Abstract

We have sampled both the downwelling and upwelling radiance distributions at a camp located in the southern Ellsworth Mountains on the broad expanse of Union Glacier (700 m altitude, 79° 46S, 82° 52W). The measurements (at 320–440 nm wavelength range) were carried out under cloudless conditions by using a sky scanner system, during a campaign (in December, 2012) meant to assess the effects of the high albedo on the radiance distribution. The angular variations observed in both the downwelling and upwelling radiance distributions increase with the wavelength. However, these variations were considerably greater in the case of the downwelling radiance than in the case of the upwelling radiance. Indeed, we found that downwelling radiance tends to be less isotropic than the corresponding upwelling radiance. Regardless of the solar zenith angle and the wavelength, the minima of the downwelling and the upwelling radiance distributions were measured close to the zenith and to the nadir, respectively. The downwelling (upwelling) radiance increased nearly monotonically toward the horizon and peaked at zenith (nadir) angles that ranged from 75° to 90°. Comparisons with the UVSPEC radiative transfer model were used to weight up the response of the downwelling radiance distribution to changes in the albedo.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

R. R. Cordero, A. Damiani, L. Da Silva, D. Laroze, and F. Labbe, “Spectral UV radiance measured at a coastal site: a case study,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12, 1193–1201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Weller, A. Minikin, A. Petzold, D. Wagenbach, and G. König-Langlo, “Characterization of long-term and seasonal variations of black carbon (BC) concentrations at Neumayer, Antarctica,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1579–1590 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

R. Román, M. Antón, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Rivera, R. Zamora, C. Rada, J. Walton, and S. Proctor, “Glaciological investigations on Union Glacier, Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica,” Ann. Glaciol. 51, 91–96 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Meinander, S. Kazadzis, A. Arola, R. Kivi, A. Kontu, H. Suokanerva, V. Aaltonen, T. Manninen, J. L. Roujean, and O. Hautecoeur, “Spectral albedo of arctic snow during intensive melt period,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 10, 27075–27098 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

D. Pissulla, G. Seckmeyer, R. R. Cordero, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Smedley, A. F. Bais, N. Kouremeti, A. Cede, J. Herman, and M. Kowalewski, “Comparison of atmospheric spectral radiance measurements from four independently calibrated systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 516–527 (2009).

2008

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty of experimental integrals: application to the UV index calculation,” Metrologia 45, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Meinander, A. Kontu, K. Lakkala, A. Heikkilä, L. Ylianttila, and M. Toikka, “Diurnal variations in the UV albedo of arctic snow,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6551–6563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, J. C. Ehramjian, R. Stone, and E. G. Dutton, “Ultraviolet and visible radiation at Barrow, Alaska: climatology and influencing factors on the basis of version 2 National Science Foundation network data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of the spectral UV irradiance evaluated by using the UVSPEC radiative transfer model,” Opt. Commun. 276, 44–53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, J. C. Ehramjian, and S. E. Nichol, “UV climatology at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, based on version 2 data of the National Science Foundation’s Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Wuttke and G. Seckmeyer, “Spectral radiance and sky luminance in Antarctica: a case study,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 85, 131–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Wuttke, G. Seckmeyer, and G. Koenig-Langlo, “Measurements of spectral snow albedo at Neumayer, Antarctica,” Ann. Geophys. 24, 7–21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. E. Brandt, S. G. Warren, A. P. Worby, and T. C. Grenfell, “Surface albedo of the Antarctic sea ice zone,” J. Clim. 18, 3606–3622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, and J. C. Ehramjian, “UV climatology at Palmer Station, Antarctica,” Proc. SPIE 5886, 588607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer and A. Kylling, “Technical note: the libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations—description and examples of use,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1855–1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, and J. C. Ehramjian, “Version 2 data of the National Science Foundation’s Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Network: South Pole,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D21207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, B. Schallhart, and J. Lenoble, “Effect of inhomogeneous surface albedo on diffuse UV sky radiance at a high-altitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Gueymard, “The Sun’s total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models,” Sol. Energy 76, 423–453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell and D. K. Perovich, “Seasonal and spatial evolution of albedo in a snow-ice-land-ocean environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C1), C01001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. H. Grant, G. M. Heisler, and W. Gao, “Clear sky radiance distributions in ultraviolet wavelength bands,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 56, 123–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Grant, G. M. Heisler, and W. Gao, “Ultraviolet sky radiance distributions of translucent overcast skies,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 58, 129–139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Grant and G. M. Heisler, “Obscured overcast sky radiance distributions for ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 36, 1336–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Blumthaler, J. Groebner, M. Huber, and W. Ambach, “Measuring spectral and spatial variations of UVA and UVB sky radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 23, 547–550 (1996).

1994

T. C. Grenfell, S. G. Warren, and P. C. Mullen, “Reflection of solar radiation by the Antarctic snow surface at ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 18669–18684 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. Dahlback and K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

Aaltonen, V.

O. Meinander, S. Kazadzis, A. Arola, R. Kivi, A. Kontu, H. Suokanerva, V. Aaltonen, T. Manninen, J. L. Roujean, and O. Hautecoeur, “Spectral albedo of arctic snow during intensive melt period,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 10, 27075–27098 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alados-Arboledas, L.

R. Román, M. Antón, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ambach, W.

M. Blumthaler, J. Groebner, M. Huber, and W. Ambach, “Measuring spectral and spatial variations of UVA and UVB sky radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 23, 547–550 (1996).

Antón, M.

R. Román, M. Antón, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arola, A.

O. Meinander, S. Kazadzis, A. Arola, R. Kivi, A. Kontu, H. Suokanerva, V. Aaltonen, T. Manninen, J. L. Roujean, and O. Hautecoeur, “Spectral albedo of arctic snow during intensive melt period,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 10, 27075–27098 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bais, A.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. Drüke, P. Kiedron, K. Lantz, R. L. McKenzie, and S. Riechelmann, “Part 4: Array Spectroradiometers,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2010).

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

Bais, A. F.

D. Pissulla, G. Seckmeyer, R. R. Cordero, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Smedley, A. F. Bais, N. Kouremeti, A. Cede, J. Herman, and M. Kowalewski, “Comparison of atmospheric spectral radiance measurements from four independently calibrated systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 516–527 (2009).

Bernhard, G.

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, J. C. Ehramjian, R. Stone, and E. G. Dutton, “Ultraviolet and visible radiation at Barrow, Alaska: climatology and influencing factors on the basis of version 2 National Science Foundation network data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, J. C. Ehramjian, and S. E. Nichol, “UV climatology at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, based on version 2 data of the National Science Foundation’s Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, and J. C. Ehramjian, “UV climatology at Palmer Station, Antarctica,” Proc. SPIE 5886, 588607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, and J. C. Ehramjian, “Version 2 data of the National Science Foundation’s Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Network: South Pole,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D21207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, and J. C. Ehramjian, “Climatology of ultraviolet radiation at high latitudes derived from measurements of the National Science Foundation’s Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitoring Network,” in UV Radiation in Global Climate Change: Measurements, Modeling and Effects on Ecosystems, W. Gao, D. L. Schmoldt, and J. R. Slusser, eds. (Springer-Verlag and Tsinghua University, 2010).

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. Drüke, P. Kiedron, K. Lantz, R. L. McKenzie, and S. Riechelmann, “Part 4: Array Spectroradiometers,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2010).

Bilbao, J.

R. Román, M. Antón, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blumthaler, M.

D. Pissulla, G. Seckmeyer, R. R. Cordero, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Smedley, A. F. Bais, N. Kouremeti, A. Cede, J. Herman, and M. Kowalewski, “Comparison of atmospheric spectral radiance measurements from four independently calibrated systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 516–527 (2009).

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, B. Schallhart, and J. Lenoble, “Effect of inhomogeneous surface albedo on diffuse UV sky radiance at a high-altitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, J. Groebner, M. Huber, and W. Ambach, “Measuring spectral and spatial variations of UVA and UVB sky radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 23, 547–550 (1996).

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. Drüke, P. Kiedron, K. Lantz, R. L. McKenzie, and S. Riechelmann, “Part 4: Array Spectroradiometers,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2010).

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

Booth, C. R.

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, J. C. Ehramjian, R. Stone, and E. G. Dutton, “Ultraviolet and visible radiation at Barrow, Alaska: climatology and influencing factors on the basis of version 2 National Science Foundation network data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, J. C. Ehramjian, and S. E. Nichol, “UV climatology at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, based on version 2 data of the National Science Foundation’s Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, and J. C. Ehramjian, “UV climatology at Palmer Station, Antarctica,” Proc. SPIE 5886, 588607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, and J. C. Ehramjian, “Version 2 data of the National Science Foundation’s Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Network: South Pole,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D21207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, and J. C. Ehramjian, “Climatology of ultraviolet radiation at high latitudes derived from measurements of the National Science Foundation’s Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitoring Network,” in UV Radiation in Global Climate Change: Measurements, Modeling and Effects on Ecosystems, W. Gao, D. L. Schmoldt, and J. R. Slusser, eds. (Springer-Verlag and Tsinghua University, 2010).

Brandt, R. E.

R. E. Brandt, S. G. Warren, A. P. Worby, and T. C. Grenfell, “Surface albedo of the Antarctic sea ice zone,” J. Clim. 18, 3606–3622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cazorla, A.

R. Román, M. Antón, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cede, A.

D. Pissulla, G. Seckmeyer, R. R. Cordero, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Smedley, A. F. Bais, N. Kouremeti, A. Cede, J. Herman, and M. Kowalewski, “Comparison of atmospheric spectral radiance measurements from four independently calibrated systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 516–527 (2009).

Cordero, R. R.

R. R. Cordero, A. Damiani, L. Da Silva, D. Laroze, and F. Labbe, “Spectral UV radiance measured at a coastal site: a case study,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12, 1193–1201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Pissulla, G. Seckmeyer, R. R. Cordero, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Smedley, A. F. Bais, N. Kouremeti, A. Cede, J. Herman, and M. Kowalewski, “Comparison of atmospheric spectral radiance measurements from four independently calibrated systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 516–527 (2009).

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty of experimental integrals: application to the UV index calculation,” Metrologia 45, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of the spectral UV irradiance evaluated by using the UVSPEC radiative transfer model,” Opt. Commun. 276, 44–53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, A. Damiani, G. Seckmeyer, S. Riechelmann, D. Laroze, F. Garate, and F. Labbe, “Satellite-derived UV climatology at Escudero Station (Antarctic Peninsula),” Antarct. Sci., 1–13 (2013) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L.

R. R. Cordero, A. Damiani, L. Da Silva, D. Laroze, and F. Labbe, “Spectral UV radiance measured at a coastal site: a case study,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12, 1193–1201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dahlback, A.

A. Dahlback and K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Damiani, A.

R. R. Cordero, A. Damiani, L. Da Silva, D. Laroze, and F. Labbe, “Spectral UV radiance measured at a coastal site: a case study,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12, 1193–1201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, A. Damiani, G. Seckmeyer, S. Riechelmann, D. Laroze, F. Garate, and F. Labbe, “Satellite-derived UV climatology at Escudero Station (Antarctic Peninsula),” Antarct. Sci., 1–13 (2013) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

DaSilva, L.

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of the spectral UV irradiance evaluated by using the UVSPEC radiative transfer model,” Opt. Commun. 276, 44–53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Miguel, A.

R. Román, M. Antón, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Disterhoft, P.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

Drüke, S.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. Drüke, P. Kiedron, K. Lantz, R. L. McKenzie, and S. Riechelmann, “Part 4: Array Spectroradiometers,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2010).

Dutton, E. G.

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, J. C. Ehramjian, R. Stone, and E. G. Dutton, “Ultraviolet and visible radiation at Barrow, Alaska: climatology and influencing factors on the basis of version 2 National Science Foundation network data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ehramjian, J. C.

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, J. C. Ehramjian, R. Stone, and E. G. Dutton, “Ultraviolet and visible radiation at Barrow, Alaska: climatology and influencing factors on the basis of version 2 National Science Foundation network data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, J. C. Ehramjian, and S. E. Nichol, “UV climatology at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, based on version 2 data of the National Science Foundation’s Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, and J. C. Ehramjian, “UV climatology at Palmer Station, Antarctica,” Proc. SPIE 5886, 588607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, and J. C. Ehramjian, “Version 2 data of the National Science Foundation’s Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Network: South Pole,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D21207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, and J. C. Ehramjian, “Climatology of ultraviolet radiation at high latitudes derived from measurements of the National Science Foundation’s Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitoring Network,” in UV Radiation in Global Climate Change: Measurements, Modeling and Effects on Ecosystems, W. Gao, D. L. Schmoldt, and J. R. Slusser, eds. (Springer-Verlag and Tsinghua University, 2010).

Eriksen, P.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

Gao, W.

R. H. Grant, G. M. Heisler, and W. Gao, “Ultraviolet sky radiance distributions of translucent overcast skies,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 58, 129–139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Grant, G. M. Heisler, and W. Gao, “Clear sky radiance distributions in ultraviolet wavelength bands,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 56, 123–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Garate, F.

R. R. Cordero, A. Damiani, G. Seckmeyer, S. Riechelmann, D. Laroze, F. Garate, and F. Labbe, “Satellite-derived UV climatology at Escudero Station (Antarctic Peninsula),” Antarct. Sci., 1–13 (2013) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Grant, R. H.

R. H. Grant and G. M. Heisler, “Obscured overcast sky radiance distributions for ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 36, 1336–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Grant, G. M. Heisler, and W. Gao, “Clear sky radiance distributions in ultraviolet wavelength bands,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 56, 123–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Grant, G. M. Heisler, and W. Gao, “Ultraviolet sky radiance distributions of translucent overcast skies,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 58, 129–139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grenfell, T. C.

R. E. Brandt, S. G. Warren, A. P. Worby, and T. C. Grenfell, “Surface albedo of the Antarctic sea ice zone,” J. Clim. 18, 3606–3622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell and D. K. Perovich, “Seasonal and spatial evolution of albedo in a snow-ice-land-ocean environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C1), C01001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell, S. G. Warren, and P. C. Mullen, “Reflection of solar radiation by the Antarctic snow surface at ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 18669–18684 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Groebner, J.

M. Blumthaler, J. Groebner, M. Huber, and W. Ambach, “Measuring spectral and spatial variations of UVA and UVB sky radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 23, 547–550 (1996).

Gueymard, C. A.

C. A. Gueymard, “The Sun’s total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models,” Sol. Energy 76, 423–453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hautecoeur, O.

O. Meinander, S. Kazadzis, A. Arola, R. Kivi, A. Kontu, H. Suokanerva, V. Aaltonen, T. Manninen, J. L. Roujean, and O. Hautecoeur, “Spectral albedo of arctic snow during intensive melt period,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 10, 27075–27098 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heikkilä, A.

O. Meinander, A. Kontu, K. Lakkala, A. Heikkilä, L. Ylianttila, and M. Toikka, “Diurnal variations in the UV albedo of arctic snow,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6551–6563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heisler, G. M.

R. H. Grant, G. M. Heisler, and W. Gao, “Clear sky radiance distributions in ultraviolet wavelength bands,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 56, 123–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Grant and G. M. Heisler, “Obscured overcast sky radiance distributions for ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 36, 1336–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Grant, G. M. Heisler, and W. Gao, “Ultraviolet sky radiance distributions of translucent overcast skies,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 58, 129–139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J.

D. Pissulla, G. Seckmeyer, R. R. Cordero, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Smedley, A. F. Bais, N. Kouremeti, A. Cede, J. Herman, and M. Kowalewski, “Comparison of atmospheric spectral radiance measurements from four independently calibrated systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 516–527 (2009).

Huber, M.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, B. Schallhart, and J. Lenoble, “Effect of inhomogeneous surface albedo on diffuse UV sky radiance at a high-altitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, J. Groebner, M. Huber, and W. Ambach, “Measuring spectral and spatial variations of UVA and UVB sky radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 23, 547–550 (1996).

Jayaweera, K.

Johnston, P. V.

R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, and G. Seckmeyer, “UV spectro-radiometry in the network for the detection of stratospheric change (NDSC),” in Solar Ultraviolet Radiation. Modelling, Measurements and Effects, C. S. Zerefos and A. F. Bais, eds. NATO ASI Series (Springer-Verlag, 1997), pp. 279–287.

Kazadzis, S.

O. Meinander, S. Kazadzis, A. Arola, R. Kivi, A. Kontu, H. Suokanerva, V. Aaltonen, T. Manninen, J. L. Roujean, and O. Hautecoeur, “Spectral albedo of arctic snow during intensive melt period,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 10, 27075–27098 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kiedron, P.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. Drüke, P. Kiedron, K. Lantz, R. L. McKenzie, and S. Riechelmann, “Part 4: Array Spectroradiometers,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2010).

Kift, R.

D. Pissulla, G. Seckmeyer, R. R. Cordero, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Smedley, A. F. Bais, N. Kouremeti, A. Cede, J. Herman, and M. Kowalewski, “Comparison of atmospheric spectral radiance measurements from four independently calibrated systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 516–527 (2009).

Kivi, R.

O. Meinander, S. Kazadzis, A. Arola, R. Kivi, A. Kontu, H. Suokanerva, V. Aaltonen, T. Manninen, J. L. Roujean, and O. Hautecoeur, “Spectral albedo of arctic snow during intensive melt period,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 10, 27075–27098 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koenig-Langlo, G.

S. Wuttke, G. Seckmeyer, and G. Koenig-Langlo, “Measurements of spectral snow albedo at Neumayer, Antarctica,” Ann. Geophys. 24, 7–21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

König-Langlo, G.

R. Weller, A. Minikin, A. Petzold, D. Wagenbach, and G. König-Langlo, “Characterization of long-term and seasonal variations of black carbon (BC) concentrations at Neumayer, Antarctica,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1579–1590 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kontu, A.

O. Meinander, S. Kazadzis, A. Arola, R. Kivi, A. Kontu, H. Suokanerva, V. Aaltonen, T. Manninen, J. L. Roujean, and O. Hautecoeur, “Spectral albedo of arctic snow during intensive melt period,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 10, 27075–27098 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Meinander, A. Kontu, K. Lakkala, A. Heikkilä, L. Ylianttila, and M. Toikka, “Diurnal variations in the UV albedo of arctic snow,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6551–6563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kouremeti, N.

D. Pissulla, G. Seckmeyer, R. R. Cordero, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Smedley, A. F. Bais, N. Kouremeti, A. Cede, J. Herman, and M. Kowalewski, “Comparison of atmospheric spectral radiance measurements from four independently calibrated systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 516–527 (2009).

Kowalewski, M.

D. Pissulla, G. Seckmeyer, R. R. Cordero, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Smedley, A. F. Bais, N. Kouremeti, A. Cede, J. Herman, and M. Kowalewski, “Comparison of atmospheric spectral radiance measurements from four independently calibrated systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 516–527 (2009).

Kylling, A.

B. Mayer and A. Kylling, “Technical note: the libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations—description and examples of use,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1855–1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Labbe, F.

R. R. Cordero, A. Damiani, L. Da Silva, D. Laroze, and F. Labbe, “Spectral UV radiance measured at a coastal site: a case study,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12, 1193–1201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty of experimental integrals: application to the UV index calculation,” Metrologia 45, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of the spectral UV irradiance evaluated by using the UVSPEC radiative transfer model,” Opt. Commun. 276, 44–53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, A. Damiani, G. Seckmeyer, S. Riechelmann, D. Laroze, F. Garate, and F. Labbe, “Satellite-derived UV climatology at Escudero Station (Antarctic Peninsula),” Antarct. Sci., 1–13 (2013) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Lakkala, K.

O. Meinander, A. Kontu, K. Lakkala, A. Heikkilä, L. Ylianttila, and M. Toikka, “Diurnal variations in the UV albedo of arctic snow,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6551–6563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lantz, K.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. Drüke, P. Kiedron, K. Lantz, R. L. McKenzie, and S. Riechelmann, “Part 4: Array Spectroradiometers,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2010).

Laroze, D.

R. R. Cordero, A. Damiani, L. Da Silva, D. Laroze, and F. Labbe, “Spectral UV radiance measured at a coastal site: a case study,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12, 1193–1201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, A. Damiani, G. Seckmeyer, S. Riechelmann, D. Laroze, F. Garate, and F. Labbe, “Satellite-derived UV climatology at Escudero Station (Antarctic Peninsula),” Antarct. Sci., 1–13 (2013) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, J.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, B. Schallhart, and J. Lenoble, “Effect of inhomogeneous surface albedo on diffuse UV sky radiance at a high-altitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manninen, T.

O. Meinander, S. Kazadzis, A. Arola, R. Kivi, A. Kontu, H. Suokanerva, V. Aaltonen, T. Manninen, J. L. Roujean, and O. Hautecoeur, “Spectral albedo of arctic snow during intensive melt period,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 10, 27075–27098 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, B.

B. Mayer and A. Kylling, “Technical note: the libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations—description and examples of use,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1855–1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, R. L.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. Drüke, P. Kiedron, K. Lantz, R. L. McKenzie, and S. Riechelmann, “Part 4: Array Spectroradiometers,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2010).

R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, and G. Seckmeyer, “UV spectro-radiometry in the network for the detection of stratospheric change (NDSC),” in Solar Ultraviolet Radiation. Modelling, Measurements and Effects, C. S. Zerefos and A. F. Bais, eds. NATO ASI Series (Springer-Verlag, 1997), pp. 279–287.

Meinander, O.

O. Meinander, S. Kazadzis, A. Arola, R. Kivi, A. Kontu, H. Suokanerva, V. Aaltonen, T. Manninen, J. L. Roujean, and O. Hautecoeur, “Spectral albedo of arctic snow during intensive melt period,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 10, 27075–27098 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Meinander, A. Kontu, K. Lakkala, A. Heikkilä, L. Ylianttila, and M. Toikka, “Diurnal variations in the UV albedo of arctic snow,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6551–6563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Minikin, A.

R. Weller, A. Minikin, A. Petzold, D. Wagenbach, and G. König-Langlo, “Characterization of long-term and seasonal variations of black carbon (BC) concentrations at Neumayer, Antarctica,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1579–1590 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Miyauchi, M.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

Mullen, P. C.

T. C. Grenfell, S. G. Warren, and P. C. Mullen, “Reflection of solar radiation by the Antarctic snow surface at ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 18669–18684 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nichol, S. E.

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, J. C. Ehramjian, and S. E. Nichol, “UV climatology at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, based on version 2 data of the National Science Foundation’s Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olmo, F. J.

R. Román, M. Antón, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Perovich, D. K.

T. C. Grenfell and D. K. Perovich, “Seasonal and spatial evolution of albedo in a snow-ice-land-ocean environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C1), C01001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, A.

R. Weller, A. Minikin, A. Petzold, D. Wagenbach, and G. König-Langlo, “Characterization of long-term and seasonal variations of black carbon (BC) concentrations at Neumayer, Antarctica,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1579–1590 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pissulla, D.

D. Pissulla, G. Seckmeyer, R. R. Cordero, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Smedley, A. F. Bais, N. Kouremeti, A. Cede, J. Herman, and M. Kowalewski, “Comparison of atmospheric spectral radiance measurements from four independently calibrated systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 516–527 (2009).

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty of experimental integrals: application to the UV index calculation,” Metrologia 45, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of the spectral UV irradiance evaluated by using the UVSPEC radiative transfer model,” Opt. Commun. 276, 44–53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proctor, S.

A. Rivera, R. Zamora, C. Rada, J. Walton, and S. Proctor, “Glaciological investigations on Union Glacier, Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica,” Ann. Glaciol. 51, 91–96 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rada, C.

A. Rivera, R. Zamora, C. Rada, J. Walton, and S. Proctor, “Glaciological investigations on Union Glacier, Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica,” Ann. Glaciol. 51, 91–96 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Riechelmann, S.

R. R. Cordero, A. Damiani, G. Seckmeyer, S. Riechelmann, D. Laroze, F. Garate, and F. Labbe, “Satellite-derived UV climatology at Escudero Station (Antarctic Peninsula),” Antarct. Sci., 1–13 (2013) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. Drüke, P. Kiedron, K. Lantz, R. L. McKenzie, and S. Riechelmann, “Part 4: Array Spectroradiometers,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2010).

Rivera, A.

A. Rivera, R. Zamora, C. Rada, J. Walton, and S. Proctor, “Glaciological investigations on Union Glacier, Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica,” Ann. Glaciol. 51, 91–96 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Román, R.

R. Román, M. Antón, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roujean, J. L.

O. Meinander, S. Kazadzis, A. Arola, R. Kivi, A. Kontu, H. Suokanerva, V. Aaltonen, T. Manninen, J. L. Roujean, and O. Hautecoeur, “Spectral albedo of arctic snow during intensive melt period,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 10, 27075–27098 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roy, C.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

Schallhart, B.

D. Pissulla, G. Seckmeyer, R. R. Cordero, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Smedley, A. F. Bais, N. Kouremeti, A. Cede, J. Herman, and M. Kowalewski, “Comparison of atmospheric spectral radiance measurements from four independently calibrated systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 516–527 (2009).

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, B. Schallhart, and J. Lenoble, “Effect of inhomogeneous surface albedo on diffuse UV sky radiance at a high-altitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schreder, J.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, B. Schallhart, and J. Lenoble, “Effect of inhomogeneous surface albedo on diffuse UV sky radiance at a high-altitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seckmeyer, G.

D. Pissulla, G. Seckmeyer, R. R. Cordero, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Smedley, A. F. Bais, N. Kouremeti, A. Cede, J. Herman, and M. Kowalewski, “Comparison of atmospheric spectral radiance measurements from four independently calibrated systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 516–527 (2009).

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty of experimental integrals: application to the UV index calculation,” Metrologia 45, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of the spectral UV irradiance evaluated by using the UVSPEC radiative transfer model,” Opt. Commun. 276, 44–53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wuttke and G. Seckmeyer, “Spectral radiance and sky luminance in Antarctica: a case study,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 85, 131–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Wuttke, G. Seckmeyer, and G. Koenig-Langlo, “Measurements of spectral snow albedo at Neumayer, Antarctica,” Ann. Geophys. 24, 7–21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

R. R. Cordero, A. Damiani, G. Seckmeyer, S. Riechelmann, D. Laroze, F. Garate, and F. Labbe, “Satellite-derived UV climatology at Escudero Station (Antarctic Peninsula),” Antarct. Sci., 1–13 (2013) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. Drüke, P. Kiedron, K. Lantz, R. L. McKenzie, and S. Riechelmann, “Part 4: Array Spectroradiometers,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2010).

R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, and G. Seckmeyer, “UV spectro-radiometry in the network for the detection of stratospheric change (NDSC),” in Solar Ultraviolet Radiation. Modelling, Measurements and Effects, C. S. Zerefos and A. F. Bais, eds. NATO ASI Series (Springer-Verlag, 1997), pp. 279–287.

Smedley, A.

D. Pissulla, G. Seckmeyer, R. R. Cordero, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Smedley, A. F. Bais, N. Kouremeti, A. Cede, J. Herman, and M. Kowalewski, “Comparison of atmospheric spectral radiance measurements from four independently calibrated systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 516–527 (2009).

Stamnes, K.

A. Dahlback and K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, S. C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stone, R.

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, J. C. Ehramjian, R. Stone, and E. G. Dutton, “Ultraviolet and visible radiation at Barrow, Alaska: climatology and influencing factors on the basis of version 2 National Science Foundation network data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suokanerva, H.

O. Meinander, S. Kazadzis, A. Arola, R. Kivi, A. Kontu, H. Suokanerva, V. Aaltonen, T. Manninen, J. L. Roujean, and O. Hautecoeur, “Spectral albedo of arctic snow during intensive melt period,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 10, 27075–27098 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toikka, M.

O. Meinander, A. Kontu, K. Lakkala, A. Heikkilä, L. Ylianttila, and M. Toikka, “Diurnal variations in the UV albedo of arctic snow,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6551–6563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S. C.

Wagenbach, D.

R. Weller, A. Minikin, A. Petzold, D. Wagenbach, and G. König-Langlo, “Characterization of long-term and seasonal variations of black carbon (BC) concentrations at Neumayer, Antarctica,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1579–1590 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Walton, J.

A. Rivera, R. Zamora, C. Rada, J. Walton, and S. Proctor, “Glaciological investigations on Union Glacier, Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica,” Ann. Glaciol. 51, 91–96 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Warren, S. G.

R. E. Brandt, S. G. Warren, A. P. Worby, and T. C. Grenfell, “Surface albedo of the Antarctic sea ice zone,” J. Clim. 18, 3606–3622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell, S. G. Warren, and P. C. Mullen, “Reflection of solar radiation by the Antarctic snow surface at ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 18669–18684 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Webb, A.

D. Pissulla, G. Seckmeyer, R. R. Cordero, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Smedley, A. F. Bais, N. Kouremeti, A. Cede, J. Herman, and M. Kowalewski, “Comparison of atmospheric spectral radiance measurements from four independently calibrated systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 516–527 (2009).

Weller, R.

R. Weller, A. Minikin, A. Petzold, D. Wagenbach, and G. König-Langlo, “Characterization of long-term and seasonal variations of black carbon (BC) concentrations at Neumayer, Antarctica,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1579–1590 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wiscombe, W.

Worby, A. P.

R. E. Brandt, S. G. Warren, A. P. Worby, and T. C. Grenfell, “Surface albedo of the Antarctic sea ice zone,” J. Clim. 18, 3606–3622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wuttke, S.

S. Wuttke and G. Seckmeyer, “Spectral radiance and sky luminance in Antarctica: a case study,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 85, 131–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Wuttke, G. Seckmeyer, and G. Koenig-Langlo, “Measurements of spectral snow albedo at Neumayer, Antarctica,” Ann. Geophys. 24, 7–21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Wuttke, “Radiation conditions in an Antarctic environment,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Hannover, 2004).

Ylianttila, L.

O. Meinander, A. Kontu, K. Lakkala, A. Heikkilä, L. Ylianttila, and M. Toikka, “Diurnal variations in the UV albedo of arctic snow,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6551–6563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zamora, R.

A. Rivera, R. Zamora, C. Rada, J. Walton, and S. Proctor, “Glaciological investigations on Union Glacier, Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica,” Ann. Glaciol. 51, 91–96 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys.

S. Wuttke, G. Seckmeyer, and G. Koenig-Langlo, “Measurements of spectral snow albedo at Neumayer, Antarctica,” Ann. Geophys. 24, 7–21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Glaciol.

A. Rivera, R. Zamora, C. Rada, J. Walton, and S. Proctor, “Glaciological investigations on Union Glacier, Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica,” Ann. Glaciol. 51, 91–96 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Chem. Phys.

B. Mayer and A. Kylling, “Technical note: the libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations—description and examples of use,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1855–1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Weller, A. Minikin, A. Petzold, D. Wagenbach, and G. König-Langlo, “Characterization of long-term and seasonal variations of black carbon (BC) concentrations at Neumayer, Antarctica,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 1579–1590 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Meinander, A. Kontu, K. Lakkala, A. Heikkilä, L. Ylianttila, and M. Toikka, “Diurnal variations in the UV albedo of arctic snow,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6551–6563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss

O. Meinander, S. Kazadzis, A. Arola, R. Kivi, A. Kontu, H. Suokanerva, V. Aaltonen, T. Manninen, J. L. Roujean, and O. Hautecoeur, “Spectral albedo of arctic snow during intensive melt period,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 10, 27075–27098 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Meas. Tech.

R. Román, M. Antón, A. Cazorla, A. de Miguel, F. J. Olmo, J. Bilbao, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 2013–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

R. H. Grant and G. M. Heisler, “Obscured overcast sky radiance distributions for ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 36, 1336–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim.

R. E. Brandt, S. G. Warren, A. P. Worby, and T. C. Grenfell, “Surface albedo of the Antarctic sea ice zone,” J. Clim. 18, 3606–3622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

T. C. Grenfell, S. G. Warren, and P. C. Mullen, “Reflection of solar radiation by the Antarctic snow surface at ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 18669–18684 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell and D. K. Perovich, “Seasonal and spatial evolution of albedo in a snow-ice-land-ocean environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C1), C01001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, J. Groebner, M. Huber, and W. Ambach, “Measuring spectral and spatial variations of UVA and UVB sky radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 23, 547–550 (1996).

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, B. Schallhart, and J. Lenoble, “Effect of inhomogeneous surface albedo on diffuse UV sky radiance at a high-altitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, and J. C. Ehramjian, “Version 2 data of the National Science Foundation’s Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Network: South Pole,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D21207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, J. C. Ehramjian, and S. E. Nichol, “UV climatology at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, based on version 2 data of the National Science Foundation’s Ultraviolet Radiation Monitoring Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, J. C. Ehramjian, R. Stone, and E. G. Dutton, “Ultraviolet and visible radiation at Barrow, Alaska: climatology and influencing factors on the basis of version 2 National Science Foundation network data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of spectral UV irradiance measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 045104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty of experimental integrals: application to the UV index calculation,” Metrologia 45, 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

R. R. Cordero, G. Seckmeyer, D. Pissulla, L. DaSilva, and F. Labbe, “Uncertainty evaluation of the spectral UV irradiance evaluated by using the UVSPEC radiative transfer model,” Opt. Commun. 276, 44–53 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.

D. Pissulla, G. Seckmeyer, R. R. Cordero, M. Blumthaler, B. Schallhart, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Smedley, A. F. Bais, N. Kouremeti, A. Cede, J. Herman, and M. Kowalewski, “Comparison of atmospheric spectral radiance measurements from four independently calibrated systems,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 516–527 (2009).

R. R. Cordero, A. Damiani, L. Da Silva, D. Laroze, and F. Labbe, “Spectral UV radiance measured at a coastal site: a case study,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12, 1193–1201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Planet Space Sci.

A. Dahlback and K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet Space Sci. 39, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, and J. C. Ehramjian, “UV climatology at Palmer Station, Antarctica,” Proc. SPIE 5886, 588607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy

C. A. Gueymard, “The Sun’s total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models,” Sol. Energy 76, 423–453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Theor. Appl. Climatol.

S. Wuttke and G. Seckmeyer, “Spectral radiance and sky luminance in Antarctica: a case study,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 85, 131–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Grant, G. M. Heisler, and W. Gao, “Clear sky radiance distributions in ultraviolet wavelength bands,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 56, 123–135 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Grant, G. M. Heisler, and W. Gao, “Ultraviolet sky radiance distributions of translucent overcast skies,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 58, 129–139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Wuttke, “Radiation conditions in an Antarctic environment,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Hannover, 2004).

P. J. Ricchiazzi, A. Payton, and C. Gautier, eds., “The effect of surface albedo heterogeneity on sky radiance,” in Tenth ARM Science Team Meeting Proceedings (San Antonio, 2000).

R. R. Cordero, A. Damiani, G. Seckmeyer, S. Riechelmann, D. Laroze, F. Garate, and F. Labbe, “Satellite-derived UV climatology at Escudero Station (Antarctic Peninsula),” Antarct. Sci., 1–13 (2013) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth, and J. C. Ehramjian, “Climatology of ultraviolet radiation at high latitudes derived from measurements of the National Science Foundation’s Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitoring Network,” in UV Radiation in Global Climate Change: Measurements, Modeling and Effects on Ecosystems, W. Gao, D. L. Schmoldt, and J. R. Slusser, eds. (Springer-Verlag and Tsinghua University, 2010).

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. Drüke, P. Kiedron, K. Lantz, R. L. McKenzie, and S. Riechelmann, “Part 4: Array Spectroradiometers,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2010).

R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, and G. Seckmeyer, “UV spectro-radiometry in the network for the detection of stratospheric change (NDSC),” in Solar Ultraviolet Radiation. Modelling, Measurements and Effects, C. S. Zerefos and A. F. Bais, eds. NATO ASI Series (Springer-Verlag, 1997), pp. 279–287.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, and C. Roy, “Part 1: Spectral Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Angular distribution of the downwelling radiance (over the upper half-hemisphere) measured at Union Glacier Camp on 15 December 2012 (cloudless conditions). Circles indicate the measuring points. Upper panels: radiance at 320 nm; (a) 11:00 a.m. local time (SZA=60°); (b) 12:00 p.m. local time (SZA=58°); and (c) 1:00 p.m. local time (SZA=57°). Lower panels: radiance at 440 nm; (d) 10:50 a.m. local time (SZA=60°); (e) 11:30 a.m. local time (SZA=59°); and (f) 12:10 p.m. local time (SZA=58°).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured (solid lines) and computed (dashed lines) radiance distribution (on the plane “West-Zenith-East”) at Union Glacier Camp on 15 December 2012 (cloudless conditions). Upper panels: radiance at 320 nm; (a) 11:00 a.m. local time (SZA=60°), (b) 12:00 p.m. local time (SZA=58°), and (c) 1:00 p.m. local time (SZA=57°). Lower panels: radiance at 440 nm, (d) 10:50 a.m. local time (SZA=60°), (e) 11:30 a.m. local time (SZA=59°), and (f) 12:10 p.m. local time (SZA=58°).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison between radiances measured at Union Glacier Camp on 15 December 2012 and computed by using the UVSPEC model (input data: ozone=306DU; albedo=0.95; altitude=700m). Upper panels: zenith radiances; (a) 320 nm, (b) 360 nm, and (c) 440 nm. Lower panels: radiances measured at the horizon (East); (d) 320 nm, (e) 360 nm, and (f) 440 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurements around noon at Union Glacier Camp on 16 December 2012 (cloudless conditions). (a) Downwelling radiance at 320 nm (over the upper half-hemisphere). (b) Upwelling radiance at 320 nm (over the lower half-hemisphere). (c) Upwelling and downwelling radiance at 320 nm (on the plane “West-Zenith-East-Nadir”).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Upper panels: downwelling radiance distribution along the azimuth ϕ measured around noon at different zenith angles θ at (a) 320 nm; (b) 360 nm; and (c) 440 nm. Lower panels: upwelling radiance distribution along the azimuth ϕ, measured around noon at different nadir angles θ at (d) 320 nm; (e) 360 nm; and (f) 440 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Radiance distribution computed by using the UVSPEC model (input data: ozone=306DU; altitude=700m; SZA=57°), assuming different albedo levels.

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