Abstract

A multilayer structure consisting of alternate layers of W and B4C has been deposited using a magnetron sputtering system. The structure of the as-deposited and vacuum-annealed W/B4C multilayer sample has been characterized using grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence diffraction, and the normal incidence reflectivity has been measured using synchrotron radiation. A two-layer model consisting of tungsten and boron carbide is presented. The multilayer structure was found to be stable after 800°C annealing. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements suggested that W is polycrystalline with small grain size. No signature of tungsten carbide or tungsten boride formation could be observed during the annealing treatments. A near normal incidence soft x-ray reflectivity (SXRR) of 8.3% was obtained at 6.8 nm wavelength. A little drop (1%) in SXRR after 800°C annealing suggested that there were no compositional changes within the layers during the annealing treatments.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

P. N. Rao, M. H. Modi, S. K. Rai, V. G. Sathe, S. K. Deb, and G. S. Lodha, “Thermal stability studies of ion beam sputter deposited C/B4C x-ray multilayer mirror,” Thin Solid Films 527, 244–249 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

M. Barthelmess and S. Bajt, “Thermal and stress studies of normal incidence Mo/B4C multilayers for a 6.7 nm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1610–1619 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Platonov, J. Rodriguez, M. Kriese, E. Gullikson, T. Harada, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Multilayers for next generation EUVL at 6.X nm,” Proc. SPIE 8076, 80760N (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

S. S. Andreev, M. M. Barsheva, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkonikov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. A. Vainer, and S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayered mirrors based on La/B4C(B9C) for X-ray range near anomalous dispersion of boron (λ=6.7 nm),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 603, 80–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsarfati, R. W. E. Van de kruijs, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Reflective multilayer optics for 6.7 nm wavelength radiation sources and next generation lithography,” Thin Solid Films 518, 1365–1368 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. Sawheny, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 17, 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

D. G. Stearns and R. S. Rosen, “Normal-incidence x-ray mirror for 7 nm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1283–1284 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski and D. M. Makowiecki, “W/B4C multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 30, 2003–2009 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski and P. L. Perry, “Characterization of Mo/B4C multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 365–368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, and M. A. Wall, “Structural stability of heat-treated W/C and W/B4C multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5162–5168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, I. K. Schuller, and E. Spiller, “Stability of multilayers for synchrotron optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1354–1356 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Characterization of surfaces by grazing incidence X-ray reflection application to the study of polishing some silicate glasses,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, S. S.

S. S. Andreev, M. M. Barsheva, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkonikov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. A. Vainer, and S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayered mirrors based on La/B4C(B9C) for X-ray range near anomalous dispersion of boron (λ=6.7 nm),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 603, 80–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bajt, S.

Barsheva, M. M.

S. S. Andreev, M. M. Barsheva, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkonikov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. A. Vainer, and S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayered mirrors based on La/B4C(B9C) for X-ray range near anomalous dispersion of boron (λ=6.7 nm),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 603, 80–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barthelmess, M.

Bijkerk, F.

Borman, R.

Bruijn, S.

Burian, T.

Chaker, M.

Chitu, L.

P. Siffalovic, M. Jergel, L. Chitu, E. Majkova, I. Matko, S. Luby, A. Timmann, S. V. Roth, J. Keckes, G. A. Maier, A. Hembd, F. Hertlein, and J. Wiesmann, “Interface study of a high-performance W/B4C X-ray mirror,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 1431–1439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chkhalo, N. I.

S. S. Andreev, M. M. Barsheva, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkonikov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. A. Vainer, and S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayered mirrors based on La/B4C(B9C) for X-ray range near anomalous dispersion of boron (λ=6.7 nm),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 603, 80–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cihelka, J.

Corso, A. J.

Croce, P.

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Characterization of surfaces by grazing incidence X-ray reflection application to the study of polishing some silicate glasses,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deb, S. K.

P. N. Rao, M. H. Modi, S. K. Rai, V. G. Sathe, S. K. Deb, and G. S. Lodha, “Thermal stability studies of ion beam sputter deposited C/B4C x-ray multilayer mirror,” Thin Solid Films 527, 244–249 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dieker, C.

Falco, C. M.

Gleeson, A.

Gullikson, E.

Y. Platonov, J. Rodriguez, M. Kriese, E. Gullikson, T. Harada, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Multilayers for next generation EUVL at 6.X nm,” Proc. SPIE 8076, 80760N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

Gusev, S. A.

S. S. Andreev, M. M. Barsheva, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkonikov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. A. Vainer, and S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayered mirrors based on La/B4C(B9C) for X-ray range near anomalous dispersion of boron (λ=6.7 nm),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 603, 80–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hajkova, V.

Harada, T.

Y. Platonov, J. Rodriguez, M. Kriese, E. Gullikson, T. Harada, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Multilayers for next generation EUVL at 6.X nm,” Proc. SPIE 8076, 80760N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hau-Riege, S.

Hembd, A.

P. Siffalovic, M. Jergel, L. Chitu, E. Majkova, I. Matko, S. Luby, A. Timmann, S. V. Roth, J. Keckes, G. A. Maier, A. Hembd, F. Hertlein, and J. Wiesmann, “Interface study of a high-performance W/B4C X-ray mirror,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 1431–1439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hertlein, F.

P. Siffalovic, M. Jergel, L. Chitu, E. Majkova, I. Matko, S. Luby, A. Timmann, S. V. Roth, J. Keckes, G. A. Maier, A. Hembd, F. Hertlein, and J. Wiesmann, “Interface study of a high-performance W/B4C X-ray mirror,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 1431–1439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hollensteiner, S.

Idir, M.

Jäger, W.

Jankowski, A. F.

A. F. Jankowski and D. M. Makowiecki, “W/B4C multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 30, 2003–2009 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski and P. L. Perry, “Characterization of Mo/B4C multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 365–368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, and M. A. Wall, “Structural stability of heat-treated W/C and W/B4C multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5162–5168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jastrow, U.

Jergel, M.

P. Siffalovic, M. Jergel, L. Chitu, E. Majkova, I. Matko, S. Luby, A. Timmann, S. V. Roth, J. Keckes, G. A. Maier, A. Hembd, F. Hertlein, and J. Wiesmann, “Interface study of a high-performance W/B4C X-ray mirror,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 1431–1439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Juha, L.

Jurek, M.

Kearney, P. A.

Keckes, J.

P. Siffalovic, M. Jergel, L. Chitu, E. Majkova, I. Matko, S. Luby, A. Timmann, S. V. Roth, J. Keckes, G. A. Maier, A. Hembd, F. Hertlein, and J. Wiesmann, “Interface study of a high-performance W/B4C X-ray mirror,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 1431–1439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khorsand, A. R.

Kinoshita, H.

Y. Platonov, J. Rodriguez, M. Kriese, E. Gullikson, T. Harada, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Multilayers for next generation EUVL at 6.X nm,” Proc. SPIE 8076, 80760N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Klinger, D.

Kriese, M.

Y. Platonov, J. Rodriguez, M. Kriese, E. Gullikson, T. Harada, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Multilayers for next generation EUVL at 6.X nm,” Proc. SPIE 8076, 80760N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krzywinski, J.

Lepetre, Y.

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, I. K. Schuller, and E. Spiller, “Stability of multilayers for synchrotron optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1354–1356 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lodha, G. S.

P. N. Rao, M. H. Modi, S. K. Rai, V. G. Sathe, S. K. Deb, and G. S. Lodha, “Thermal stability studies of ion beam sputter deposited C/B4C x-ray multilayer mirror,” Thin Solid Films 527, 244–249 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Rao, M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, S. K. Rai, A. K. Srivastava, M. H. Modi, and A. Sagdeo, “Fabrication and evaluation of large area Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors at indus SR facilities,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2012, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Modi, S. K. Rai, M. Idir, F. Schaefers, and G. S. Lodha, “NbC/Si multilayer mirror for next generation EUV light source,” Opt. Express 20, 15114–15120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. Sawheny, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 17, 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

London, R.

Louis, E.

Luby, S.

P. Siffalovic, M. Jergel, L. Chitu, E. Majkova, I. Matko, S. Luby, A. Timmann, S. V. Roth, J. Keckes, G. A. Maier, A. Hembd, F. Hertlein, and J. Wiesmann, “Interface study of a high-performance W/B4C X-ray mirror,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 1431–1439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maier, G. A.

P. Siffalovic, M. Jergel, L. Chitu, E. Majkova, I. Matko, S. Luby, A. Timmann, S. V. Roth, J. Keckes, G. A. Maier, A. Hembd, F. Hertlein, and J. Wiesmann, “Interface study of a high-performance W/B4C X-ray mirror,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 1431–1439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Majkova, E.

P. Siffalovic, M. Jergel, L. Chitu, E. Majkova, I. Matko, S. Luby, A. Timmann, S. V. Roth, J. Keckes, G. A. Maier, A. Hembd, F. Hertlein, and J. Wiesmann, “Interface study of a high-performance W/B4C X-ray mirror,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 1431–1439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Makowiecki, D. M.

A. F. Jankowski and D. M. Makowiecki, “W/B4C multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 30, 2003–2009 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matko, I.

P. Siffalovic, M. Jergel, L. Chitu, E. Majkova, I. Matko, S. Luby, A. Timmann, S. V. Roth, J. Keckes, G. A. Maier, A. Hembd, F. Hertlein, and J. Wiesmann, “Interface study of a high-performance W/B4C X-ray mirror,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 1431–1439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michaelsen, C. C.

Modi, M. H.

P. N. Rao, M. H. Modi, S. K. Rai, V. G. Sathe, S. K. Deb, and G. S. Lodha, “Thermal stability studies of ion beam sputter deposited C/B4C x-ray multilayer mirror,” Thin Solid Films 527, 244–249 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Modi, S. K. Rai, M. Idir, F. Schaefers, and G. S. Lodha, “NbC/Si multilayer mirror for next generation EUV light source,” Opt. Express 20, 15114–15120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Rao, M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, S. K. Rai, A. K. Srivastava, M. H. Modi, and A. Sagdeo, “Fabrication and evaluation of large area Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors at indus SR facilities,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2012, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. Sawheny, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 17, 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Montcalm, C.

Nandedkar, R. V.

G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. Sawheny, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 17, 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nayak, M.

P. N. Rao, M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, S. K. Rai, A. K. Srivastava, M. H. Modi, and A. Sagdeo, “Fabrication and evaluation of large area Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors at indus SR facilities,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2012, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nevot, L.

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Characterization of surfaces by grazing incidence X-ray reflection application to the study of polishing some silicate glasses,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nowak, C.

Parratt, L. G.

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Pelizzo, M. G.

Pelka, J. B.

Pepin, H.

Perry, P. L.

A. F. Jankowski and P. L. Perry, “Characterization of Mo/B4C multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 365–368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pestov, A. E.

S. S. Andreev, M. M. Barsheva, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkonikov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. A. Vainer, and S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayered mirrors based on La/B4C(B9C) for X-ray range near anomalous dispersion of boron (λ=6.7 nm),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 603, 80–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Platonov, Y.

Y. Platonov, J. Rodriguez, M. Kriese, E. Gullikson, T. Harada, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Multilayers for next generation EUVL at 6.X nm,” Proc. SPIE 8076, 80760N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Polkonikov, V. N.

S. S. Andreev, M. M. Barsheva, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkonikov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. A. Vainer, and S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayered mirrors based on La/B4C(B9C) for X-ray range near anomalous dispersion of boron (λ=6.7 nm),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 603, 80–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raghuvanshi, V. K.

G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. Sawheny, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 17, 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rai, S. K.

P. N. Rao, M. H. Modi, S. K. Rai, V. G. Sathe, S. K. Deb, and G. S. Lodha, “Thermal stability studies of ion beam sputter deposited C/B4C x-ray multilayer mirror,” Thin Solid Films 527, 244–249 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Modi, S. K. Rai, M. Idir, F. Schaefers, and G. S. Lodha, “NbC/Si multilayer mirror for next generation EUV light source,” Opt. Express 20, 15114–15120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Rao, M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, S. K. Rai, A. K. Srivastava, M. H. Modi, and A. Sagdeo, “Fabrication and evaluation of large area Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors at indus SR facilities,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2012, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rao, P. N.

P. N. Rao, M. H. Modi, S. K. Rai, V. G. Sathe, S. K. Deb, and G. S. Lodha, “Thermal stability studies of ion beam sputter deposited C/B4C x-ray multilayer mirror,” Thin Solid Films 527, 244–249 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Rao, M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, S. K. Rai, A. K. Srivastava, M. H. Modi, and A. Sagdeo, “Fabrication and evaluation of large area Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors at indus SR facilities,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2012, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, J.

Y. Platonov, J. Rodriguez, M. Kriese, E. Gullikson, T. Harada, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Multilayers for next generation EUVL at 6.X nm,” Proc. SPIE 8076, 80760N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R. S.

Roth, S. V.

P. Siffalovic, M. Jergel, L. Chitu, E. Majkova, I. Matko, S. Luby, A. Timmann, S. V. Roth, J. Keckes, G. A. Maier, A. Hembd, F. Hertlein, and J. Wiesmann, “Interface study of a high-performance W/B4C X-ray mirror,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 1431–1439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sagdeo, A.

P. N. Rao, M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, S. K. Rai, A. K. Srivastava, M. H. Modi, and A. Sagdeo, “Fabrication and evaluation of large area Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors at indus SR facilities,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2012, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Salashchenko, N. N.

S. S. Andreev, M. M. Barsheva, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkonikov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. A. Vainer, and S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayered mirrors based on La/B4C(B9C) for X-ray range near anomalous dispersion of boron (λ=6.7 nm),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 603, 80–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sathe, V. G.

P. N. Rao, M. H. Modi, S. K. Rai, V. G. Sathe, S. K. Deb, and G. S. Lodha, “Thermal stability studies of ion beam sputter deposited C/B4C x-ray multilayer mirror,” Thin Solid Films 527, 244–249 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sawheny, K. J.

G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. Sawheny, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 17, 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Schrawyer, L. R.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, and M. A. Wall, “Structural stability of heat-treated W/C and W/B4C multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5162–5168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, I. K. Schuller, and E. Spiller, “Stability of multilayers for synchrotron optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1354–1356 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shmaenok, L. A.

S. S. Andreev, M. M. Barsheva, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkonikov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. A. Vainer, and S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayered mirrors based on La/B4C(B9C) for X-ray range near anomalous dispersion of boron (λ=6.7 nm),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 603, 80–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shymanovich, U.

Siffalovic, P.

P. Siffalovic, M. Jergel, L. Chitu, E. Majkova, I. Matko, S. Luby, A. Timmann, S. V. Roth, J. Keckes, G. A. Maier, A. Hembd, F. Hertlein, and J. Wiesmann, “Interface study of a high-performance W/B4C X-ray mirror,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 1431–1439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slaughter, J. M.

Sobierajski, R.

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

Spiller, E.

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, I. K. Schuller, and E. Spiller, “Stability of multilayers for synchrotron optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1354–1356 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, Soft X-ray Optics (SPIE, 1994).

Srivastava, A. K.

P. N. Rao, M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, S. K. Rai, A. K. Srivastava, M. H. Modi, and A. Sagdeo, “Fabrication and evaluation of large area Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors at indus SR facilities,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2012, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

Stojanovic, N.

Sullivan, B. T.

Tiedtke, K.

Timmann, A.

P. Siffalovic, M. Jergel, L. Chitu, E. Majkova, I. Matko, S. Luby, A. Timmann, S. V. Roth, J. Keckes, G. A. Maier, A. Hembd, F. Hertlein, and J. Wiesmann, “Interface study of a high-performance W/B4C X-ray mirror,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 1431–1439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toleikis, S.

Tsarfati, T.

T. Tsarfati, R. W. E. Van de kruijs, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Reflective multilayer optics for 6.7 nm wavelength radiation sources and next generation lithography,” Thin Solid Films 518, 1365–1368 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vainer, Yu. A.

S. S. Andreev, M. M. Barsheva, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkonikov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. A. Vainer, and S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayered mirrors based on La/B4C(B9C) for X-ray range near anomalous dispersion of boron (λ=6.7 nm),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 603, 80–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van de kruijs, R. W. E.

T. Tsarfati, R. W. E. Van de kruijs, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Reflective multilayer optics for 6.7 nm wavelength radiation sources and next generation lithography,” Thin Solid Films 518, 1365–1368 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van de Krujis, R. W. E.

van Hauttum, E. D.

Vysin, L.

Wabnitz, H.

Wall, M. A.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, and M. A. Wall, “Structural stability of heat-treated W/C and W/B4C multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5162–5168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

Y. Platonov, J. Rodriguez, M. Kriese, E. Gullikson, T. Harada, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Multilayers for next generation EUVL at 6.X nm,” Proc. SPIE 8076, 80760N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wiesmann, J.

P. Siffalovic, M. Jergel, L. Chitu, E. Majkova, I. Matko, S. Luby, A. Timmann, S. V. Roth, J. Keckes, G. A. Maier, A. Hembd, F. Hertlein, and J. Wiesmann, “Interface study of a high-performance W/B4C X-ray mirror,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 1431–1439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Michaelsen, J. Wiesmann, R. Borman, C. Nowak, C. Dieker, S. Hollensteiner, and W. Jäger, “Multilayer mirror for X rays below 190 eV,” Opt. Lett. 26, 792–794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

Zangrando, M.

Ziegler, E.

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, I. K. Schuller, and E. Spiller, “Stability of multilayers for synchrotron optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1354–1356 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zoethout, E.

T. Tsarfati, R. W. E. Van de kruijs, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Reflective multilayer optics for 6.7 nm wavelength radiation sources and next generation lithography,” Thin Solid Films 518, 1365–1368 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zuev, S. Yu.

S. S. Andreev, M. M. Barsheva, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkonikov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. A. Vainer, and S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayered mirrors based on La/B4C(B9C) for X-ray range near anomalous dispersion of boron (λ=6.7 nm),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 603, 80–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zuppella, P.

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

P. N. Rao, M. Nayak, G. S. Lodha, S. K. Rai, A. K. Srivastava, M. H. Modi, and A. Sagdeo, “Fabrication and evaluation of large area Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayer mirrors at indus SR facilities,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2012, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, I. K. Schuller, and E. Spiller, “Stability of multilayers for synchrotron optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1354–1356 (1986).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (1)

P. Siffalovic, M. Jergel, L. Chitu, E. Majkova, I. Matko, S. Luby, A. Timmann, S. V. Roth, J. Keckes, G. A. Maier, A. Hembd, F. Hertlein, and J. Wiesmann, “Interface study of a high-performance W/B4C X-ray mirror,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 1431–1439 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, and M. A. Wall, “Structural stability of heat-treated W/C and W/B4C multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 5162–5168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

S. S. Andreev, M. M. Barsheva, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkonikov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, Yu. A. Vainer, and S. Yu. Zuev, “Multilayered mirrors based on La/B4C(B9C) for X-ray range near anomalous dispersion of boron (λ=6.7 nm),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 603, 80–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. F. Jankowski and D. M. Makowiecki, “W/B4C multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 30, 2003–2009 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. Platonov, J. Rodriguez, M. Kriese, E. Gullikson, T. Harada, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Multilayers for next generation EUVL at 6.X nm,” Proc. SPIE 8076, 80760N (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Characterization of surfaces by grazing incidence X-ray reflection application to the study of polishing some silicate glasses,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Synchrotron Radiat. News (1)

G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, V. K. Raghuvanshi, K. J. Sawheny, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Soft x-ray reflectometer on Indus-1,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 17, 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (3)

P. N. Rao, M. H. Modi, S. K. Rai, V. G. Sathe, S. K. Deb, and G. S. Lodha, “Thermal stability studies of ion beam sputter deposited C/B4C x-ray multilayer mirror,” Thin Solid Films 527, 244–249 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsarfati, R. W. E. Van de kruijs, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Reflective multilayer optics for 6.7 nm wavelength radiation sources and next generation lithography,” Thin Solid Films 518, 1365–1368 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski and P. L. Perry, “Characterization of Mo/B4C multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 365–368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. Spiller, Soft X-ray Optics (SPIE, 1994).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

GIXRR of the W/B4C multilayer structure sequentially annealed from 500°C to 800°C in steps of 100°C for 1 h at each step. The open circle and continuous line represents the measured and fitted GIXRR data, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

GIXRD of W/B4C multilayer measured at λ=0.154nm at fixed incident angle of 1°. Open and filled circles represent the measured GIXRD data before and after 800°C annealing, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SXRR measured as a function of wavelength at fixed incidence angle of 76.54°. Open circle, open diamond, and filled triangle represent the SXRR data of as-deposited and annealed at 500°C and 800°C, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured and fitted SXRR data of as-deposited and annealed sample at 500°C and 800°C at 6.7 nm wavelength. The open circle, open diamond, and filled triangle represent the measured SXRR of as-deposited and annealed at 500°C and 800°C, respectively, and continuous line represents the fitted data.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Ratio of peak reflectance of the annealed multilayer to the peak reflectance of the as-deposited multilayer as a function of the annealing temperature measured at 6.8 nm wavelength.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Multilayer Period Thickness d, Peak Reflectivity R, Peak Wavelength λ, and Corresponding Bragg Angle θBragg as a Function of Annealing Temperature T

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