Abstract

The validation of the multiresolution model of sea radiance in the infrared, developed at Onera, is investigated by comparison with measurements obtained during the MIRAMER campaign that took place in May 2008 in the Mediterranean Sea. The sea radiance model and optical properties are expressed and the experimental setup of the campaign is briefly presented. We focus on solar glint measurements collected on the 22nd of May at 5 h 59 m 50 s in the mid-wave IR (3.93–4.14 μm) band and the long-wave IR (8.19–8.96 μm) band onboard the research vessel (R/V) Atalante at a grazing observational angle. A sensitivity analysis of glitter radiance on atmospheric and aerosol profiles, as well as sea temperature and wind speed in the vicinity of the measured contextual parameters, is presented. Modeled and measured images are compared and results are delved into further by comparisons of histograms, averaged vertical and horizontal profiles. Errors in the 3.93–4.14 μm band are under those potentially due to calibration, whereas discrepancies are noticed in the 8.19–8.96 μm band, where the deepest analysis has to be performed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

H. Li, N. Pinel, and C. Bourlier, “Polarized infrared emissivity of 2D sea surfaces with one surface reflection,” Rem. Sensing Environ. 124, 299–309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Ross, D. Dion, and D. St-Germain, “Experimental validation of the MODTRAN 5.3 sea surface radiance model using MIRAMER campaign measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2264–2276 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

L. Labarre, K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, C. Malherbe, A. Roblin, B. Rosier, and P. Simoneau, “An overview of MATISSE-v2.0,” Proc. SPIE 7828, 782802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, L. Labarre, and P. Simoneau, “Infrared measurements of sea surface radiation: the MIRAMER campaign,” Proc. SPIE 7473, 74730D (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Fauqueux, K. Caillault, P. Simoneau, and L. Labarre, “Multiresolution infrared optical properties for Gaussian sea surfaces: theoretical validation in the one-dimensional case,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5337–5347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

H. Hoppe and F. Losasso, “Geometry clipmap: terrain rendering using nested regular grids,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 23, 769–776 (2004).

2003 (1)

J. Piazzola, F. Bouchara, A. M. J. Van Eijk, and G. De Leeuw, “Development of the Mediterranean extinction code MEDEX,” Opt. Eng. 42, 912–924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. Bourlier, J. Saillard, and G. Berginc, “Theoretical study on two-dimensional Gaussian rough sea surface emission and reflection in the infrared frequencies with shadowing effects,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 379–392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, H. M. Zorn, and J. H. Churnside, “Scanning infrared radiometer for measuring the air-sea temperature difference,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4807–4815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Bourlier, J. Saillard, and G. Berginc, “Effect of correlation between shadowing and shadowed points on the Wagner and Smith monostatic one-dimensional shadowing functions,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 437–446 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Elfouhaily, B. Chapron, and K. Katsaros, “A unified directional spectrum for long and short wind-driven waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 15781–15796 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. D. Watts, M. R. Allen, and T. J. Nightingale, “Wind speed effects on sea surface emission and reflection for the along track scanning radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 126–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

1989 (1)

F. Poirion and C. Soize, “Simulation numérique de champs vectoriels stochastiques gaussiens homogènes et non homogènes,” La Rech Aérospatiale 1, 41–61 (1989).

1986 (1)

A. Fournier and W. T. Reeves, “A simple model of ocean waves,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 20, 75–84 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

H. D. Downing and D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Plass and G. W. Kattawar, “Radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere and ocean: influence of ocean waves,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1924–1936 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

1969 (2)

1954 (1)

Allen, M. R.

P. D. Watts, M. R. Allen, and T. J. Nightingale, “Wind speed effects on sea surface emission and reflection for the along track scanning radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 126–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berginc, G.

C. Bourlier, J. Saillard, and G. Berginc, “Theoretical study on two-dimensional Gaussian rough sea surface emission and reflection in the infrared frequencies with shadowing effects,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 379–392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Bourlier, J. Saillard, and G. Berginc, “Effect of correlation between shadowing and shadowed points on the Wagner and Smith monostatic one-dimensional shadowing functions,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 437–446 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

Bouchara, F.

J. Piazzola, F. Bouchara, A. M. J. Van Eijk, and G. De Leeuw, “Development of the Mediterranean extinction code MEDEX,” Opt. Eng. 42, 912–924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bourlier, C.

H. Li, N. Pinel, and C. Bourlier, “Polarized infrared emissivity of 2D sea surfaces with one surface reflection,” Rem. Sensing Environ. 124, 299–309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, C. Bourlier, P. Simoneau, and L. Labarre, “Multiresolution optical characteristics of rough sea surface in the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5471–5481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Bourlier, J. Saillard, and G. Berginc, “Theoretical study on two-dimensional Gaussian rough sea surface emission and reflection in the infrared frequencies with shadowing effects,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 379–392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Bourlier, J. Saillard, and G. Berginc, “Effect of correlation between shadowing and shadowed points on the Wagner and Smith monostatic one-dimensional shadowing functions,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 437–446 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Caillault, K.

L. Labarre, K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, C. Malherbe, A. Roblin, B. Rosier, and P. Simoneau, “An overview of MATISSE-v2.0,” Proc. SPIE 7828, 782802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Fauqueux, K. Caillault, P. Simoneau, and L. Labarre, “Multiresolution infrared optical properties for Gaussian sea surfaces: theoretical validation in the one-dimensional case,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5337–5347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, L. Labarre, and P. Simoneau, “Infrared measurements of sea surface radiation: the MIRAMER campaign,” Proc. SPIE 7473, 74730D (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, C. Bourlier, P. Simoneau, and L. Labarre, “Multiresolution optical characteristics of rough sea surface in the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5471–5481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chapron, B.

T. Elfouhaily, B. Chapron, and K. Katsaros, “A unified directional spectrum for long and short wind-driven waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 15781–15796 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Churnside, J. H.

Cimini, D.

Cox, C.

De Leeuw, G.

J. Piazzola, F. Bouchara, A. M. J. Van Eijk, and G. De Leeuw, “Development of the Mediterranean extinction code MEDEX,” Opt. Eng. 42, 912–924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dion, D.

Downing, H. D.

H. D. Downing and D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Elfouhaily, T.

T. Elfouhaily, B. Chapron, and K. Katsaros, “A unified directional spectrum for long and short wind-driven waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 15781–15796 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fauqueux, S.

L. Labarre, K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, C. Malherbe, A. Roblin, B. Rosier, and P. Simoneau, “An overview of MATISSE-v2.0,” Proc. SPIE 7828, 782802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Fauqueux, K. Caillault, P. Simoneau, and L. Labarre, “Multiresolution infrared optical properties for Gaussian sea surfaces: theoretical validation in the one-dimensional case,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5337–5347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, L. Labarre, and P. Simoneau, “Infrared measurements of sea surface radiation: the MIRAMER campaign,” Proc. SPIE 7473, 74730D (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, C. Bourlier, P. Simoneau, and L. Labarre, “Multiresolution optical characteristics of rough sea surface in the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5471–5481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, A.

A. Fournier and W. T. Reeves, “A simple model of ocean waves,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 20, 75–84 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, D.

Goldberg, M. D.

Gordon, J. I.

J. I. Gordon, “Directional radiance (luminance) of the sea surface,” Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 69-20, (1969).

Hale, G. M.

Han, Y.

Hoppe, H.

H. Hoppe and F. Losasso, “Geometry clipmap: terrain rendering using nested regular grids,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 23, 769–776 (2004).

Ichioka, Y.

Itoh, K.

Katsaros, K.

T. Elfouhaily, B. Chapron, and K. Katsaros, “A unified directional spectrum for long and short wind-driven waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 15781–15796 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

Labarre, L.

L. Labarre, K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, C. Malherbe, A. Roblin, B. Rosier, and P. Simoneau, “An overview of MATISSE-v2.0,” Proc. SPIE 7828, 782802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Fauqueux, K. Caillault, P. Simoneau, and L. Labarre, “Multiresolution infrared optical properties for Gaussian sea surfaces: theoretical validation in the one-dimensional case,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5337–5347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, L. Labarre, and P. Simoneau, “Infrared measurements of sea surface radiation: the MIRAMER campaign,” Proc. SPIE 7473, 74730D (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, C. Bourlier, P. Simoneau, and L. Labarre, “Multiresolution optical characteristics of rough sea surface in the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5471–5481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

H. Li, N. Pinel, and C. Bourlier, “Polarized infrared emissivity of 2D sea surfaces with one surface reflection,” Rem. Sensing Environ. 124, 299–309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Losasso, F.

H. Hoppe and F. Losasso, “Geometry clipmap: terrain rendering using nested regular grids,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 23, 769–776 (2004).

Maddy, E.

Malherbe, C.

L. Labarre, K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, C. Malherbe, A. Roblin, B. Rosier, and P. Simoneau, “An overview of MATISSE-v2.0,” Proc. SPIE 7828, 782802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McMillan, W. W.

Minnet, P. J.

Munk, W.

Nalli, N. R.

Nightingale, T. J.

P. D. Watts, M. R. Allen, and T. J. Nightingale, “Wind speed effects on sea surface emission and reflection for the along track scanning radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 126–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, K. F.

Piazzola, J.

J. Piazzola, F. Bouchara, A. M. J. Van Eijk, and G. De Leeuw, “Development of the Mediterranean extinction code MEDEX,” Opt. Eng. 42, 912–924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pinel, N.

H. Li, N. Pinel, and C. Bourlier, “Polarized infrared emissivity of 2D sea surfaces with one surface reflection,” Rem. Sensing Environ. 124, 299–309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Plass, G. N.

Poirion, F.

F. Poirion and C. Soize, “Simulation numérique de champs vectoriels stochastiques gaussiens homogènes et non homogènes,” La Rech Aérospatiale 1, 41–61 (1989).

Potvin, G.

Query, M. R.

Reeves, W. T.

A. Fournier and W. T. Reeves, “A simple model of ocean waves,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 20, 75–84 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Roblin, A.

L. Labarre, K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, C. Malherbe, A. Roblin, B. Rosier, and P. Simoneau, “An overview of MATISSE-v2.0,” Proc. SPIE 7828, 782802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosier, B.

L. Labarre, K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, C. Malherbe, A. Roblin, B. Rosier, and P. Simoneau, “An overview of MATISSE-v2.0,” Proc. SPIE 7828, 782802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ross, V.

Saillard, J.

C. Bourlier, J. Saillard, and G. Berginc, “Theoretical study on two-dimensional Gaussian rough sea surface emission and reflection in the infrared frequencies with shadowing effects,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 379–392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Bourlier, J. Saillard, and G. Berginc, “Effect of correlation between shadowing and shadowed points on the Wagner and Smith monostatic one-dimensional shadowing functions,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 437–446 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. A.

Simoneau, P.

L. Labarre, K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, C. Malherbe, A. Roblin, B. Rosier, and P. Simoneau, “An overview of MATISSE-v2.0,” Proc. SPIE 7828, 782802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Fauqueux, K. Caillault, P. Simoneau, and L. Labarre, “Multiresolution infrared optical properties for Gaussian sea surfaces: theoretical validation in the one-dimensional case,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5337–5347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, L. Labarre, and P. Simoneau, “Infrared measurements of sea surface radiation: the MIRAMER campaign,” Proc. SPIE 7473, 74730D (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, C. Bourlier, P. Simoneau, and L. Labarre, “Multiresolution optical characteristics of rough sea surface in the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5471–5481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soize, C.

F. Poirion and C. Soize, “Simulation numérique de champs vectoriels stochastiques gaussiens homogènes et non homogènes,” La Rech Aérospatiale 1, 41–61 (1989).

St-Germain, D.

Van Delst, P.

Van Eijk, A. M. J.

J. Piazzola, F. Bouchara, A. M. J. Van Eijk, and G. De Leeuw, “Development of the Mediterranean extinction code MEDEX,” Opt. Eng. 42, 912–924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watts, P. D.

P. D. Watts, M. R. Allen, and T. J. Nightingale, “Wind speed effects on sea surface emission and reflection for the along track scanning radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 126–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Westwater, E. R.

Williams, D.

H. D. Downing and D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Palmer and D. Williams, “Optical properties of water in the near infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1107–1110 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

Yoshimori, K.

Zeisse, C. R.

Zorn, H. M.

Appl. Opt. (11)

G. N. Plass and G. W. Kattawar, “Radiative transfer in an atmosphere-ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 8, 455–466 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. Friedman, “Infrared characteristics of ocean water (1.5–15 μm),” Appl. Opt. 8, 2073–2078 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Hale and M. R. Query, “Optical constants of water in the 200 nm to 200 μm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Plass and G. W. Kattawar, “Radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere and ocean: influence of ocean waves,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1924–1936 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshimori, K. Itoh, and Y. Ichioka, “Optical characteristics of a wind-roughened water surface: a two-dimensional theory,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6236–6247 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shaw, D. Cimini, E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, H. M. Zorn, and J. H. Churnside, “Scanning infrared radiometer for measuring the air-sea temperature difference,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4807–4815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, C. Bourlier, P. Simoneau, and L. Labarre, “Multiresolution optical characteristics of rough sea surface in the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5471–5481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Nalli, P. J. Minnet, and P. Van Delst, “Emissivity and reflection model for calculating unpolarized isotropic water surface-leaving radiance in the infrared. I: theoretical development and calculations,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3701–3721 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Nalli, P. J. Minnet, E. Maddy, W. W. McMillan, and M. D. Goldberg, “Emissivity and reflection model for calculating unpolarized isotropic water surface-leaving radiance in the infrared. 2: validation using Fourier transform spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4649–4671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Fauqueux, K. Caillault, P. Simoneau, and L. Labarre, “Multiresolution infrared optical properties for Gaussian sea surfaces: theoretical validation in the one-dimensional case,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5337–5347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Ross, D. Dion, and D. St-Germain, “Experimental validation of the MODTRAN 5.3 sea surface radiance model using MIRAMER campaign measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2264–2276 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

C. Bourlier, J. Saillard, and G. Berginc, “Effect of correlation between shadowing and shadowed points on the Wagner and Smith monostatic one-dimensional shadowing functions,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 437–446 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

C. Bourlier, J. Saillard, and G. Berginc, “Theoretical study on two-dimensional Gaussian rough sea surface emission and reflection in the infrared frequencies with shadowing effects,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39, 379–392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

P. D. Watts, M. R. Allen, and T. J. Nightingale, “Wind speed effects on sea surface emission and reflection for the along track scanning radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 126–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

H. D. Downing and D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T. Elfouhaily, B. Chapron, and K. Katsaros, “A unified directional spectrum for long and short wind-driven waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 15781–15796 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

La Rech Aérospatiale (1)

F. Poirion and C. Soize, “Simulation numérique de champs vectoriels stochastiques gaussiens homogènes et non homogènes,” La Rech Aérospatiale 1, 41–61 (1989).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Piazzola, F. Bouchara, A. M. J. Van Eijk, and G. De Leeuw, “Development of the Mediterranean extinction code MEDEX,” Opt. Eng. 42, 912–924 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH (2)

H. Hoppe and F. Losasso, “Geometry clipmap: terrain rendering using nested regular grids,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 23, 769–776 (2004).

A. Fournier and W. T. Reeves, “A simple model of ocean waves,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 20, 75–84 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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