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2073–2075 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Sun and J. Abshire, “Comparison of IPDA lidar receiver sensitivity for coherent detection and for direct detection using sine-wave and pulsed modulation,” Opt. Express 20, 21291–21304 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B 102, 313–329 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, 1984).
  13. J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62B, 770–783 (2010).
  14. G. Ehret, C. Kiemel, W. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. B. Grant, “Effect of differential spectral reflectance on DIAL measurements using topographic targets,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2390–2394 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 4, 3545–3592 (2011).
  17. J. R. Chen, K. Numata, and S. T. Wu, “Error reduction methods for integrated-path differential-absorption lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 20, 15589–15609 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, W. E. Hasselbrack, and E. V. Browel, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column absorption and range using a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4446–4461 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Humlicek, “Optimized computation of the Voigt and complex probability functions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 437–444 (1982).
  20. J. Liu, J. Lin, G. Huang, Y. Guo, and C. Duan, “Simple empirical analytical approximation to the Voigt profile,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 666–672 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. H. Dicke, “The effect of collisions upon the Doppler width of spectral lines,” Phys. Rev. 89, 472–473 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Tran, C. Boulet, and J. M. Hartmann, “Line mixing and collision-induced absorption by oxygen in the A band: laboratory measurements, model, and tools for atmospheric spectra computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D15210 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “O2 A-band line parameters to support atmospheric remote sensing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2021–2036 (2010).
  24. D. A. Long and J. T. Hodges, “On spectroscopic models of the O2 A-band and their impact upon atmospheric retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, D12309 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Amediek, X. Sun, and J. B. Abshire, “Analysis of range measurements from a pulsed airborne CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 2498–2504 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Soundings, Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, 2000).
  27. S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus 62B, 759–769 (2010).
  28. S. A. Clough and M. J. Iacono, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates. 2: applications to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and the halocarbons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16519–16535 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  29. “Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office,” http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/ .
  30. A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).
  32. D. P. Donovan, J. A. Whiteway, and A. I. Carswell, “Correction for nonlinear photon-counting effects in lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6742–6753 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. R. Webster, “Brewster-plate spoiler: a novel method for reducing the amplitude of interference fringes that limit tunable-laser absorption sensitivities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1464–1470 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. A. Silver, D. S. Bomse, and A. C. Stanton, “Diode laser measurements of trace concentrations of ammonia in an entrained-flow coal reactor,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1505–1511 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  36. D. T. Cassidy and J. Reid, “Harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers-two-tone modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279–285 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  37. P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685–1705 (2004).
  38. H. Riris, C. B. Carlisle, R. E. Warren, and D. E. Cooper, “Signal to noise ratio enhancement in frequency modulation spectrometers using digital signal processing,” Opt. Lett. 19, 144–146 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  39. D. S. Bomse and D. J. Kane, “An adaptive singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm for analysis of wavelength modulation spectra,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 461–466 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  40. H. Riris, C. B. Carlisle, and R. E. Warren, “Kalman filtering of tunable diode laser spectrometer absorbance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5506–5508 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  41. D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, “Applications of Kalman filtering to real-time trace gas concentration measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 85–93 (2002).
  42. J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, H. Riris, J. M. Sirota, J. F. McGarry, S. Palm, D. Yi, and P. Liiva, “Geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS) on the ICESat mission: on-orbit measurement performance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S02 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  43. A. W. Yu, S. X. Li, M. A. Stephen, A. J. Martino, J. R. Chen, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, D. J. Harding, G. R. Allan, and K. Numata, “Spaceborne laser transmitters for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780817 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  44. W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO lidar description and performance assessment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1214–1228 (2009).
  45. O. Reitebuch, “The spaceborne wind lidar mission ADM-Aeolus,” in Atmospheric Physics, Research Topics in Aerospace (Springer-Verlag, 2012), pp. 815–827.
  46. A. W. Yu, M. A. Krainak, D. J. Harding, J. B. Abshire, and X. Sun, “Topographic mapping from space,” Proc. SPIE 7467, 746702 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

A. Amediek, X. Sun, and J. B. Abshire, “Analysis of range measurements from a pulsed airborne CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 2498–2504 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, W. E. Hasselbrack, and E. V. Browel, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column absorption and range using a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4446–4461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

D. A. Long and J. T. Hodges, “On spectroscopic models of the O2 A-band and their impact upon atmospheric retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, D12309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

J. R. Chen, K. Numata, and S. T. Wu, “Error reduction methods for integrated-path differential-absorption lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 20, 15589–15609 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun and J. Abshire, “Comparison of IPDA lidar receiver sensitivity for coherent detection and for direct detection using sine-wave and pulsed modulation,” Opt. Express 20, 21291–21304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 4, 3545–3592 (2011).

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B 102, 313–329 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62B, 770–783 (2010).

D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “O2 A-band line parameters to support atmospheric remote sensing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2021–2036 (2010).

S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus 62B, 759–769 (2010).

A. W. Yu, S. X. Li, M. A. Stephen, A. J. Martino, J. R. Chen, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, D. J. Harding, G. R. Allan, and K. Numata, “Spaceborne laser transmitters for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO lidar description and performance assessment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1214–1228 (2009).

A. W. Yu, M. A. Krainak, D. J. Harding, J. B. Abshire, and X. Sun, “Topographic mapping from space,” Proc. SPIE 7467, 746702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

G. Ehret, C. Kiemel, W. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

H. Tran, C. Boulet, and J. M. Hartmann, “Line mixing and collision-induced absorption by oxygen in the A band: laboratory measurements, model, and tools for atmospheric spectra computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D15210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Bomse and D. J. Kane, “An adaptive singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm for analysis of wavelength modulation spectra,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 461–466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, H. Riris, J. M. Sirota, J. F. McGarry, S. Palm, D. Yi, and P. Liiva, “Geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS) on the ICESat mission: on-orbit measurement performance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685–1705 (2004).

2002 (1)

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, “Applications of Kalman filtering to real-time trace gas concentration measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 85–93 (2002).

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

C. N. Flamant, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, K. D. Evans, and S. P. Palm, “Pressure measurements using and airborne differential absorption lidar. Part I: analysis of the systematic error sources,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 561–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. A. Clough and M. J. Iacono, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates. 2: applications to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and the halocarbons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16519–16535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1993 (2)

D. P. Donovan, J. A. Whiteway, and A. I. Carswell, “Correction for nonlinear photon-counting effects in lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6742–6753 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

G. K. Schwemmer, M. Dombrowski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, and R. H. Kagann, “A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226–2237 (1987).

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (3)

W. B. Grant, “Effect of differential spectral reflectance on DIAL measurements using topographic targets,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2390–2394 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Cassidy and J. Reid, “Harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers-two-tone modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279–285 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Humlicek, “Optimized computation of the Voigt and complex probability functions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 437–444 (1982).

1953 (1)

R. H. Dicke, “The effect of collisions upon the Doppler width of spectral lines,” Phys. Rev. 89, 472–473 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Aben, I.

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Abshire, J.

Abshire, J. B.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, W. E. Hasselbrack, and E. V. Browel, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column absorption and range using a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4446–4461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Amediek, X. Sun, and J. B. Abshire, “Analysis of range measurements from a pulsed airborne CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 2498–2504 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Yu, S. X. Li, M. A. Stephen, A. J. Martino, J. R. Chen, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, D. J. Harding, G. R. Allan, and K. Numata, “Spaceborne laser transmitters for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus 62B, 759–769 (2010).

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62B, 770–783 (2010).

A. W. Yu, M. A. Krainak, D. J. Harding, J. B. Abshire, and X. Sun, “Topographic mapping from space,” Proc. SPIE 7467, 746702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, H. Riris, J. M. Sirota, J. F. McGarry, S. Palm, D. Yi, and P. Liiva, “Geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS) on the ICESat mission: on-orbit measurement performance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Allan, G.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62B, 770–783 (2010).

Allan, G. R.

Amediek, A.

A. Amediek, X. Sun, and J. B. Abshire, “Analysis of range measurements from a pulsed airborne CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 2498–2504 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 4, 3545–3592 (2011).

G. Ehret, C. Kiemel, W. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basilio, R.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biraud, S.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62B, 770–783 (2010).

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bomse, D. S.

D. S. Bomse and D. J. Kane, “An adaptive singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm for analysis of wavelength modulation spectra,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 461–466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, D. S. Bomse, and A. C. Stanton, “Diode laser measurements of trace concentrations of ammonia in an entrained-flow coal reactor,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1505–1511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bösch, H.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boulet, C.

H. Tran, C. Boulet, and J. M. Hartmann, “Line mixing and collision-induced absorption by oxygen in the A band: laboratory measurements, model, and tools for atmospheric spectra computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D15210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Browel, E. V.

Brown, L. R.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Butz, A.

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carlisle, C. B.

Carswell, A. I.

Cassidy, D. T.

D. T. Cassidy and J. Reid, “Harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers-two-tone modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279–285 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Castano, R.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. R.

J. R. Chen, K. Numata, and S. T. Wu, “Error reduction methods for integrated-path differential-absorption lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 20, 15589–15609 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Yu, S. X. Li, M. A. Stephen, A. J. Martino, J. R. Chen, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, D. J. Harding, G. R. Allan, and K. Numata, “Spaceborne laser transmitters for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, “Applications of Kalman filtering to real-time trace gas concentration measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 85–93 (2002).

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Claps, R.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, “Applications of Kalman filtering to real-time trace gas concentration measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 85–93 (2002).

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough and M. J. Iacono, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates. 2: applications to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and the halocarbons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16519–16535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Collatz, G. J.

S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus 62B, 759–769 (2010).

Connor, B.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Cooper, D. E.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crisp, D.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

D’Amato, F.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685–1705 (2004).

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Rosa, M.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685–1705 (2004).

Deutscher, N.

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deutscher, N. M.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dicke, R. H.

R. H. Dicke, “The effect of collisions upon the Doppler width of spectral lines,” Phys. Rev. 89, 472–473 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Dombrowski, M.

G. K. Schwemmer, M. Dombrowski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, and R. H. Kagann, “A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226–2237 (1987).

Donovan, D. P.

Duan, C.

Ehret, G.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 4, 3545–3592 (2011).

G. Ehret, C. Kiemel, W. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eldering, A.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Evans, K. D.

C. N. Flamant, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, K. D. Evans, and S. P. Palm, “Pressure measurements using and airborne differential absorption lidar. Part I: analysis of the systematic error sources,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 561–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, B. M.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Fix, A.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 4, 3545–3592 (2011).

G. Ehret, C. Kiemel, W. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, C. N.

C. N. Flamant, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, K. D. Evans, and S. P. Palm, “Pressure measurements using and airborne differential absorption lidar. Part I: analysis of the systematic error sources,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 561–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frankenberg, C.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Galli, A.

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W. B.

Griffith, D.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guerlet, S.

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gunson, M.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Guo, Y.

Harding, D. J.

A. W. Yu, S. X. Li, M. A. Stephen, A. J. Martino, J. R. Chen, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, D. J. Harding, G. R. Allan, and K. Numata, “Spaceborne laser transmitters for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Yu, M. A. Krainak, D. J. Harding, J. B. Abshire, and X. Sun, “Topographic mapping from space,” Proc. SPIE 7467, 746702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harman, T. L.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, “Applications of Kalman filtering to real-time trace gas concentration measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 85–93 (2002).

Hartmann, J. M.

H. Tran, C. Boulet, and J. M. Hartmann, “Line mixing and collision-induced absorption by oxygen in the A band: laboratory measurements, model, and tools for atmospheric spectra computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D15210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.-M.

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hasekamp, O.

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hasselbrack, W. E.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, W. E. Hasselbrack, and E. V. Browel, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column absorption and range using a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4446–4461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62B, 770–783 (2010).

Havey, D. K.

D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “O2 A-band line parameters to support atmospheric remote sensing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2021–2036 (2010).

Hodges, J. T.

D. A. Long and J. T. Hodges, “On spectroscopic models of the O2 A-band and their impact upon atmospheric retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, D12309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “O2 A-band line parameters to support atmospheric remote sensing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2021–2036 (2010).

Houweling, S.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemel, W. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

Humlicek, J.

J. Humlicek, “Optimized computation of the Voigt and complex probability functions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 437–444 (1982).

Hunt, W. H.

W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO lidar description and performance assessment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1214–1228 (2009).

Iacono, M. J.

S. A. Clough and M. J. Iacono, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates. 2: applications to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and the halocarbons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16519–16535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kagann, R. H.

G. K. Schwemmer, M. Dombrowski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, and R. H. Kagann, “A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226–2237 (1987).

Kane, D. J.

D. S. Bomse and D. J. Kane, “An adaptive singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm for analysis of wavelength modulation spectra,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 461–466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawa, R. S.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62B, 770–783 (2010).

Kawa, S. R.

S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus 62B, 759–769 (2010).

Keppel-Aleks, G.

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kiemel, C.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemel, W. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiemle, C.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 4, 3545–3592 (2011).

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Korb, C. L.

C. N. Flamant, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, K. D. Evans, and S. P. Palm, “Pressure measurements using and airborne differential absorption lidar. Part I: analysis of the systematic error sources,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 561–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Schwemmer, M. Dombrowski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, and R. H. Kagann, “A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226–2237 (1987).

C. L. Korb and C. Y. Wang, “Differential absorption lidar technique for measurement of the atmospheric pressure profile,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3759–3770 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Krainak, M.

Krainak, M. A.

A. W. Yu, S. X. Li, M. A. Stephen, A. J. Martino, J. R. Chen, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, D. J. Harding, G. R. Allan, and K. Numata, “Spaceborne laser transmitters for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Yu, M. A. Krainak, D. J. Harding, J. B. Abshire, and X. Sun, “Topographic mapping from space,” Proc. SPIE 7467, 746702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuze, A.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leleux, D. P.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, “Applications of Kalman filtering to real-time trace gas concentration measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 85–93 (2002).

Li, S. X.

A. W. Yu, S. X. Li, M. A. Stephen, A. J. Martino, J. R. Chen, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, D. J. Harding, G. R. Allan, and K. Numata, “Spaceborne laser transmitters for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liiva, P.

J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, H. Riris, J. M. Sirota, J. F. McGarry, S. Palm, D. Yi, and P. Liiva, “Geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS) on the ICESat mission: on-orbit measurement performance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

Liu, J.

Long, D. A.

D. A. Long and J. T. Hodges, “On spectroscopic models of the O2 A-band and their impact upon atmospheric retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, D12309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “O2 A-band line parameters to support atmospheric remote sensing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2021–2036 (2010).

Lucker, P. L.

W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO lidar description and performance assessment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1214–1228 (2009).

Macatangay, R.

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mandrake, L.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Mao, J.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, W. E. Hasselbrack, and E. V. Browel, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column absorption and range using a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4446–4461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62B, 770–783 (2010).

S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus 62B, 759–769 (2010).

Martino, A. J.

A. W. Yu, S. X. Li, M. A. Stephen, A. J. Martino, J. R. Chen, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, D. J. Harding, G. R. Allan, and K. Numata, “Spaceborne laser transmitters for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, K.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685–1705 (2004).

Mazzinghi, P.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685–1705 (2004).

McDuffie, J.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

McGarry, J. F.

J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, H. Riris, J. M. Sirota, J. F. McGarry, S. Palm, D. Yi, and P. Liiva, “Geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS) on the ICESat mission: on-orbit measurement performance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R.

R. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, 1984).

Messerschmidt, J.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “O2 A-band line parameters to support atmospheric remote sensing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2021–2036 (2010).

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Milrod, J.

G. K. Schwemmer, M. Dombrowski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, and R. H. Kagann, “A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226–2237 (1987).

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morino, I.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Mucke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Natraj, V.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Notholt, J.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Numata, K.

J. R. Chen, K. Numata, and S. T. Wu, “Error reduction methods for integrated-path differential-absorption lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 20, 15589–15609 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Yu, S. X. Li, M. A. Stephen, A. J. Martino, J. R. Chen, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, D. J. Harding, G. R. Allan, and K. Numata, “Spaceborne laser transmitters for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D. M.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

O’Dell, C.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Okumura, M.

D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “O2 A-band line parameters to support atmospheric remote sensing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2021–2036 (2010).

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oyafuso, F.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Palm, S.

J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, H. Riris, J. M. Sirota, J. F. McGarry, S. Palm, D. Yi, and P. Liiva, “Geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS) on the ICESat mission: on-orbit measurement performance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palm, S. P.

C. N. Flamant, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, K. D. Evans, and S. P. Palm, “Pressure measurements using and airborne differential absorption lidar. Part I: analysis of the systematic error sources,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 561–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polonsky, I.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Powell, K. A.

W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO lidar description and performance assessment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1214–1228 (2009).

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quatrevalet, M.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 4, 3545–3592 (2011).

Reid, J.

D. T. Cassidy and J. Reid, “Harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers-two-tone modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279–285 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Reitebuch, O.

O. Reitebuch, “The spaceborne wind lidar mission ADM-Aeolus,” in Atmospheric Physics, Research Topics in Aerospace (Springer-Verlag, 2012), pp. 815–827.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Riris, H.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, W. E. Hasselbrack, and E. V. Browel, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column absorption and range using a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4446–4461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62B, 770–783 (2010).

A. W. Yu, S. X. Li, M. A. Stephen, A. J. Martino, J. R. Chen, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, D. J. Harding, G. R. Allan, and K. Numata, “Spaceborne laser transmitters for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Stephen, M. Krainak, H. Riris, and G. R. Allan, “Narrowband, tunable, frequency-doubled, erbium doped fiber-amplified transmitter,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2073–2075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, H. Riris, J. M. Sirota, J. F. McGarry, S. Palm, D. Yi, and P. Liiva, “Geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS) on the ICESat mission: on-orbit measurement performance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Riris, C. B. Carlisle, R. E. Warren, and D. E. Cooper, “Signal to noise ratio enhancement in frequency modulation spectrometers using digital signal processing,” Opt. Lett. 19, 144–146 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Riris, C. B. Carlisle, and R. E. Warren, “Kalman filtering of tunable diode laser spectrometer absorbance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5506–5508 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, K. J.

K. J. Ritter, “A high resolution spectroscopic study of absorption line profiles in the A-Band of molecular oxygen,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Maryland, 1986).

Robinson, J.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Rodgers, C.

C. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Soundings, Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, 2000).

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salawitch, R.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Schepers, D.

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schwemmer, G. K.

C. N. Flamant, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, K. D. Evans, and S. P. Palm, “Pressure measurements using and airborne differential absorption lidar. Part I: analysis of the systematic error sources,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 561–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Schwemmer, M. Dombrowski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, and R. H. Kagann, “A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226–2237 (1987).

Sherlock, V.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Silver, J. A.

Šimecková, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sirota, J. M.

J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, H. Riris, J. M. Sirota, J. F. McGarry, S. Palm, D. Yi, and P. Liiva, “Geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS) on the ICESat mission: on-orbit measurement performance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685–1705 (2004).

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, M.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Stanton, A. C.

Stephen, M.

Stephen, M. A.

A. W. Yu, S. X. Li, M. A. Stephen, A. J. Martino, J. R. Chen, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, D. J. Harding, G. R. Allan, and K. Numata, “Spaceborne laser transmitters for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

A. Amediek, X. Sun, and J. B. Abshire, “Analysis of range measurements from a pulsed airborne CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 2498–2504 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun and J. Abshire, “Comparison of IPDA lidar receiver sensitivity for coherent detection and for direct detection using sine-wave and pulsed modulation,” Opt. Express 20, 21291–21304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus 62B, 759–769 (2010).

A. W. Yu, M. A. Krainak, D. J. Harding, J. B. Abshire, and X. Sun, “Topographic mapping from space,” Proc. SPIE 7467, 746702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, H. Riris, J. M. Sirota, J. F. McGarry, S. Palm, D. Yi, and P. Liiva, “Geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS) on the ICESat mission: on-orbit measurement performance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. X.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62B, 770–783 (2010).

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suto, H.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, T. E.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. R.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Tittel, F. K.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, “Applications of Kalman filtering to real-time trace gas concentration measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 85–93 (2002).

Toon, G.

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tran, H.

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Tran, C. Boulet, and J. M. Hartmann, “Line mixing and collision-induced absorption by oxygen in the A band: laboratory measurements, model, and tools for atmospheric spectra computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D15210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, M. A.

W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO lidar description and performance assessment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1214–1228 (2009).

Walden, H.

G. K. Schwemmer, M. Dombrowski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, and R. H. Kagann, “A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226–2237 (1987).

Wang, C. Y.

Warneke, T.

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Warren, R. E.

Weaver, C. J.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, G. R. Allan, W. E. Hasselbrack, and E. V. Browel, “Airborne measurements of CO2 column absorption and range using a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar,” Appl. Opt. 52, 4446–4461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62B, 770–783 (2010).

S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus 62B, 759–769 (2010).

Webster, C. R.

Weimer, C.

W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO lidar description and performance assessment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1214–1228 (2009).

Wennberg, P.

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wennberg, P. O.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Werle, P.

P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B 102, 313–329 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685–1705 (2004).

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Whiteway, J. A.

Winker, D. M.

W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO lidar description and performance assessment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1214–1228 (2009).

Wirth, M.

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 4, 3545–3592 (2011).

Wirth, W.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemel, W. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

A. W. Yu, S. X. Li, M. A. Stephen, A. J. Martino, J. R. Chen, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, D. J. Harding, G. R. Allan, and K. Numata, “Spaceborne laser transmitters for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Wunch, D.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yi, D.

J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, H. Riris, J. M. Sirota, J. F. McGarry, S. Palm, D. Yi, and P. Liiva, “Geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS) on the ICESat mission: on-orbit measurement performance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, A. W.

A. W. Yu, S. X. Li, M. A. Stephen, A. J. Martino, J. R. Chen, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, D. J. Harding, G. R. Allan, and K. Numata, “Spaceborne laser transmitters for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Yu, M. A. Krainak, D. J. Harding, J. B. Abshire, and X. Sun, “Topographic mapping from space,” Proc. SPIE 7467, 746702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yung, Y. L.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (6)

P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B 102, 313–329 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemel, W. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Cassidy and J. Reid, “Harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers-two-tone modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279–285 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, “Applications of Kalman filtering to real-time trace gas concentration measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 85–93 (2002).

D. S. Bomse and D. J. Kane, “An adaptive singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm for analysis of wavelength modulation spectra,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 461–466 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. M. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. E. Taylor, D. R. Thompson, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, “The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm—Part II: global XCO2 data characterization,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 687–707 (2012).

Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. (1)

C. Kiemle, M. Quatrevalet, G. Ehret, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and M. Wirth, “Sensitivity studies for a space-based methane lidar mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 4, 3545–3592 (2011).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, H. Riris, J. M. Sirota, J. F. McGarry, S. Palm, D. Yi, and P. Liiva, “Geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS) on the ICESat mission: on-orbit measurement performance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Butz, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, D. Schepers, A. Galli, I. Aben, C. Frankenberg, J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, A. Kuze, G. Keppel-Aleks, G. Toon, D. Wunch, P. Wennberg, N. Deutscher, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Messerschmidt, J. Notholt, and T. Warneke, “Toward accurate CO2 and CH4 observations from GOSAT,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

A. Amediek, X. Sun, and J. B. Abshire, “Analysis of range measurements from a pulsed airborne CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 51, 2498–2504 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (2)

W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO lidar description and performance assessment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1214–1228 (2009).

C. N. Flamant, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, K. D. Evans, and S. P. Palm, “Pressure measurements using and airborne differential absorption lidar. Part I: analysis of the systematic error sources,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 561–574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

H. Tran, C. Boulet, and J. M. Hartmann, “Line mixing and collision-induced absorption by oxygen in the A band: laboratory measurements, model, and tools for atmospheric spectra computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D15210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long and J. T. Hodges, “On spectroscopic models of the O2 A-band and their impact upon atmospheric retrievals,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, D12309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough and M. J. Iacono, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates. 2: applications to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and the halocarbons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16519–16535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (3)

D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “O2 A-band line parameters to support atmospheric remote sensing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2021–2036 (2010).

J. Humlicek, “Optimized computation of the Voigt and complex probability functions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 437–444 (1982).

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. H. Dicke, “The effect of collisions upon the Doppler width of spectral lines,” Phys. Rev. 89, 472–473 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. W. Yu, M. A. Krainak, D. J. Harding, J. B. Abshire, and X. Sun, “Topographic mapping from space,” Proc. SPIE 7467, 746702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Yu, S. X. Li, M. A. Stephen, A. J. Martino, J. R. Chen, M. A. Krainak, S. Wu, H. Riris, J. B. Abshire, D. J. Harding, G. R. Allan, and K. Numata, “Spaceborne laser transmitters for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 7808, 780817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. K. Schwemmer, M. Dombrowski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, and R. H. Kagann, “A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226–2237 (1987).

Spectrochim. Acta Part A (1)

P. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 1685–1705 (2004).

Tellus (2)

S. R. Kawa, J. Mao, J. B. Abshire, G. J. Collatz, X. Sun, and C. J. Weaver, “Simulation studies for a space-based CO2 lidar mission,” Tellus 62B, 759–769 (2010).

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62B, 770–783 (2010).

Other (8)

R. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, 1984).

“Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report (IPCC),” 2007, http://www.ipcc.ch/index.htm .

National Research Council Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (National Academic, 2007).

“NASA ASCENDS Workshop,” http://cce.nasa.gov/ascends/index.htm .

K. J. Ritter, “A high resolution spectroscopic study of absorption line profiles in the A-Band of molecular oxygen,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Maryland, 1986).

“Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office,” http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/ .

C. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Soundings, Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, 2000).

O. Reitebuch, “The spaceborne wind lidar mission ADM-Aeolus,” in Atmospheric Physics, Research Topics in Aerospace (Springer-Verlag, 2012), pp. 815–827.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Atmospheric transmittance from a 13 km altitude showing the Oxygen A-band absorption line at 764.7 nm using a standard US Atmosphere, the HITRAN 2008 database (solid line), and our choice of wavelengths (solid squares). The smaller absorptions are O2 isotope lines.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Oxygen optical depth lineshapes as a function of pressure for a 13 km horizontal path (top left) and as a function of altitude for a standard US Atmosphere (top right) and the corresponding OD values at λon and λoff and DOD=OD(λon)OD(λoff) as a function of pressure (bottom left) and the OD values at λon and λoff and DOD as a function of altitude (bottom right).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Functional block diagram of the oxygen lidar as flown on the DC-8.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Timing sequence of the oxygen lidar.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Example of a histogram return as a function of time from an altitude of 10km during a flight over central Wisconsin (left) and an expanded view of a single-return pulse (right) as a function of altitude (range). The integration time was 1 s and the measurement time bin resolution was 32 ns.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Summary of 2011 science flights over varying topography, elevation, surface reflectivity, ground cover, and weather conditions. The colored trajectories identify each flight.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Flight 1 on July 8, 2012, originated in Palmdale, California, and the constant altitude legs from 3 to 13 km traversed a north–south path from Fresno to Stockton in California’s Central Valley. The spiral occurred at Castle Airport in Atwater, California.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(Left) An experimental OD line shape (solid squares) from flight 1 on July 28th, 2012, with the theoretical prediction (blue) and the best fit (red). The altitude was 12.2 km and the averaging period was 60 s. (Right) The change in DOD versus altitude agreed well with the theoretical predictions after a bias adjustment of 8%.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Experimentally derived DOD versus the theoretically calculated DOD values. The slope of the linear fit was 1.0037±0.0028 and the intercept was 0.0021±0.0016.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Experimental and predicted DOD comparison as a function of time for (left) flight 4 and (right) flight 5. Flight 4 shows the transit from California to Oregon and flight 5 shows the entire flight from Palmdale, California, to around the Four Corners power plant in New Mexico. The predicted DOD was calculated using GMAO data with 1 s intervals.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Experimental and predicted DOD comparison and ground elevation as a function of time for (left) flight 6 and (right) flight 7. The predicted DOD was calculated using GMAO data with 5 min intervals. The flight segments traverse approximately the region between Davenport, Iowa to Denver, Colorado, where the ground elevation changes gradually. The ground elevation was determined by the aircraft radar altimeter and the GPS readings.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Theoretical DOD and Normalized DOD comparison at 10 km from airplane and radiosonde data for flight 1.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Laser emission spectrum measurement using an optical spectrum analyzer. The emission peak is at 764.7 nm, which is 65 dB above the noise floor. The resolution of the measurement was 10 pm (5.1 GHz).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Oxygen Lidar Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2. 2011 Science Flight Summary

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

X(CO2)=N(CO2)(1X(H2O))N(Air),
E=E0ηAR2ρπτ2(ν).
τ(ν)=e20Rσ(ν)N(r)dr,
E=E0ηAR2ρπe20Rσ(ν)N(R)dr.
EonEoff=E0onE0offηAR2ρπe20R(σ(ν)onσ(ν)off)N(r)dr.
DOD=12ln[EoffEon×E0onE0off].
ε=1ln(e20R(σ(ν)onσ(ν)off)N(r)dr)×(1SNROFF+1SNRON).
Ej=E0jηjAR2ρjπe20Rσ(νj)N(R)dr,
ε=[j=1M[τtheory(νj)τexperiment(νj)]2/M],

Metrics