Abstract

A new method is proposed to achieve high illuminance and luminance uniformity of the road surface in LED road lighting. Based on the reflection properties of the road surface, the illuminance and luminance are analyzed simultaneously with the least-square method; meanwhile, energy efficiency and glare requirements are considered. Through the analysis and calculations, the optimal light distribution of a luminaire is obtained, and then a freeform lens with this light distribution is designed. For a 2-lane C1 class road illuminated by LED luminaires mounted with these lenses, the overall illuminance and luminance uniformity on the road surface can reach over 0.9 and 0.85, respectively, and the glare factors less than 10%.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University, 2006).
  2. Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. Zheng, and P. Gu, “Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 16, 12958–12966 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Liu, D. Ding, C. Leung, Y. Ho, and M. Lu, “Optical design of a high brightness LED street lamp,” Proc. SPIE 7635, 1–9 (2009).
  4. Y. Luo, Z. Feng, Y. Han, and H. Li, “Design of compact and smooth free-form optical system with uniform illuminance for LED source,” Opt. Express 18, 9055–9063 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Feng, Y. Luo, and Y. Han, “Design of LED freeform optical system for road lighting with high luminance/illuminance ratio,” Opt. Express 18, 22020–22031 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Pachamanov and D. Pachamanova, “Optimization of the light distribution of luminaires for tunnel and street lighting,” Eng. Optim. 40, 47–65 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. A. Schreuder, Road Lighting for Safety (Thomas Telford, 1998).
  8. CIE, “Calculation and Measurement of Luminance and Illuminance in Road Lighting,” CIE Publication 30.2 (CIE, 1982).
  9. CIE, “CIE Collection on GLARE,” CIE Technical Report (CIE, 2002).
  10. CIE, “Road Surfaces and Lighting,” CIE Publication 66 (CIE, 1984).
  11. L. Wang, K. Qian, and Y. Luo, “Discontinuous free-form lens design for prescribed irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3716–3723 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, eds., with contributions by N. Shatz and J. C. Bortz, eds., Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier, 2005).
  13. Y. J. Han, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, K. Qian, H. Li, Y. Luo, G. Huang, and B. Zhu, “Variable-separation three dimensional freeform nonimaging optical system design based on target-to-source mapping and micro belt surface construction,” Science paper online, 1–9 (2010).

2010

2009

Y. Liu, D. Ding, C. Leung, Y. Ho, and M. Lu, “Optical design of a high brightness LED street lamp,” Proc. SPIE 7635, 1–9 (2009).

2008

A. Pachamanov and D. Pachamanova, “Optimization of the light distribution of luminaires for tunnel and street lighting,” Eng. Optim. 40, 47–65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. Zheng, and P. Gu, “Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 16, 12958–12966 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Ding, D.

Y. Liu, D. Ding, C. Leung, Y. Ho, and M. Lu, “Optical design of a high brightness LED street lamp,” Proc. SPIE 7635, 1–9 (2009).

Ding, Y.

Feng, Z.

Y. Luo, Z. Feng, Y. Han, and H. Li, “Design of compact and smooth free-form optical system with uniform illuminance for LED source,” Opt. Express 18, 9055–9063 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Feng, Y. Luo, and Y. Han, “Design of LED freeform optical system for road lighting with high luminance/illuminance ratio,” Opt. Express 18, 22020–22031 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Han, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, K. Qian, H. Li, Y. Luo, G. Huang, and B. Zhu, “Variable-separation three dimensional freeform nonimaging optical system design based on target-to-source mapping and micro belt surface construction,” Science paper online, 1–9 (2010).

Gu, P.

Han, Y.

Han, Y. J.

Y. J. Han, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, K. Qian, H. Li, Y. Luo, G. Huang, and B. Zhu, “Variable-separation three dimensional freeform nonimaging optical system design based on target-to-source mapping and micro belt surface construction,” Science paper online, 1–9 (2010).

Ho, Y.

Y. Liu, D. Ding, C. Leung, Y. Ho, and M. Lu, “Optical design of a high brightness LED street lamp,” Proc. SPIE 7635, 1–9 (2009).

Huang, G.

Y. J. Han, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, K. Qian, H. Li, Y. Luo, G. Huang, and B. Zhu, “Variable-separation three dimensional freeform nonimaging optical system design based on target-to-source mapping and micro belt surface construction,” Science paper online, 1–9 (2010).

Leung, C.

Y. Liu, D. Ding, C. Leung, Y. Ho, and M. Lu, “Optical design of a high brightness LED street lamp,” Proc. SPIE 7635, 1–9 (2009).

Li, H.

Y. Luo, Z. Feng, Y. Han, and H. Li, “Design of compact and smooth free-form optical system with uniform illuminance for LED source,” Opt. Express 18, 9055–9063 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Han, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, K. Qian, H. Li, Y. Luo, G. Huang, and B. Zhu, “Variable-separation three dimensional freeform nonimaging optical system design based on target-to-source mapping and micro belt surface construction,” Science paper online, 1–9 (2010).

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, D. Ding, C. Leung, Y. Ho, and M. Lu, “Optical design of a high brightness LED street lamp,” Proc. SPIE 7635, 1–9 (2009).

Lu, M.

Y. Liu, D. Ding, C. Leung, Y. Ho, and M. Lu, “Optical design of a high brightness LED street lamp,” Proc. SPIE 7635, 1–9 (2009).

Luo, Y.

Pachamanov, A.

A. Pachamanov and D. Pachamanova, “Optimization of the light distribution of luminaires for tunnel and street lighting,” Eng. Optim. 40, 47–65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pachamanova, D.

A. Pachamanov and D. Pachamanova, “Optimization of the light distribution of luminaires for tunnel and street lighting,” Eng. Optim. 40, 47–65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qian, K.

L. Wang, K. Qian, and Y. Luo, “Discontinuous free-form lens design for prescribed irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3716–3723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Han, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, K. Qian, H. Li, Y. Luo, G. Huang, and B. Zhu, “Variable-separation three dimensional freeform nonimaging optical system design based on target-to-source mapping and micro belt surface construction,” Science paper online, 1–9 (2010).

Schreuder, D. A.

D. A. Schreuder, Road Lighting for Safety (Thomas Telford, 1998).

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University, 2006).

Wang, L.

Zhang, X.

Y. J. Han, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, K. Qian, H. Li, Y. Luo, G. Huang, and B. Zhu, “Variable-separation three dimensional freeform nonimaging optical system design based on target-to-source mapping and micro belt surface construction,” Science paper online, 1–9 (2010).

Zheng, Z.

Zhu, B.

Y. J. Han, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, K. Qian, H. Li, Y. Luo, G. Huang, and B. Zhu, “Variable-separation three dimensional freeform nonimaging optical system design based on target-to-source mapping and micro belt surface construction,” Science paper online, 1–9 (2010).

Appl. Opt.

Eng. Optim.

A. Pachamanov and D. Pachamanova, “Optimization of the light distribution of luminaires for tunnel and street lighting,” Eng. Optim. 40, 47–65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

Y. Liu, D. Ding, C. Leung, Y. Ho, and M. Lu, “Optical design of a high brightness LED street lamp,” Proc. SPIE 7635, 1–9 (2009).

Other

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University, 2006).

D. A. Schreuder, Road Lighting for Safety (Thomas Telford, 1998).

CIE, “Calculation and Measurement of Luminance and Illuminance in Road Lighting,” CIE Publication 30.2 (CIE, 1982).

CIE, “CIE Collection on GLARE,” CIE Technical Report (CIE, 2002).

CIE, “Road Surfaces and Lighting,” CIE Publication 66 (CIE, 1984).

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, eds., with contributions by N. Shatz and J. C. Bortz, eds., Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier, 2005).

Y. J. Han, X. Zhang, Z. Feng, K. Qian, H. Li, Y. Luo, G. Huang, and B. Zhu, “Variable-separation three dimensional freeform nonimaging optical system design based on target-to-source mapping and micro belt surface construction,” Science paper online, 1–9 (2010).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of road lighting.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of the “zebra effect.”

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Illustration of angular relationships among observer, observation point, and luminaire.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Lane difference in calculating luminance.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Illustration of observers’ positions.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Variation of the luminance coefficient along the length of road.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Uniformity of illuminance and luminance change with k . (b) Variance of illuminance and luminance change with k .

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Illuminance value along the length of road at different road width.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Shape of the lens.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Simulated illuminance distribution of (a) a single luminaire and (b) multiple luminaires.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Simulated luminance distributions on the C1 class road perceived by (a) observer 1 at ( 60 m , 1.75 m) and (b) observer 2 at ( 60 m , 5.25 m).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Lighting Parameters Calculated from the Simulation Results

Equations (16)

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L av = i = 1 N L i / N ,
U 0 = L min / L av .
U L = L min / L max .
L v = 10 · k = 1 K E e k θ e k 2 ,
TI = 65 L v L av 0.8 .
L p = i = 1 n q ( β i , γ i ) · E ( c i , γ i ) ,
q ( β , γ ) = L ( β , γ ) / E .
r ( β , γ ) = q ( β , γ ) · cos 3 γ .
L p = i = 1 n q ( β i , γ i ) · E ( c i , γ i ) = i = 1 n r ( β i , γ i ) 10 4 · cos 3 γ · E ( c i , γ i ) .
f ( x , y ) = p 1 x 2 ( n 1 ) + p 2 x 2 ( n 2 ) + + p n 1 x 2 + p n ( 2 S x 2 S , 0 y W ) ,
g ( x , y ) = f ( x , y ) + f ( x + S , y ) + f ( S x , y ) + f ( 2 S x , y ) , ( 0 x S , 0 y W ) .
h ( x , y ) = f ( x , y ) · q ( x , y ) + f ( x + S , y ) · q ( x + S , y ) + f ( S x , y ) · q ( x S , y ) + f ( 2 S x , y ) · q ( x 2 S , y ) , ( 0 x S , 0 y W ) .
M ( y ) = 0 S [ ( g ( x , y ) E av ) 2 + k · ( h ( x , y ) L av ) 2 ] d x ,
M ( y ) p i = 0 S [ ( g ( x , y ) E av ) 2 p i + k · ( h ( x , y ) L av ) 2 p i ] d x = 0 , i = 1 n .
{ a 1 , 1 p 1 + a 1 , 2 p 2 + + a 1 , n 1 p n 1 + a 1 , n p n = b 1 a 2 , 1 p 1 + a 2 , 2 p 2 + + a 2 , n 1 p n 1 + a 2 , n p n = b 2 a n 1 , 1 p 1 + a n 1 , 2 p 2 + + a n 1 , n 1 p n 1 + a n 1 , n p n = b n 1 a n , 1 p 1 + a n , 2 p 2 + + a n , n 1 p n 1 + a n , n p n = b n ,
A · p⃗ = b⃗ .

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