Abstract

Since patterns in digital maskless lithography are formed by accumulating the exposure energy of a high-density beam spot array, the accurate position measurement of the spot array is essential for the precise operation of the system. We propose a measurement technique for detecting the position of a high-density, subpixel size beam spot array with a charge-coupled device (CCD). In order to determine the position of each beam spot with a small number of CCD pixels, we assign 3×3 pixels of the CCD for each spot and scan the CCD to determine the signal of a center pixel. We numerically analyze the measurement uncertainty in the pixel position for various scanning conditions. We set up an experimental system for proof of concept and to detect the position of a 10×10 beam spot array with an uncertainty less than 100 nm. Additionally, the measurement uncertainty quantitatively matches the numerical analysis results.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

H. Ryoo, D. W. Kang, Y. Song, and Jae W. Hahn, “Experimental analysis of pattern line width in digital maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 023004 (2012).

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

M. v. Kessels, C. Nassour, P. Grosso, and K. Geggarty, “Direct write of optical diffractive elements and planar waveguides with a digital micromirror device based UV plotter,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3089–3094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

K. Kim, J. Yi, S. Cho, N. Kang, M. Cho, B. Shin, and B. Choi, “SLM-based maskless lithography for TFT-LCD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835–7840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Smith and D. Klenk, “Development of MOEMS technology in maskless lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7210, 72100K (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Bhuian, R. J. Winfield, and G. M. Crean, “Laser polymerization-based novel lift-off technique,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5150–5153 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Aassime and V. Mathet, “Lift-off and hybrid applications with ma-n 1405 negative-tone resist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 28–32 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

T. Hayashi, T. Shibata, T. Kawashima, E. Makino, T. Mineta, and T. Masuzawa, “Photolithography system with liquid crystal display as active gray-tone mask for 3D structuring of photoresist,” Sens. Actuators A 144, 381–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawano, H. Shimoji, S. Yoshikawa, K. Miyatake, K. Hama, and S. Nakamura, “Optical testing of star sensor (I): Defocus spot measuring technique for ground-based test,” Opt. Rev. 15, 110–117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Henry, J. Willem Gemmink, L. Pain, and S. V. Postnikov, “Status and future of maskless lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 951–955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

R. Fabian Pease, “Maskless lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 381–392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Martinsson, T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, and J. D. Hintersteiner, “Current status of optical maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 4, 011003 (2005).

2004 (1)

R. Menon, E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, “Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone-plate-array lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3382–3385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. F. Chan, Z. Feng, R. Yang, A. Ishikawa, and W. Mei, “High resolution maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 2, 331–339 (2003).

2002 (1)

D. R. Neal, J. Copland, and D. Neal, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor precision and accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 4779, 148–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. C. Liebe, “Star trackers for attitude determination,” Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE 10(6), 10–16 (1995).

Aassime, A.

A. Aassime and V. Mathet, “Lift-off and hybrid applications with ma-n 1405 negative-tone resist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 28–32 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aksyuk, V.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Basavanhally, N.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhuian, B.

B. Bhuian, R. J. Winfield, and G. M. Crean, “Laser polymerization-based novel lift-off technique,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5150–5153 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bleeker, A.

H. Martinsson, T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, and J. D. Hintersteiner, “Current status of optical maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 4, 011003 (2005).

Bolle, C. A.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bower, J. E.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Castaño, F. J.

R. Menon, E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, “Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone-plate-array lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3382–3385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. F.

K. F. Chan, Z. Feng, R. Yang, A. Ishikawa, and W. Mei, “High resolution maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 2, 331–339 (2003).

Cho, M.

K. Kim, J. Yi, S. Cho, N. Kang, M. Cho, B. Shin, and B. Choi, “SLM-based maskless lithography for TFT-LCD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835–7840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.

K. Kim, J. Yi, S. Cho, N. Kang, M. Cho, B. Shin, and B. Choi, “SLM-based maskless lithography for TFT-LCD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835–7840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B.

K. Kim, J. Yi, S. Cho, N. Kang, M. Cho, B. Shin, and B. Choi, “SLM-based maskless lithography for TFT-LCD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835–7840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cirelli, R. A.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Copland, J.

D. R. Neal, J. Copland, and D. Neal, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor precision and accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 4779, 148–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crean, G. M.

B. Bhuian, R. J. Winfield, and G. M. Crean, “Laser polymerization-based novel lift-off technique,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5150–5153 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fabian Pease, R.

R. Fabian Pease, “Maskless lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 381–392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z.

K. F. Chan, Z. Feng, R. Yang, A. Ishikawa, and W. Mei, “High resolution maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 2, 331–339 (2003).

Fetter, L.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fullowan, R.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geggarty, K.

M. v. Kessels, C. Nassour, P. Grosso, and K. Geggarty, “Direct write of optical diffractive elements and planar waveguides with a digital micromirror device based UV plotter,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3089–3094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grosso, P.

M. v. Kessels, C. Nassour, P. Grosso, and K. Geggarty, “Direct write of optical diffractive elements and planar waveguides with a digital micromirror device based UV plotter,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3089–3094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, Jae W.

H. Ryoo, D. W. Kang, Y. Song, and Jae W. Hahn, “Experimental analysis of pattern line width in digital maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 023004 (2012).

Hama, K.

H. Kawano, H. Shimoji, S. Yoshikawa, K. Miyatake, K. Hama, and S. Nakamura, “Optical testing of star sensor (I): Defocus spot measuring technique for ground-based test,” Opt. Rev. 15, 110–117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, T.

T. Hayashi, T. Shibata, T. Kawashima, E. Makino, T. Mineta, and T. Masuzawa, “Photolithography system with liquid crystal display as active gray-tone mask for 3D structuring of photoresist,” Sens. Actuators A 144, 381–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henry, D.

D. Henry, J. Willem Gemmink, L. Pain, and S. V. Postnikov, “Status and future of maskless lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 951–955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hintersteiner, J. D.

H. Martinsson, T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, and J. D. Hintersteiner, “Current status of optical maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 4, 011003 (2005).

Hur, J.

Ishikawa, A.

K. F. Chan, Z. Feng, R. Yang, A. Ishikawa, and W. Mei, “High resolution maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 2, 331–339 (2003).

Kang, D. W.

H. Ryoo, D. W. Kang, Y. Song, and Jae W. Hahn, “Experimental analysis of pattern line width in digital maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 023004 (2012).

Kang, N.

K. Kim, J. Yi, S. Cho, N. Kang, M. Cho, B. Shin, and B. Choi, “SLM-based maskless lithography for TFT-LCD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835–7840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, H.

H. Kawano, H. Shimoji, S. Yoshikawa, K. Miyatake, K. Hama, and S. Nakamura, “Optical testing of star sensor (I): Defocus spot measuring technique for ground-based test,” Opt. Rev. 15, 110–117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

T. Hayashi, T. Shibata, T. Kawashima, E. Makino, T. Mineta, and T. Masuzawa, “Photolithography system with liquid crystal display as active gray-tone mask for 3D structuring of photoresist,” Sens. Actuators A 144, 381–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kessels, M. v.

M. v. Kessels, C. Nassour, P. Grosso, and K. Geggarty, “Direct write of optical diffractive elements and planar waveguides with a digital micromirror device based UV plotter,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3089–3094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, J. Yi, S. Cho, N. Kang, M. Cho, B. Shin, and B. Choi, “SLM-based maskless lithography for TFT-LCD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835–7840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klemens, F.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klenk, D.

D. Smith and D. Klenk, “Development of MOEMS technology in maskless lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7210, 72100K (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kornblit, A.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liebe, C. C.

C. C. Liebe, “Star trackers for attitude determination,” Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE 10(6), 10–16 (1995).

Lopez, D. O.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Low, Y. L.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Makino, E.

T. Hayashi, T. Shibata, T. Kawashima, E. Makino, T. Mineta, and T. Masuzawa, “Photolithography system with liquid crystal display as active gray-tone mask for 3D structuring of photoresist,” Sens. Actuators A 144, 381–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mansfield, W. M.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martinsson, H.

H. Martinsson, T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, and J. D. Hintersteiner, “Current status of optical maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 4, 011003 (2005).

Masuzawa, T.

T. Hayashi, T. Shibata, T. Kawashima, E. Makino, T. Mineta, and T. Masuzawa, “Photolithography system with liquid crystal display as active gray-tone mask for 3D structuring of photoresist,” Sens. Actuators A 144, 381–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mathet, V.

A. Aassime and V. Mathet, “Lift-off and hybrid applications with ma-n 1405 negative-tone resist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 28–32 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mei, W.

K. F. Chan, Z. Feng, R. Yang, A. Ishikawa, and W. Mei, “High resolution maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 2, 331–339 (2003).

Menon, R.

R. Menon, E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, “Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone-plate-array lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3382–3385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miner, J.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mineta, T.

T. Hayashi, T. Shibata, T. Kawashima, E. Makino, T. Mineta, and T. Masuzawa, “Photolithography system with liquid crystal display as active gray-tone mask for 3D structuring of photoresist,” Sens. Actuators A 144, 381–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyatake, K.

H. Kawano, H. Shimoji, S. Yoshikawa, K. Miyatake, K. Hama, and S. Nakamura, “Optical testing of star sensor (I): Defocus spot measuring technique for ground-based test,” Opt. Rev. 15, 110–117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mondol, M. K.

R. Menon, E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, “Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone-plate-array lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3382–3385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moon, E. E.

R. Menon, E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, “Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone-plate-array lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3382–3385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

H. Kawano, H. Shimoji, S. Yoshikawa, K. Miyatake, K. Hama, and S. Nakamura, “Optical testing of star sensor (I): Defocus spot measuring technique for ground-based test,” Opt. Rev. 15, 110–117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nassour, C.

M. v. Kessels, C. Nassour, P. Grosso, and K. Geggarty, “Direct write of optical diffractive elements and planar waveguides with a digital micromirror device based UV plotter,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3089–3094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Neal, D.

D. R. Neal, J. Copland, and D. Neal, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor precision and accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 4779, 148–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neal, D. R.

D. R. Neal, J. Copland, and D. Neal, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor precision and accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 4779, 148–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pain, L.

D. Henry, J. Willem Gemmink, L. Pain, and S. V. Postnikov, “Status and future of maskless lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 951–955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Papazian, A. R.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, F.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peabody, M.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Postnikov, S. V.

D. Henry, J. Willem Gemmink, L. Pain, and S. V. Postnikov, “Status and future of maskless lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 951–955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ryoo, H.

H. Ryoo, D. W. Kang, Y. Song, and Jae W. Hahn, “Experimental analysis of pattern line width in digital maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 023004 (2012).

Sandstrom, T.

H. Martinsson, T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, and J. D. Hintersteiner, “Current status of optical maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 4, 011003 (2005).

Shibata, T.

T. Hayashi, T. Shibata, T. Kawashima, E. Makino, T. Mineta, and T. Masuzawa, “Photolithography system with liquid crystal display as active gray-tone mask for 3D structuring of photoresist,” Sens. Actuators A 144, 381–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shimoji, H.

H. Kawano, H. Shimoji, S. Yoshikawa, K. Miyatake, K. Hama, and S. Nakamura, “Optical testing of star sensor (I): Defocus spot measuring technique for ground-based test,” Opt. Rev. 15, 110–117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shin, B.

K. Kim, J. Yi, S. Cho, N. Kang, M. Cho, B. Shin, and B. Choi, “SLM-based maskless lithography for TFT-LCD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835–7840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simon, M. E.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

D. Smith and D. Klenk, “Development of MOEMS technology in maskless lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7210, 72100K (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

R. Menon, E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, “Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone-plate-array lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3382–3385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

H. Ryoo, D. W. Kang, Y. Song, and Jae W. Hahn, “Experimental analysis of pattern line width in digital maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 023004 (2012).

Sorsch, T.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tennant, D. M.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watson, G. P.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willem Gemmink, J.

D. Henry, J. Willem Gemmink, L. Pain, and S. V. Postnikov, “Status and future of maskless lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 951–955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winfield, R. J.

B. Bhuian, R. J. Winfield, and G. M. Crean, “Laser polymerization-based novel lift-off technique,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5150–5153 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R.

K. F. Chan, Z. Feng, R. Yang, A. Ishikawa, and W. Mei, “High resolution maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 2, 331–339 (2003).

Yi, J.

K. Kim, J. Yi, S. Cho, N. Kang, M. Cho, B. Shin, and B. Choi, “SLM-based maskless lithography for TFT-LCD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835–7840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, S.

H. Kawano, H. Shimoji, S. Yoshikawa, K. Miyatake, K. Hama, and S. Nakamura, “Optical testing of star sensor (I): Defocus spot measuring technique for ground-based test,” Opt. Rev. 15, 110–117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE (1)

C. C. Liebe, “Star trackers for attitude determination,” Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE 10(6), 10–16 (1995).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

K. Kim, J. Yi, S. Cho, N. Kang, M. Cho, B. Shin, and B. Choi, “SLM-based maskless lithography for TFT-LCD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835–7840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Bhuian, R. J. Winfield, and G. M. Crean, “Laser polymerization-based novel lift-off technique,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5150–5153 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS (3)

H. Martinsson, T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, and J. D. Hintersteiner, “Current status of optical maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 4, 011003 (2005).

K. F. Chan, Z. Feng, R. Yang, A. Ishikawa, and W. Mei, “High resolution maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 2, 331–339 (2003).

H. Ryoo, D. W. Kang, Y. Song, and Jae W. Hahn, “Experimental analysis of pattern line width in digital maskless lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 023004 (2012).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (3)

G. P. Watson, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. M. Tennant, R. A. Cirelli, W. M. Mansfield, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, N. Basavanhally, J. Lee, R. Fullowan, F. Klemens, J. Miner, A. Kornblit, T. Sorsch, L. Fetter, M. Peabody, J. E. Bower, J. S. Weiner, and Y. L. Low, “Spatial light modulator for maskless optical projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2852–2856 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Menon, E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, “Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone-plate-array lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3382–3385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Aassime and V. Mathet, “Lift-off and hybrid applications with ma-n 1405 negative-tone resist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 28–32 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

D. Henry, J. Willem Gemmink, L. Pain, and S. V. Postnikov, “Status and future of maskless lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 951–955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Fabian Pease, “Maskless lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 381–392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. v. Kessels, C. Nassour, P. Grosso, and K. Geggarty, “Direct write of optical diffractive elements and planar waveguides with a digital micromirror device based UV plotter,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3089–3094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (1)

H. Kawano, H. Shimoji, S. Yoshikawa, K. Miyatake, K. Hama, and S. Nakamura, “Optical testing of star sensor (I): Defocus spot measuring technique for ground-based test,” Opt. Rev. 15, 110–117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. R. Neal, J. Copland, and D. Neal, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor precision and accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 4779, 148–160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Smith and D. Klenk, “Development of MOEMS technology in maskless lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7210, 72100K (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

T. Hayashi, T. Shibata, T. Kawashima, E. Makino, T. Mineta, and T. Masuzawa, “Photolithography system with liquid crystal display as active gray-tone mask for 3D structuring of photoresist,” Sens. Actuators A 144, 381–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Thorlabs, “Lateral effect position sensor,” http://www.thorlabs.hk/NewGroupPage9.cfm?ObjectGroup_ID=4400 .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) CCD scanning scheme and signal variation with respect to the scan length. The step is the unit length of translation of the piezo-stage. (b) A scheme of orthogonal scans for measuring the two-dimensional coordinate of the spot array. Observation pixels are assigned for acquiring the scan data of each spot.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scheme of multiple scans (left), the scan data of each scan, the merged data (right) for the (a)  x -direction and (b)  y -direction multiple scans. The transverse distance between two adjacent scans is the period and that between the first scan (Scan 1) and last scan (Scan 3) is the scan width.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Error vector is a position vector from the reference position to the measured position. The measurement accuracy is defined as the standard deviation of the error vectors.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulation results of the accuracy variation with respect to the parameters: (a) step variation results of the 3 and 5 μm spots, (b) period variation results of the 3 μm spot, and (c) period variation results of the 5 μm spot.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic view of the testing setup for measuring the (a) single spot position and (b) spot array position.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental measurement of the single spot position with respect to the (a) step variation and (b) period variation parameters.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental position measurement results of the 10 × 10 spot array. The arrows indicate the error vectors and the colors imply the magnitude of the error vectors.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

X = P x + M x , Y = P y + M y
M x = i s I x ( i s ) × ( i s × Δ s ) i s I x ( i s ) , M y = j s I y ( j s ) × ( j s × Δ s ) j s I y ( j s ) ,
I ( n , m ) = m y m y + w y m x m x + w x [ J 1 ( 2.44 π / w 0 ( x 0 x ) 2 + ( y 0 y ) 2 ) 2.44 π / w 0 ( x 0 x ) 2 + ( y 0 y ) 2 ] 2 d x d y ,

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