Abstract

An optical identity authentication scheme based on the elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA) and phase retrieval algorithm (PRA) is proposed. In this scheme, a user’s certification image and the quick response code of the user identity’s keyed-hash message authentication code (HMAC) with added noise, serving as the amplitude and phase restriction, respectively, are digitally encoded into two phase keys using a PRA in the Fresnel domain. During the authentication process, when the two phase keys are presented to the system and illuminated by a plane wave of correct wavelength, an output image is generated in the output plane. By identifying whether there is a match between the amplitude of the output image and all the certification images pre-stored in the database, the system can thus accomplish a first-level verification. After the confirmation of first-level verification, the ECDSA signature is decoded from the phase part of the output image and verified to allege whether the user’s identity is legal or not. Moreover, the introduction of HMAC makes it almost impossible to forge the signature and hence the phase keys thanks to the HMAC’s irreversible property. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations both validate the feasibility of our proposed scheme.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Refrégier and B. Javidi, “Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding,” Opt. Lett. 20, 767–769 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Unnikrishnan, J. Joseph, and K. Singh, “Optical encryption by double-random phase encoding in the fractional Fourier domain,” Opt. Lett. 25, 887–889 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. T. Liu, Q. L. Mi, and B. H. Zhu, “Optical image encryption with multistage and multichannel fractional Fourier-domain filtering,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1242–1244 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Hennelly and J. T. Sheridan, “Optical image encryption by random shifting in fractional Fourier domains,” Opt. Lett. 28, 269–271 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. R. Zhou, T. J. Dong, and J. H. Wu, “Novel image encryption algorithm based on multiple-parameter discrete fractional random transform,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3037–3042 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Double random-phase encoding in the Fresnel domain,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1584–1586 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. F. Chen and D. M. Zhao, “Optical color image encryption by wavelength multiplexing and lensless Fresnel transform holograms,” Opt. Express 14, 8552–8560 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Nomura, S. Mikan, Y. Morimoto, and B. Javidi, “Secure optical data storage with random phase key codes by use of a configuration of a joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1508–1514 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Tajahuerce and B. Javidi, “Encrypting three dimensional information with digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6595–6601 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. G. Wang, D. M. Zhao, F. Jing, and X. F. Wei, “Information synthesis (complex amplitude addition and subtraction) and encryption with digital holography and virtual optics,” Opt. Express 14, 1476–1486 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Encryption of digital hologram of 3-D object by virtual optics,” Opt. Express 12, 4912–4921 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Z. Cai, M. Z. He, Q. Liu, and X. L. Yang, “Digital image encryption and watermarking by phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3078–3084 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. C. Mogensen and J. Glückstad, “A phase-based optical encryption system with polarization encoding,” Opt. Commun. 173, 177–183 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Peng, Z. Y. Cui, and T. N. Tan, “Information encryption with virtual-optics imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 212, 235–245 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. J. Liu, Q. Guo, L. Xu, M. A. Ahmad, and S. T. Liu, “Double image encryption by using iterative random binary encoding in gyrator domain,” Opt. Express 18, 12033–12043 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Shi, G. Situ, and J. Zhang, “Multiple-image hiding by information prechoosing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 542–544 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Chen, X. D. Chen, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Optical image encryption based on diffractive imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3817–3819 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. Chen and X. Chen, “Object authentication in computational ghost imaging with the realizations less than 5% of Nyquist limit,” Opt. Lett. 38, 546–548 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, “Random phase encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2464–2469 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Li, K. Kreske, and J. Rosen, “Security and encryption optical systems based on a correlator with significant output images,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5295–5301 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Image hiding with computer-generated phase codes for optical authentication,” Opt. Commun. 245, 55–65 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Situ and J. Zhang, “A cascaded iterative Fourier transform algorithm for optical security applications,” Optik, 114, 473–477 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, and G. Y. Dong, “Information security system by iterative multiple-phase retrieval and pixel random permutation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3289–3297 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Yang, X. F. Xu, G. Y. Dong, X. X. Shen, H. Zhang, and X. C. Cheng, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. J. Huang, H. E. Hwang, C. Y. Chen, and C. M. Chen, “Lensless multiple-image optical encryption based on improved phase retrieval algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2388–2394 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. W. Chen, X. Chen, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Phase-modulated optical system with sparse representation for information encoding and authentication,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6900113 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Zhang and B. Wang, “Optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2443–2445 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. Liu, J. H. Xie, and H. Zhang, “Optical image encryption based on interference of polarized light,” Opt. Express 17, 13418–13424 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. Weng, N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. H. Xie, and J. A. Liu, “Experimental verification of optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2485–2487 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Yuan, S. X. Yao, Y. H. Xin, and M. T. Liu, “Information hiding based on the optical interference principle,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5078–5083 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  31. B. Yang, Z. Liu, B. Wang, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Optical stream-cipher-like system for image encryption based on Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Express 19, 2634–2642 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  32. W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Optical hierarchical authentication based on interference and hash function,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7750–7757 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  33. W. Chen and X. Chen, “Security-enhanced interference-based optical image encryption,” Opt. Commun. 286, 123–129 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  34. G. Situ, U. Gopinathan, D. S. Monaghan, and J. T. Sheridan, “Cryptanalysis of optical security systems with significant output images,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5257–5262 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  35. G. Situ, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Collision in double-phase encryption based on fractional Fourier transform,” in International Conference on Optical Instrumentation and Technology (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2009), p. 751205.
  36. G. Situ, D. S. Monaghan, T. J. Naughton, J. T. Sheridan, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Collision in double random phase encoding,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5122–5125 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  37. I. Mehra, “Collision in Fresnel domain asymmetric cryptosystem using phase truncation and authentication verification,” Opt. Eng. 52, 028202 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  38. W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Collision in optical image encryption based on interference and a method for avoiding this security leak,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 31–36 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. Bellare, R. Canetti, and H. Krawczyk, “Keying hash functions for message authentication,” in Advances in Cryptology—CRYPTO’96 (Springer, 1996), pp. 1–15.
  40. D. Johnson, A. Menezes, and S. Vanstone, “The elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA),” Int. J. Inf. Secur. 1, 36–63 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  41. D. Hankerson, A. J. Menezes, and S. Vanstone, Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography (Springer, 2004).
  42. ISO/IEC 18004: ISO Standard on QR Code 2005 Bar Code Symbology Specification.
  43. J. F. Barrera, A. Mira, and R. Torroba, “Optical encryption and QR codes: secure and noise-free information retrieval,” Opt. Express 21, 5373–5378 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  44. G. Xu, R. Li, L. Yang, and X. Liu, “Identification and recovery of the blurred QR code image,” in International Conference on Computer Science & Service System (CSSS) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2257–2260.

2013 (6)

W. Chen and X. Chen, “Object authentication in computational ghost imaging with the realizations less than 5% of Nyquist limit,” Opt. Lett. 38, 546–548 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, X. Chen, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Phase-modulated optical system with sparse representation for information encoding and authentication,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6900113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen and X. Chen, “Security-enhanced interference-based optical image encryption,” Opt. Commun. 286, 123–129 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Mehra, “Collision in Fresnel domain asymmetric cryptosystem using phase truncation and authentication verification,” Opt. Eng. 52, 028202 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Collision in optical image encryption based on interference and a method for avoiding this security leak,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Barrera, A. Mira, and R. Torroba, “Optical encryption and QR codes: secure and noise-free information retrieval,” Opt. Express 21, 5373–5378 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

D. Weng, N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. H. Xie, and J. A. Liu, “Experimental verification of optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2485–2487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Yuan, S. X. Yao, Y. H. Xin, and M. T. Liu, “Information hiding based on the optical interference principle,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5078–5083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Yang, Z. Liu, B. Wang, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Optical stream-cipher-like system for image encryption based on Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Express 19, 2634–2642 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

G. Situ, U. Gopinathan, D. S. Monaghan, and J. T. Sheridan, “Cryptanalysis of optical security systems with significant output images,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5257–5262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Yang, X. F. Xu, G. Y. Dong, X. X. Shen, H. Zhang, and X. C. Cheng, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Image hiding with computer-generated phase codes for optical authentication,” Opt. Commun. 245, 55–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

X. Peng, Z. Y. Cui, and T. N. Tan, “Information encryption with virtual-optics imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 212, 235–245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. T. Liu, Q. L. Mi, and B. H. Zhu, “Optical image encryption with multistage and multichannel fractional Fourier-domain filtering,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1242–1244 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Johnson, A. Menezes, and S. Vanstone, “The elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA),” Int. J. Inf. Secur. 1, 36–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

1996 (1)

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, “Random phase encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2464–2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Ahmad, M. A.

Barrera, J. F.

Bellare, M.

M. Bellare, R. Canetti, and H. Krawczyk, “Keying hash functions for message authentication,” in Advances in Cryptology—CRYPTO’96 (Springer, 1996), pp. 1–15.

Cai, L. Z.

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Yang, X. F. Xu, G. Y. Dong, X. X. Shen, H. Zhang, and X. C. Cheng, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, and G. Y. Dong, “Information security system by iterative multiple-phase retrieval and pixel random permutation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3289–3297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Cai, M. Z. He, Q. Liu, and X. L. Yang, “Digital image encryption and watermarking by phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3078–3084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Canetti, R.

M. Bellare, R. Canetti, and H. Krawczyk, “Keying hash functions for message authentication,” in Advances in Cryptology—CRYPTO’96 (Springer, 1996), pp. 1–15.

Chatwin, C.

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, “Random phase encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2464–2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. M.

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, L. F.

Chen, W.

W. Chen and X. Chen, “Object authentication in computational ghost imaging with the realizations less than 5% of Nyquist limit,” Opt. Lett. 38, 546–548 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, X. Chen, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Phase-modulated optical system with sparse representation for information encoding and authentication,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6900113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen and X. Chen, “Security-enhanced interference-based optical image encryption,” Opt. Commun. 286, 123–129 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, X. D. Chen, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Optical image encryption based on diffractive imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3817–3819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

W. Chen and X. Chen, “Object authentication in computational ghost imaging with the realizations less than 5% of Nyquist limit,” Opt. Lett. 38, 546–548 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen and X. Chen, “Security-enhanced interference-based optical image encryption,” Opt. Commun. 286, 123–129 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, X. Chen, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Phase-modulated optical system with sparse representation for information encoding and authentication,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6900113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. D.

Cheng, X. C.

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Yang, X. F. Xu, G. Y. Dong, X. X. Shen, H. Zhang, and X. C. Cheng, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Z. Y.

X. Peng, Z. Y. Cui, and T. N. Tan, “Information encryption with virtual-optics imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 212, 235–245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dong, G. Y.

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Yang, X. F. Xu, G. Y. Dong, X. X. Shen, H. Zhang, and X. C. Cheng, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, and G. Y. Dong, “Information security system by iterative multiple-phase retrieval and pixel random permutation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3289–3297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, T. J.

N. R. Zhou, T. J. Dong, and J. H. Wu, “Novel image encryption algorithm based on multiple-parameter discrete fractional random transform,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3037–3042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Glückstad, J.

P. C. Mogensen and J. Glückstad, “A phase-based optical encryption system with polarization encoding,” Opt. Commun. 173, 177–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gopinathan, U.

Guo, Q.

Hankerson, D.

D. Hankerson, A. J. Menezes, and S. Vanstone, Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography (Springer, 2004).

He, M. Z.

He, W. Q.

W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Collision in optical image encryption based on interference and a method for avoiding this security leak,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Optical hierarchical authentication based on interference and hash function,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7750–7757 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hennelly, B.

Huang, J. J.

Hwang, H. E.

Javidi, B.

Jing, F.

Johnson, D.

D. Johnson, A. Menezes, and S. Vanstone, “The elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA),” Int. J. Inf. Secur. 1, 36–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, J.

Kim, D. H.

Kim, H.

Krawczyk, H.

M. Bellare, R. Canetti, and H. Krawczyk, “Keying hash functions for message authentication,” in Advances in Cryptology—CRYPTO’96 (Springer, 1996), pp. 1–15.

Kreske, K.

Lee, Y. H.

Li, R.

G. Xu, R. Li, L. Yang, and X. Liu, “Identification and recovery of the blurred QR code image,” in International Conference on Computer Science & Service System (CSSS) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2257–2260.

Li, Y.

Liu, J.

Liu, J. A.

D. Weng, N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. H. Xie, and J. A. Liu, “Experimental verification of optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2485–2487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M. T.

S. Yuan, S. X. Yao, Y. H. Xin, and M. T. Liu, “Information hiding based on the optical interference principle,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5078–5083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Liu, S.

Liu, S. T.

Liu, X.

G. Xu, R. Li, L. Yang, and X. Liu, “Identification and recovery of the blurred QR code image,” in International Conference on Computer Science & Service System (CSSS) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2257–2260.

Liu, X. L.

W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Collision in optical image encryption based on interference and a method for avoiding this security leak,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Optical hierarchical authentication based on interference and hash function,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7750–7757 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Liu, Z. J.

Mehra, I.

I. Mehra, “Collision in Fresnel domain asymmetric cryptosystem using phase truncation and authentication verification,” Opt. Eng. 52, 028202 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Menezes, A.

D. Johnson, A. Menezes, and S. Vanstone, “The elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA),” Int. J. Inf. Secur. 1, 36–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Menezes, A. J.

D. Hankerson, A. J. Menezes, and S. Vanstone, Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography (Springer, 2004).

Meng, X. F.

W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Collision in optical image encryption based on interference and a method for avoiding this security leak,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Optical hierarchical authentication based on interference and hash function,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7750–7757 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Yang, X. F. Xu, G. Y. Dong, X. X. Shen, H. Zhang, and X. C. Cheng, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, and G. Y. Dong, “Information security system by iterative multiple-phase retrieval and pixel random permutation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3289–3297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mi, Q. L.

Mikan, S.

Mira, A.

Mogensen, P. C.

P. C. Mogensen and J. Glückstad, “A phase-based optical encryption system with polarization encoding,” Opt. Commun. 173, 177–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Monaghan, D. S.

G. Situ, D. S. Monaghan, T. J. Naughton, J. T. Sheridan, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Collision in double random phase encoding,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5122–5125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ, U. Gopinathan, D. S. Monaghan, and J. T. Sheridan, “Cryptanalysis of optical security systems with significant output images,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5257–5262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, Y.

Naughton, T. J.

G. Situ, D. S. Monaghan, T. J. Naughton, J. T. Sheridan, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Collision in double random phase encoding,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5122–5125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, T.

Osten, W.

G. Situ, D. S. Monaghan, T. J. Naughton, J. T. Sheridan, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Collision in double random phase encoding,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5122–5125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Collision in double-phase encryption based on fractional Fourier transform,” in International Conference on Optical Instrumentation and Technology (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2009), p. 751205.

Pedrini, G.

G. Situ, D. S. Monaghan, T. J. Naughton, J. T. Sheridan, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Collision in double random phase encoding,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5122–5125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Collision in double-phase encryption based on fractional Fourier transform,” in International Conference on Optical Instrumentation and Technology (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2009), p. 751205.

Peng, X.

W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Collision in optical image encryption based on interference and a method for avoiding this security leak,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Optical hierarchical authentication based on interference and hash function,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7750–7757 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, Z. Y. Cui, and T. N. Tan, “Information encryption with virtual-optics imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 212, 235–245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Refrégier, P.

Rosen, J.

Shen, X. X.

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Yang, X. F. Xu, G. Y. Dong, X. X. Shen, H. Zhang, and X. C. Cheng, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, and G. Y. Dong, “Information security system by iterative multiple-phase retrieval and pixel random permutation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3289–3297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Sheridan, J. T.

Shi, Y.

Singh, K.

Situ, G.

G. Situ, D. S. Monaghan, T. J. Naughton, J. T. Sheridan, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Collision in double random phase encoding,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5122–5125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, G. Situ, and J. Zhang, “Multiple-image hiding by information prechoosing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 542–544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ, U. Gopinathan, D. S. Monaghan, and J. T. Sheridan, “Cryptanalysis of optical security systems with significant output images,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5257–5262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Image hiding with computer-generated phase codes for optical authentication,” Opt. Commun. 245, 55–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Double random-phase encoding in the Fresnel domain,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1584–1586 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “A cascaded iterative Fourier transform algorithm for optical security applications,” Optik, 114, 473–477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Collision in double-phase encryption based on fractional Fourier transform,” in International Conference on Optical Instrumentation and Technology (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2009), p. 751205.

Stern, A.

W. Chen, X. Chen, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Phase-modulated optical system with sparse representation for information encoding and authentication,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6900113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tajahuerce, E.

Tan, T. N.

X. Peng, Z. Y. Cui, and T. N. Tan, “Information encryption with virtual-optics imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 212, 235–245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Torroba, R.

Unnikrishnan, G.

Vanstone, S.

D. Johnson, A. Menezes, and S. Vanstone, “The elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA),” Int. J. Inf. Secur. 1, 36–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hankerson, A. J. Menezes, and S. Vanstone, Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography (Springer, 2004).

Wang, B.

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, “Random phase encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2464–2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. G.

Wang, Y. R.

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Yang, X. F. Xu, G. Y. Dong, X. X. Shen, H. Zhang, and X. C. Cheng, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. T.

D. Weng, N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. H. Xie, and J. A. Liu, “Experimental verification of optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2485–2487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. Liu, J. H. Xie, and H. Zhang, “Optical image encryption based on interference of polarized light,” Opt. Express 17, 13418–13424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. A.

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, “Random phase encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2464–2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X. F.

Weng, D.

D. Weng, N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. H. Xie, and J. A. Liu, “Experimental verification of optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2485–2487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. H.

N. R. Zhou, T. J. Dong, and J. H. Wu, “Novel image encryption algorithm based on multiple-parameter discrete fractional random transform,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3037–3042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J. H.

D. Weng, N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. H. Xie, and J. A. Liu, “Experimental verification of optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2485–2487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. Liu, J. H. Xie, and H. Zhang, “Optical image encryption based on interference of polarized light,” Opt. Express 17, 13418–13424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xin, Y. H.

S. Yuan, S. X. Yao, Y. H. Xin, and M. T. Liu, “Information hiding based on the optical interference principle,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5078–5083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

G. Xu, R. Li, L. Yang, and X. Liu, “Identification and recovery of the blurred QR code image,” in International Conference on Computer Science & Service System (CSSS) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2257–2260.

Xu, L.

Xu, X. F.

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Yang, X. F. Xu, G. Y. Dong, X. X. Shen, H. Zhang, and X. C. Cheng, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

Yang, L.

G. Xu, R. Li, L. Yang, and X. Liu, “Identification and recovery of the blurred QR code image,” in International Conference on Computer Science & Service System (CSSS) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2257–2260.

Yang, X. L.

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Yang, X. F. Xu, G. Y. Dong, X. X. Shen, H. Zhang, and X. C. Cheng, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, and G. Y. Dong, “Information security system by iterative multiple-phase retrieval and pixel random permutation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3289–3297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Cai, M. Z. He, Q. Liu, and X. L. Yang, “Digital image encryption and watermarking by phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3078–3084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yao, S. X.

S. Yuan, S. X. Yao, Y. H. Xin, and M. T. Liu, “Information hiding based on the optical interference principle,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5078–5083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S.

S. Yuan, S. X. Yao, Y. H. Xin, and M. T. Liu, “Information hiding based on the optical interference principle,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5078–5083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. Liu, J. H. Xie, and H. Zhang, “Optical image encryption based on interference of polarized light,” Opt. Express 17, 13418–13424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Yang, X. F. Xu, G. Y. Dong, X. X. Shen, H. Zhang, and X. C. Cheng, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Y. Shi, G. Situ, and J. Zhang, “Multiple-image hiding by information prechoosing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 542–544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Image hiding with computer-generated phase codes for optical authentication,” Opt. Commun. 245, 55–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Double random-phase encoding in the Fresnel domain,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1584–1586 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “A cascaded iterative Fourier transform algorithm for optical security applications,” Optik, 114, 473–477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, D. M.

Zhou, N. R.

N. R. Zhou, T. J. Dong, and J. H. Wu, “Novel image encryption algorithm based on multiple-parameter discrete fractional random transform,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3037–3042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B. H.

Zhu, N.

D. Weng, N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. H. Xie, and J. A. Liu, “Experimental verification of optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2485–2487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. Liu, J. H. Xie, and H. Zhang, “Optical image encryption based on interference of polarized light,” Opt. Express 17, 13418–13424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

W. Chen, X. Chen, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Phase-modulated optical system with sparse representation for information encoding and authentication,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 6900113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Inf. Secur. (1)

D. Johnson, A. Menezes, and S. Vanstone, “The elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA),” Int. J. Inf. Secur. 1, 36–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. L. Yang, X. F. Xu, G. Y. Dong, X. X. Shen, H. Zhang, and X. C. Cheng, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (8)

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Image hiding with computer-generated phase codes for optical authentication,” Opt. Commun. 245, 55–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Weng, N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. H. Xie, and J. A. Liu, “Experimental verification of optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2485–2487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Yuan, S. X. Yao, Y. H. Xin, and M. T. Liu, “Information hiding based on the optical interference principle,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5078–5083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen and X. Chen, “Security-enhanced interference-based optical image encryption,” Opt. Commun. 286, 123–129 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Situ, D. S. Monaghan, T. J. Naughton, J. T. Sheridan, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Collision in double random phase encoding,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5122–5125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mogensen and J. Glückstad, “A phase-based optical encryption system with polarization encoding,” Opt. Commun. 173, 177–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, Z. Y. Cui, and T. N. Tan, “Information encryption with virtual-optics imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 212, 235–245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Zhou, T. J. Dong, and J. H. Wu, “Novel image encryption algorithm based on multiple-parameter discrete fractional random transform,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3037–3042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, “Random phase encoding for optical security,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2464–2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Mehra, “Collision in Fresnel domain asymmetric cryptosystem using phase truncation and authentication verification,” Opt. Eng. 52, 028202 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Collision in optical image encryption based on interference and a method for avoiding this security leak,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (9)

Optik (1)

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “A cascaded iterative Fourier transform algorithm for optical security applications,” Optik, 114, 473–477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Bellare, R. Canetti, and H. Krawczyk, “Keying hash functions for message authentication,” in Advances in Cryptology—CRYPTO’96 (Springer, 1996), pp. 1–15.

G. Situ, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Collision in double-phase encryption based on fractional Fourier transform,” in International Conference on Optical Instrumentation and Technology (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2009), p. 751205.

G. Xu, R. Li, L. Yang, and X. Liu, “Identification and recovery of the blurred QR code image,” in International Conference on Computer Science & Service System (CSSS) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2257–2260.

D. Hankerson, A. J. Menezes, and S. Vanstone, Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography (Springer, 2004).

ISO/IEC 18004: ISO Standard on QR Code 2005 Bar Code Symbology Specification.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

System design process taking Lena as the example.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Flowchart of the iterative PRA.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

User authentication process.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Standard certification image (Lena), (b) QR code of signature, and (c) noised QR code of signature.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) and (b) Two constructed phase keys.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Variation of CCs of the output image (amplitude and phase part) with the iteration times.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Variation of CCs of the output image (amplitude and phase part) with the wavelength errors.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Variation of CCs of the output image (amplitude and phase part) with the distance errors.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Output images of the authentication for various situations with the iteration time fixed as 100, independence.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Domain Parameters (Ep(a,b),G,n) for ECDSA

Tables Icon

Table 2. CCs of the Amplitude of Output Images (Each Left Column in Fig. 9) and Readability of the Phase of Output Images (Each Right Column in Fig. 9)

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g^t=gtexp(iϕt)=FrTz2{FrTz1[exp(iψ1t)]exp(iψ2t)},
ψ2t+1=angle{IFrTz2[gexp(iϕ)]FrTz1[exp(iψ1t)]},
ψ1t+1=angle{IFrTz1{IFrTz2[gexp(iϕ)]exp(iψ2t+1)}},
CC=COV(g,gt)σgσgt,
COV(g,gt)=E{[gE(g)][gtE(gt)]},
g^=gexp(iϕ)=FrTz2{FrTz1[exp(iψ1)]exp(iψ2)},

Metrics