Abstract

The influence of the size of harvested barium titanate nanoparticles on the properties of ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) nanocolloids was investigated by electro-optical and dielectric methods. The spontaneous polarization and the switching time are decreased for the liquid crystalline nanocolloids compared to nondoped FLC mixtures of different dipole strengths; this dependence is stronger for small size particles (9 nm) and weaker for larger size particles (26 nm) by the same concentration in weight. The decrease of the Goldstone mode (GM) relaxation frequency and the decrease of the dielectric GM absorption strength of the nanocomposites compared to the nondoped FLC mixture go stepwise with the increase of the nanoparticles diameter. Results have been interpreted via strong interaction between the FLC dipoles and the dipoles of the highly polar barium titanate nanoparticles.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Y. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
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  6. Z. Zhao, V. Buscaglia, M. Viviani, M. T. Buscaglia, L. Mitoseriu, A. Testino, M. Nygren, M. Johnsson, and P. Nanni, “Grain-size effects on the ferroelectric behavior of dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 024107 (2004).
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  33. T. Joshi, J. Prakash, A. Kumar, J. Gangwar, A. K. Srivastava, S. Singh, and A. M. Biradar, “Alumina nanoparticles find an application to reduce the ionic effects of ferroelectric liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D 44, 315404 (2011).
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  34. T. Joshi, A. Kumar, J. Prakash, and A. M. Biradar, “Low power operation of ferroelectric liquid crystal system dispersed with zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 253109 (2010).
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  38. A. Kumar, J. Prakash, P. Goel, T. Khan, S. K. Dhawan, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Polymeric-nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 88, 26003 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  39. A. Kumar, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Effect of polymeric nanoparticles on dielectric and electro-optical properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 024107 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  42. I. Coondoo, P. Goel, A. Malik, and A. M. Biradar, “Dielectric and polarization properties of BaTiO3 nanoparticle/ferroelectric liquid crystal colloidal suspension,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 125, 81–88 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  45. T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, and A. Levstik, “Theoretical-model of the frequency- and temperature-dependence of the dielectric-constant of ferroelectric liquid crystals near the smectic-C-star smectic-A phase-transition,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 877–889 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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2012 (4)

A. Mertelj, L. Cmok, M. Copic, G. Cook, and D. R. Evans, “Critical behavior of director fluctuations in suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals at the nematic to smectic-A phase transition,” Phys. Rev. E 85, 021705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Fan, J. W. Zha, D. R. Wang, J. Zhao, and Z. M. Dang, “Size-dependent low-frequency dielectric properties in the BaTiO3/poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 012903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Lapanik, A. Rudzki, B. Kinkead, H. Qi, T. Hegmann, and W. Haase, “Electrooptical and dielectric properties of alkylthiol-capped gold nanoparticle-ferroelectric liquid crystal nanocomposites: influence of chain length and tethered liquid crystal functional groups,” Soft Matter 8, 8722–8728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Mandal, A. Lapanik, R. Wipf, B. Stuehn, and W. Haase, “Sub-hertz relaxation process in chiral smectic mixtures doped with silver nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 073112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (12)

W. Haase, A. Lapanik, and M. Ottinger, “Nanomaterials dispersed in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8114, 81140H (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Prakash, A. Kumar, T. Joshi, D. S. Mehta, A. M. Biradar, and W. Haase, “Spontaneous polarization in smectic A phase of carbon nanotubes doped deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 541, 404–414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Garbovskiy and A. V. Glushchenko, “Liquid crystalline colloids of nanoparticles: preparation, properties, and applications,” Solid State Phys. 61, 1–74 (2011).

S. Gupta, A. Kumar, A. Srivastava, and R. Manohar, “Modification in dielectric properties of SWCNT doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1822–1826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, J. Prakash, A. Kumar, J. Gangwar, A. K. Srivastava, S. Singh, and A. M. Biradar, “Alumina nanoparticles find an application to reduce the ionic effects of ferroelectric liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D 44, 315404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Manohar, A. Srivastava, P. Tripathi, and D. Singh, “Dielectric and electro-optical study of ZnO nano rods doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Sci. 46, 5969–5976 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Y. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Shelestiuk, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and T. J. Sluckin, “Frederiks transition in ferroelectric liquid-crystal nanosuspensions,” Phys. Rev. E 83, 041705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Gorkunov and M. A. Osipov, “Mean-field theory of a nematic liquid crystal doped with anisotropic nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 7, 4348–4356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Coondoo, P. Goel, A. Malik, and A. M. Biradar, “Dielectric and polarization properties of BaTiO3 nanoparticle/ferroelectric liquid crystal colloidal suspension,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 125, 81–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, P. Nayek, S. K. Roy, R. Gangopadhyay, M. Rahaman Molla, and T. P. Majumder, “Effect of conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanotubes on electro-optical and dielectric properties of a ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 1–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

A. Kumar, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Effect of polymeric nanoparticles on dielectric and electro-optical properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 024107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Liang, Y.-Z. Xiao, F.-J. Hsh, C.-C. Wu, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the electro-optical properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals by doping ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 255–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Kurochkin, H. Atkuri, O. Buchnev, A. Glushchenko, O. Grabar, R. Karapinar, V. Reshetnyak, J. West, and Y. Reznikov, “Nano-colloids of Sn2P2S6 in nematic liquid crystal pentyl-cyanobiphenyle,” Condens. Matter Phys. 13, 33701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, A. Kumar, J. Prakash, and A. M. Biradar, “Low frequency dielectric relaxations of gold nanoparticles/ferroelectric liquid crystal composites,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1433–1438 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, A. Kumar, J. Prakash, and A. M. Biradar, “Low power operation of ferroelectric liquid crystal system dispersed with zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 253109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Podgornov, A. Ryzhkova, and W. Haase, “Influence of gold nanorods size on electro-optical and dielectric properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 212903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (8)

F. V. Podgornov, A. Suvorova, A. Lapanik, and W. Haase, “Electrooptic and dielectric properties of ferroelectric liquid crystal/single walled carbon nanotubes dispersions confined in thin cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 479, 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Arora, A. Mikulko, F. Podgornov, and W. Haase, “Dielectric and electro-optic properties of new ferroelectric liquid crystalline mixture doped with carbon nanotubes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 502, 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Li and J. Y. Huang, “Tailoring switching properties of dipolar species in ferroelectric liquid crystal with ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D 42, 125413 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, D. S. Mehta, A. M. Biradar, and W. Haase, “Enhanced photoluminescence in gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, P. Goel, T. Khan, S. K. Dhawan, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Polymeric-nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 88, 26003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Kurochkin, O. Buchnev, A. Iljin, S. K. Park, S. B. Kwon, O. Grabar, and Y. Reznikov, “A colloid of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a cholesteric liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 11, 024003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mikulko, P. Arora, A. Glushchenko, A. Lapanik, and W. Haase, “Complementary studies of BaTiO3 nanoparticles suspended in a ferroelectric liquid-crystalline mixture,” Europhys. Lett. 87, 27009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

G. Cook, A. V. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. T. Griffith, M. A. Saleh, and D. R. Evans, “Nanoparticle doped organic-inorganic hybrid photorefractives,” Opt. Express 16, 4015–4022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Huang, L. S. Li, and M. C. Chen, “Probing molecular binding effect from zinc oxide nanocrystal doping in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal with two-dimensional infrared correlation technique,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 5410–5415 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Prakash, A. Choudhary, A. Kumar, D. S. Mehta, and A. M. Biradar, “Nonvolatile memory effect based on gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 112904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

S. Kaur, S. P. Singh, A. N. Biradar, A. Choudhary, and K. Sreenivas, “Enhanced electro-optical properties in gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Buchnev, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Enhanced two-beam coupling in colloids of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1512–1516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Morozovska, M. D. Glinchuk, and E. A. Eliseev, “Phase transitions induced by confinement of ferroic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 014102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Copic, A. Mertelj, O. Buchnev, and Y. Reznikov, “Coupled director and polarization fluctuations in suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 011702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. Suzuki and K. Kijima, “Phase transformation of BaTiO3 nanoparticles synthesized by RF-plasma CVD,” J. Alloys Compd. 419, 234–242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. J. Lewis, “Interfaces: nanometric dielectrics,” J. Phys. D 38, 202–212 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Z. Zhao, V. Buscaglia, M. Viviani, M. T. Buscaglia, L. Mitoseriu, A. Testino, M. Nygren, M. Johnsson, and P. Nanni, “Grain-size effects on the ferroelectric behavior of dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 024107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

E. Ouskova, O. Buchnev, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, and H. Kresse, “Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 30, 1235–1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Stark, “Physics of colloidal dispersions in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rep. 351, 387–474 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Tsunekawa, S. Ito, T. Mori, K. Ishikawa, Z.-Q. Li, and Y. Kawazoe, “Critical size and anomalous lattice expansion in nanocrystalline BaTiO3 particles,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 3065–3070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, and A. Levstik, “Theoretical-model of the frequency- and temperature-dependence of the dielectric-constant of ferroelectric liquid crystals near the smectic-C-star smectic-A phase-transition,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 877–889 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Arora, P.

P. Arora, A. Mikulko, F. Podgornov, and W. Haase, “Dielectric and electro-optic properties of new ferroelectric liquid crystalline mixture doped with carbon nanotubes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 502, 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mikulko, P. Arora, A. Glushchenko, A. Lapanik, and W. Haase, “Complementary studies of BaTiO3 nanoparticles suspended in a ferroelectric liquid-crystalline mixture,” Europhys. Lett. 87, 27009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atkuri, H.

O. Kurochkin, H. Atkuri, O. Buchnev, A. Glushchenko, O. Grabar, R. Karapinar, V. Reshetnyak, J. West, and Y. Reznikov, “Nano-colloids of Sn2P2S6 in nematic liquid crystal pentyl-cyanobiphenyle,” Condens. Matter Phys. 13, 33701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, P. P.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. L.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Basun, S. A.

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Y. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biradar, A. M.

J. Prakash, A. Kumar, T. Joshi, D. S. Mehta, A. M. Biradar, and W. Haase, “Spontaneous polarization in smectic A phase of carbon nanotubes doped deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 541, 404–414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Coondoo, P. Goel, A. Malik, and A. M. Biradar, “Dielectric and polarization properties of BaTiO3 nanoparticle/ferroelectric liquid crystal colloidal suspension,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 125, 81–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, J. Prakash, A. Kumar, J. Gangwar, A. K. Srivastava, S. Singh, and A. M. Biradar, “Alumina nanoparticles find an application to reduce the ionic effects of ferroelectric liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D 44, 315404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, A. Kumar, J. Prakash, and A. M. Biradar, “Low power operation of ferroelectric liquid crystal system dispersed with zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 253109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Effect of polymeric nanoparticles on dielectric and electro-optical properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 024107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, A. Kumar, J. Prakash, and A. M. Biradar, “Low frequency dielectric relaxations of gold nanoparticles/ferroelectric liquid crystal composites,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1433–1438 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, D. S. Mehta, A. M. Biradar, and W. Haase, “Enhanced photoluminescence in gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, P. Goel, T. Khan, S. K. Dhawan, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Polymeric-nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 88, 26003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Prakash, A. Choudhary, A. Kumar, D. S. Mehta, and A. M. Biradar, “Nonvolatile memory effect based on gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 112904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biradar, A. N.

S. Kaur, S. P. Singh, A. N. Biradar, A. Choudhary, and K. Sreenivas, “Enhanced electro-optical properties in gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buchnev, O.

O. Kurochkin, H. Atkuri, O. Buchnev, A. Glushchenko, O. Grabar, R. Karapinar, V. Reshetnyak, J. West, and Y. Reznikov, “Nano-colloids of Sn2P2S6 in nematic liquid crystal pentyl-cyanobiphenyle,” Condens. Matter Phys. 13, 33701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Kurochkin, O. Buchnev, A. Iljin, S. K. Park, S. B. Kwon, O. Grabar, and Y. Reznikov, “A colloid of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a cholesteric liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 11, 024003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Copic, A. Mertelj, O. Buchnev, and Y. Reznikov, “Coupled director and polarization fluctuations in suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 011702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Buchnev, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Enhanced two-beam coupling in colloids of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1512–1516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, O. Buchnev, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, and H. Kresse, “Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 30, 1235–1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buscaglia, M. T.

Z. Zhao, V. Buscaglia, M. Viviani, M. T. Buscaglia, L. Mitoseriu, A. Testino, M. Nygren, M. Johnsson, and P. Nanni, “Grain-size effects on the ferroelectric behavior of dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 024107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buscaglia, V.

Z. Zhao, V. Buscaglia, M. Viviani, M. T. Buscaglia, L. Mitoseriu, A. Testino, M. Nygren, M. Johnsson, and P. Nanni, “Grain-size effects on the ferroelectric behavior of dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 024107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carlsson, T.

T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, and A. Levstik, “Theoretical-model of the frequency- and temperature-dependence of the dielectric-constant of ferroelectric liquid crystals near the smectic-C-star smectic-A phase-transition,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 877–889 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. C.

J. Y. Huang, L. S. Li, and M. C. Chen, “Probing molecular binding effect from zinc oxide nanocrystal doping in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal with two-dimensional infrared correlation technique,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 5410–5415 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheon, C.-I.

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choudhary, A.

J. Prakash, A. Choudhary, A. Kumar, D. S. Mehta, and A. M. Biradar, “Nonvolatile memory effect based on gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 112904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaur, S. P. Singh, A. N. Biradar, A. Choudhary, and K. Sreenivas, “Enhanced electro-optical properties in gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cmok, L.

A. Mertelj, L. Cmok, M. Copic, G. Cook, and D. R. Evans, “Critical behavior of director fluctuations in suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals at the nematic to smectic-A phase transition,” Phys. Rev. E 85, 021705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cook, G.

A. Mertelj, L. Cmok, M. Copic, G. Cook, and D. R. Evans, “Critical behavior of director fluctuations in suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals at the nematic to smectic-A phase transition,” Phys. Rev. E 85, 021705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Y. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, A. V. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. T. Griffith, M. A. Saleh, and D. R. Evans, “Nanoparticle doped organic-inorganic hybrid photorefractives,” Opt. Express 16, 4015–4022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coondoo, I.

I. Coondoo, P. Goel, A. Malik, and A. M. Biradar, “Dielectric and polarization properties of BaTiO3 nanoparticle/ferroelectric liquid crystal colloidal suspension,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 125, 81–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Copic, M.

A. Mertelj, L. Cmok, M. Copic, G. Cook, and D. R. Evans, “Critical behavior of director fluctuations in suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals at the nematic to smectic-A phase transition,” Phys. Rev. E 85, 021705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Copic, A. Mertelj, O. Buchnev, and Y. Reznikov, “Coupled director and polarization fluctuations in suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 011702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dang, Z. M.

B. H. Fan, J. W. Zha, D. R. Wang, J. Zhao, and Z. M. Dang, “Size-dependent low-frequency dielectric properties in the BaTiO3/poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 012903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dhawan, S. K.

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, P. Goel, T. Khan, S. K. Dhawan, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Polymeric-nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 88, 26003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dyadyusha, A.

Eliseev, E. A.

A. N. Morozovska, M. D. Glinchuk, and E. A. Eliseev, “Phase transitions induced by confinement of ferroic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 014102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Evans, D. R.

A. Mertelj, L. Cmok, M. Copic, G. Cook, and D. R. Evans, “Critical behavior of director fluctuations in suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals at the nematic to smectic-A phase transition,” Phys. Rev. E 85, 021705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Y. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, A. V. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. T. Griffith, M. A. Saleh, and D. R. Evans, “Nanoparticle doped organic-inorganic hybrid photorefractives,” Opt. Express 16, 4015–4022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, B. H.

B. H. Fan, J. W. Zha, D. R. Wang, J. Zhao, and Z. M. Dang, “Size-dependent low-frequency dielectric properties in the BaTiO3/poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 012903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Filipic, C.

T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, and A. Levstik, “Theoretical-model of the frequency- and temperature-dependence of the dielectric-constant of ferroelectric liquid crystals near the smectic-C-star smectic-A phase-transition,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 877–889 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, R.

S. Ghosh, P. Nayek, S. K. Roy, R. Gangopadhyay, M. Rahaman Molla, and T. P. Majumder, “Effect of conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanotubes on electro-optical and dielectric properties of a ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 1–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gangwar, J.

T. Joshi, J. Prakash, A. Kumar, J. Gangwar, A. K. Srivastava, S. Singh, and A. M. Biradar, “Alumina nanoparticles find an application to reduce the ionic effects of ferroelectric liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D 44, 315404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Garbovskiy, Y. A.

Y. A. Garbovskiy and A. V. Glushchenko, “Liquid crystalline colloids of nanoparticles: preparation, properties, and applications,” Solid State Phys. 61, 1–74 (2011).

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh, P. Nayek, S. K. Roy, R. Gangopadhyay, M. Rahaman Molla, and T. P. Majumder, “Effect of conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanotubes on electro-optical and dielectric properties of a ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 1–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Glinchuk, M. D.

A. N. Morozovska, M. D. Glinchuk, and E. A. Eliseev, “Phase transitions induced by confinement of ferroic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 014102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Glushchenko, A.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Kurochkin, H. Atkuri, O. Buchnev, A. Glushchenko, O. Grabar, R. Karapinar, V. Reshetnyak, J. West, and Y. Reznikov, “Nano-colloids of Sn2P2S6 in nematic liquid crystal pentyl-cyanobiphenyle,” Condens. Matter Phys. 13, 33701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mikulko, P. Arora, A. Glushchenko, A. Lapanik, and W. Haase, “Complementary studies of BaTiO3 nanoparticles suspended in a ferroelectric liquid-crystalline mixture,” Europhys. Lett. 87, 27009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Glushchenko, A. V.

Y. A. Garbovskiy and A. V. Glushchenko, “Liquid crystalline colloids of nanoparticles: preparation, properties, and applications,” Solid State Phys. 61, 1–74 (2011).

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, A. V. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. T. Griffith, M. A. Saleh, and D. R. Evans, “Nanoparticle doped organic-inorganic hybrid photorefractives,” Opt. Express 16, 4015–4022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goel, P.

I. Coondoo, P. Goel, A. Malik, and A. M. Biradar, “Dielectric and polarization properties of BaTiO3 nanoparticle/ferroelectric liquid crystal colloidal suspension,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 125, 81–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, P. Goel, T. Khan, S. K. Dhawan, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Polymeric-nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 88, 26003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gorkunov, M. V.

M. V. Gorkunov and M. A. Osipov, “Mean-field theory of a nematic liquid crystal doped with anisotropic nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 7, 4348–4356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grabar, O.

O. Kurochkin, H. Atkuri, O. Buchnev, A. Glushchenko, O. Grabar, R. Karapinar, V. Reshetnyak, J. West, and Y. Reznikov, “Nano-colloids of Sn2P2S6 in nematic liquid crystal pentyl-cyanobiphenyle,” Condens. Matter Phys. 13, 33701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Kurochkin, O. Buchnev, A. Iljin, S. K. Park, S. B. Kwon, O. Grabar, and Y. Reznikov, “A colloid of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a cholesteric liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 11, 024003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Griffith, A. T.

Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, A. Kumar, A. Srivastava, and R. Manohar, “Modification in dielectric properties of SWCNT doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1822–1826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haase, W.

A. Lapanik, A. Rudzki, B. Kinkead, H. Qi, T. Hegmann, and W. Haase, “Electrooptical and dielectric properties of alkylthiol-capped gold nanoparticle-ferroelectric liquid crystal nanocomposites: influence of chain length and tethered liquid crystal functional groups,” Soft Matter 8, 8722–8728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Mandal, A. Lapanik, R. Wipf, B. Stuehn, and W. Haase, “Sub-hertz relaxation process in chiral smectic mixtures doped with silver nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 073112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Haase, A. Lapanik, and M. Ottinger, “Nanomaterials dispersed in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8114, 81140H (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Prakash, A. Kumar, T. Joshi, D. S. Mehta, A. M. Biradar, and W. Haase, “Spontaneous polarization in smectic A phase of carbon nanotubes doped deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 541, 404–414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Podgornov, A. Ryzhkova, and W. Haase, “Influence of gold nanorods size on electro-optical and dielectric properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 212903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Podgornov, A. Suvorova, A. Lapanik, and W. Haase, “Electrooptic and dielectric properties of ferroelectric liquid crystal/single walled carbon nanotubes dispersions confined in thin cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 479, 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, D. S. Mehta, A. M. Biradar, and W. Haase, “Enhanced photoluminescence in gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Arora, A. Mikulko, F. Podgornov, and W. Haase, “Dielectric and electro-optic properties of new ferroelectric liquid crystalline mixture doped with carbon nanotubes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 502, 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mikulko, P. Arora, A. Glushchenko, A. Lapanik, and W. Haase, “Complementary studies of BaTiO3 nanoparticles suspended in a ferroelectric liquid-crystalline mixture,” Europhys. Lett. 87, 27009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Haase, “Change of dielectric parameters of ferroelectric liquid crystals by doping with various nanoparticles,” Crystals (to be published).

Hegmann, T.

A. Lapanik, A. Rudzki, B. Kinkead, H. Qi, T. Hegmann, and W. Haase, “Electrooptical and dielectric properties of alkylthiol-capped gold nanoparticle-ferroelectric liquid crystal nanocomposites: influence of chain length and tethered liquid crystal functional groups,” Soft Matter 8, 8722–8728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsh, F.-J.

H.-H. Liang, Y.-Z. Xiao, F.-J. Hsh, C.-C. Wu, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the electro-optical properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals by doping ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 255–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. Y.

L.-S. Li and J. Y. Huang, “Tailoring switching properties of dipolar species in ferroelectric liquid crystal with ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D 42, 125413 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Huang, L. S. Li, and M. C. Chen, “Probing molecular binding effect from zinc oxide nanocrystal doping in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal with two-dimensional infrared correlation technique,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 5410–5415 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iljin, A.

O. Kurochkin, O. Buchnev, A. Iljin, S. K. Park, S. B. Kwon, O. Grabar, and Y. Reznikov, “A colloid of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a cholesteric liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 11, 024003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

S. Tsunekawa, S. Ito, T. Mori, K. Ishikawa, Z.-Q. Li, and Y. Kawazoe, “Critical size and anomalous lattice expansion in nanocrystalline BaTiO3 particles,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 3065–3070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ito, S.

S. Tsunekawa, S. Ito, T. Mori, K. Ishikawa, Z.-Q. Li, and Y. Kawazoe, “Critical size and anomalous lattice expansion in nanocrystalline BaTiO3 particles,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 3065–3070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnsson, M.

Z. Zhao, V. Buscaglia, M. Viviani, M. T. Buscaglia, L. Mitoseriu, A. Testino, M. Nygren, M. Johnsson, and P. Nanni, “Grain-size effects on the ferroelectric behavior of dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 024107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, T.

J. Prakash, A. Kumar, T. Joshi, D. S. Mehta, A. M. Biradar, and W. Haase, “Spontaneous polarization in smectic A phase of carbon nanotubes doped deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 541, 404–414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, J. Prakash, A. Kumar, J. Gangwar, A. K. Srivastava, S. Singh, and A. M. Biradar, “Alumina nanoparticles find an application to reduce the ionic effects of ferroelectric liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D 44, 315404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, A. Kumar, J. Prakash, and A. M. Biradar, “Low power operation of ferroelectric liquid crystal system dispersed with zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 253109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, A. Kumar, J. Prakash, and A. M. Biradar, “Low frequency dielectric relaxations of gold nanoparticles/ferroelectric liquid crystal composites,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1433–1438 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaczmarek, M.

Karapinar, R.

O. Kurochkin, H. Atkuri, O. Buchnev, A. Glushchenko, O. Grabar, R. Karapinar, V. Reshetnyak, J. West, and Y. Reznikov, “Nano-colloids of Sn2P2S6 in nematic liquid crystal pentyl-cyanobiphenyle,” Condens. Matter Phys. 13, 33701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaur, S.

S. Kaur, S. P. Singh, A. N. Biradar, A. Choudhary, and K. Sreenivas, “Enhanced electro-optical properties in gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, Y.

S. Tsunekawa, S. Ito, T. Mori, K. Ishikawa, Z.-Q. Li, and Y. Kawazoe, “Critical size and anomalous lattice expansion in nanocrystalline BaTiO3 particles,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 3065–3070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khan, T.

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, P. Goel, T. Khan, S. K. Dhawan, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Polymeric-nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 88, 26003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kijima, K.

K. Suzuki and K. Kijima, “Phase transformation of BaTiO3 nanoparticles synthesized by RF-plasma CVD,” J. Alloys Compd. 419, 234–242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kinkead, B.

A. Lapanik, A. Rudzki, B. Kinkead, H. Qi, T. Hegmann, and W. Haase, “Electrooptical and dielectric properties of alkylthiol-capped gold nanoparticle-ferroelectric liquid crystal nanocomposites: influence of chain length and tethered liquid crystal functional groups,” Soft Matter 8, 8722–8728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kresse, H.

E. Ouskova, O. Buchnev, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, and H. Kresse, “Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 30, 1235–1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

J. Prakash, A. Kumar, T. Joshi, D. S. Mehta, A. M. Biradar, and W. Haase, “Spontaneous polarization in smectic A phase of carbon nanotubes doped deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 541, 404–414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, J. Prakash, A. Kumar, J. Gangwar, A. K. Srivastava, S. Singh, and A. M. Biradar, “Alumina nanoparticles find an application to reduce the ionic effects of ferroelectric liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D 44, 315404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Gupta, A. Kumar, A. Srivastava, and R. Manohar, “Modification in dielectric properties of SWCNT doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1822–1826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, A. Kumar, J. Prakash, and A. M. Biradar, “Low power operation of ferroelectric liquid crystal system dispersed with zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 253109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Effect of polymeric nanoparticles on dielectric and electro-optical properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 024107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, A. Kumar, J. Prakash, and A. M. Biradar, “Low frequency dielectric relaxations of gold nanoparticles/ferroelectric liquid crystal composites,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1433–1438 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, D. S. Mehta, A. M. Biradar, and W. Haase, “Enhanced photoluminescence in gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, P. Goel, T. Khan, S. K. Dhawan, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Polymeric-nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 88, 26003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Prakash, A. Choudhary, A. Kumar, D. S. Mehta, and A. M. Biradar, “Nonvolatile memory effect based on gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 112904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kurochkin, O.

O. Kurochkin, H. Atkuri, O. Buchnev, A. Glushchenko, O. Grabar, R. Karapinar, V. Reshetnyak, J. West, and Y. Reznikov, “Nano-colloids of Sn2P2S6 in nematic liquid crystal pentyl-cyanobiphenyle,” Condens. Matter Phys. 13, 33701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Kurochkin, O. Buchnev, A. Iljin, S. K. Park, S. B. Kwon, O. Grabar, and Y. Reznikov, “A colloid of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a cholesteric liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 11, 024003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. B.

O. Kurochkin, O. Buchnev, A. Iljin, S. K. Park, S. B. Kwon, O. Grabar, and Y. Reznikov, “A colloid of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a cholesteric liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 11, 024003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lapanik, A.

A. Lapanik, A. Rudzki, B. Kinkead, H. Qi, T. Hegmann, and W. Haase, “Electrooptical and dielectric properties of alkylthiol-capped gold nanoparticle-ferroelectric liquid crystal nanocomposites: influence of chain length and tethered liquid crystal functional groups,” Soft Matter 8, 8722–8728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Mandal, A. Lapanik, R. Wipf, B. Stuehn, and W. Haase, “Sub-hertz relaxation process in chiral smectic mixtures doped with silver nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 073112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Haase, A. Lapanik, and M. Ottinger, “Nanomaterials dispersed in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8114, 81140H (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Podgornov, A. Suvorova, A. Lapanik, and W. Haase, “Electrooptic and dielectric properties of ferroelectric liquid crystal/single walled carbon nanotubes dispersions confined in thin cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 479, 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mikulko, P. Arora, A. Glushchenko, A. Lapanik, and W. Haase, “Complementary studies of BaTiO3 nanoparticles suspended in a ferroelectric liquid-crystalline mixture,” Europhys. Lett. 87, 27009 (2009).
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H.-H. Liang, Y.-Z. Xiao, F.-J. Hsh, C.-C. Wu, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the electro-optical properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals by doping ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 255–261 (2010).
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Levstik, A.

T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, and A. Levstik, “Theoretical-model of the frequency- and temperature-dependence of the dielectric-constant of ferroelectric liquid crystals near the smectic-C-star smectic-A phase-transition,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 877–889 (1990).
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J. Y. Huang, L. S. Li, and M. C. Chen, “Probing molecular binding effect from zinc oxide nanocrystal doping in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal with two-dimensional infrared correlation technique,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 5410–5415 (2008).
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L.-S. Li and J. Y. Huang, “Tailoring switching properties of dipolar species in ferroelectric liquid crystal with ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D 42, 125413 (2009).
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Li, Z.-Q.

S. Tsunekawa, S. Ito, T. Mori, K. Ishikawa, Z.-Q. Li, and Y. Kawazoe, “Critical size and anomalous lattice expansion in nanocrystalline BaTiO3 particles,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 3065–3070 (2000).
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Liang, H.-H.

H.-H. Liang, Y.-Z. Xiao, F.-J. Hsh, C.-C. Wu, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the electro-optical properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals by doping ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 255–261 (2010).
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Majumder, T. P.

S. Ghosh, P. Nayek, S. K. Roy, R. Gangopadhyay, M. Rahaman Molla, and T. P. Majumder, “Effect of conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanotubes on electro-optical and dielectric properties of a ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 1–6 (2011).
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Malik, A.

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P. K. Mandal, A. Lapanik, R. Wipf, B. Stuehn, and W. Haase, “Sub-hertz relaxation process in chiral smectic mixtures doped with silver nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 073112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Manohar, R.

R. Manohar, A. Srivastava, P. Tripathi, and D. Singh, “Dielectric and electro-optical study of ZnO nano rods doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Sci. 46, 5969–5976 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Gupta, A. Kumar, A. Srivastava, and R. Manohar, “Modification in dielectric properties of SWCNT doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1822–1826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, D. S.

J. Prakash, A. Kumar, T. Joshi, D. S. Mehta, A. M. Biradar, and W. Haase, “Spontaneous polarization in smectic A phase of carbon nanotubes doped deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 541, 404–414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, D. S. Mehta, A. M. Biradar, and W. Haase, “Enhanced photoluminescence in gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Prakash, A. Choudhary, A. Kumar, D. S. Mehta, and A. M. Biradar, “Nonvolatile memory effect based on gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 112904 (2008).
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Mertelj, A.

A. Mertelj, L. Cmok, M. Copic, G. Cook, and D. R. Evans, “Critical behavior of director fluctuations in suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals at the nematic to smectic-A phase transition,” Phys. Rev. E 85, 021705 (2012).
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M. Copic, A. Mertelj, O. Buchnev, and Y. Reznikov, “Coupled director and polarization fluctuations in suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 011702 (2007).
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Mikulko, A.

P. Arora, A. Mikulko, F. Podgornov, and W. Haase, “Dielectric and electro-optic properties of new ferroelectric liquid crystalline mixture doped with carbon nanotubes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 502, 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mikulko, P. Arora, A. Glushchenko, A. Lapanik, and W. Haase, “Complementary studies of BaTiO3 nanoparticles suspended in a ferroelectric liquid-crystalline mixture,” Europhys. Lett. 87, 27009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitoseriu, L.

Z. Zhao, V. Buscaglia, M. Viviani, M. T. Buscaglia, L. Mitoseriu, A. Testino, M. Nygren, M. Johnsson, and P. Nanni, “Grain-size effects on the ferroelectric behavior of dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 024107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mori, T.

S. Tsunekawa, S. Ito, T. Mori, K. Ishikawa, Z.-Q. Li, and Y. Kawazoe, “Critical size and anomalous lattice expansion in nanocrystalline BaTiO3 particles,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 3065–3070 (2000).
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A. N. Morozovska, M. D. Glinchuk, and E. A. Eliseev, “Phase transitions induced by confinement of ferroic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 014102 (2007).
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Nanni, P.

Z. Zhao, V. Buscaglia, M. Viviani, M. T. Buscaglia, L. Mitoseriu, A. Testino, M. Nygren, M. Johnsson, and P. Nanni, “Grain-size effects on the ferroelectric behavior of dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 024107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nayek, P.

S. Ghosh, P. Nayek, S. K. Roy, R. Gangopadhyay, M. Rahaman Molla, and T. P. Majumder, “Effect of conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanotubes on electro-optical and dielectric properties of a ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 1–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nygren, M.

Z. Zhao, V. Buscaglia, M. Viviani, M. T. Buscaglia, L. Mitoseriu, A. Testino, M. Nygren, M. Johnsson, and P. Nanni, “Grain-size effects on the ferroelectric behavior of dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 024107 (2004).
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M. V. Gorkunov and M. A. Osipov, “Mean-field theory of a nematic liquid crystal doped with anisotropic nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 7, 4348–4356 (2011).
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W. Haase, A. Lapanik, and M. Ottinger, “Nanomaterials dispersed in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8114, 81140H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ouskova, E.

E. Ouskova, O. Buchnev, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, and H. Kresse, “Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 30, 1235–1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. K.

O. Kurochkin, O. Buchnev, A. Iljin, S. K. Park, S. B. Kwon, O. Grabar, and Y. Reznikov, “A colloid of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a cholesteric liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 11, 024003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pinkevych, I. P.

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Y. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Podgornov, F.

P. Arora, A. Mikulko, F. Podgornov, and W. Haase, “Dielectric and electro-optic properties of new ferroelectric liquid crystalline mixture doped with carbon nanotubes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 502, 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Podgornov, F. V.

F. V. Podgornov, A. Ryzhkova, and W. Haase, “Influence of gold nanorods size on electro-optical and dielectric properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 212903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Podgornov, A. Suvorova, A. Lapanik, and W. Haase, “Electrooptic and dielectric properties of ferroelectric liquid crystal/single walled carbon nanotubes dispersions confined in thin cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 479, 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ponce, A.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prakash, J.

J. Prakash, A. Kumar, T. Joshi, D. S. Mehta, A. M. Biradar, and W. Haase, “Spontaneous polarization in smectic A phase of carbon nanotubes doped deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 541, 404–414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, J. Prakash, A. Kumar, J. Gangwar, A. K. Srivastava, S. Singh, and A. M. Biradar, “Alumina nanoparticles find an application to reduce the ionic effects of ferroelectric liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D 44, 315404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, A. Kumar, J. Prakash, and A. M. Biradar, “Low power operation of ferroelectric liquid crystal system dispersed with zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 253109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, A. Kumar, J. Prakash, and A. M. Biradar, “Low frequency dielectric relaxations of gold nanoparticles/ferroelectric liquid crystal composites,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1433–1438 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, D. S. Mehta, A. M. Biradar, and W. Haase, “Enhanced photoluminescence in gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, P. Goel, T. Khan, S. K. Dhawan, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Polymeric-nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 88, 26003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Prakash, A. Choudhary, A. Kumar, D. S. Mehta, and A. M. Biradar, “Nonvolatile memory effect based on gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 112904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qi, H.

A. Lapanik, A. Rudzki, B. Kinkead, H. Qi, T. Hegmann, and W. Haase, “Electrooptical and dielectric properties of alkylthiol-capped gold nanoparticle-ferroelectric liquid crystal nanocomposites: influence of chain length and tethered liquid crystal functional groups,” Soft Matter 8, 8722–8728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rahaman Molla, M.

S. Ghosh, P. Nayek, S. K. Roy, R. Gangopadhyay, M. Rahaman Molla, and T. P. Majumder, “Effect of conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanotubes on electro-optical and dielectric properties of a ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 1–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V.

O. Kurochkin, H. Atkuri, O. Buchnev, A. Glushchenko, O. Grabar, R. Karapinar, V. Reshetnyak, J. West, and Y. Reznikov, “Nano-colloids of Sn2P2S6 in nematic liquid crystal pentyl-cyanobiphenyle,” Condens. Matter Phys. 13, 33701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, A. V. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. T. Griffith, M. A. Saleh, and D. R. Evans, “Nanoparticle doped organic-inorganic hybrid photorefractives,” Opt. Express 16, 4015–4022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Buchnev, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Enhanced two-beam coupling in colloids of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1512–1516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, O. Buchnev, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, and H. Kresse, “Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 30, 1235–1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V. Y.

S. M. Shelestiuk, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and T. J. Sluckin, “Frederiks transition in ferroelectric liquid-crystal nanosuspensions,” Phys. Rev. E 83, 041705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Y. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V. Yu.

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Y.

O. Kurochkin, H. Atkuri, O. Buchnev, A. Glushchenko, O. Grabar, R. Karapinar, V. Reshetnyak, J. West, and Y. Reznikov, “Nano-colloids of Sn2P2S6 in nematic liquid crystal pentyl-cyanobiphenyle,” Condens. Matter Phys. 13, 33701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Kurochkin, O. Buchnev, A. Iljin, S. K. Park, S. B. Kwon, O. Grabar, and Y. Reznikov, “A colloid of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a cholesteric liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 11, 024003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Buchnev, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Enhanced two-beam coupling in colloids of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1512–1516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Copic, A. Mertelj, O. Buchnev, and Y. Reznikov, “Coupled director and polarization fluctuations in suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 011702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, O. Buchnev, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, and H. Kresse, “Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 30, 1235–1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roy, S. K.

S. Ghosh, P. Nayek, S. K. Roy, R. Gangopadhyay, M. Rahaman Molla, and T. P. Majumder, “Effect of conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanotubes on electro-optical and dielectric properties of a ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 1–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rudzki, A.

A. Lapanik, A. Rudzki, B. Kinkead, H. Qi, T. Hegmann, and W. Haase, “Electrooptical and dielectric properties of alkylthiol-capped gold nanoparticle-ferroelectric liquid crystal nanocomposites: influence of chain length and tethered liquid crystal functional groups,” Soft Matter 8, 8722–8728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ryzhkova, A.

F. V. Podgornov, A. Ryzhkova, and W. Haase, “Influence of gold nanorods size on electro-optical and dielectric properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 212903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, M. A.

Shelestiuk, S. M.

S. M. Shelestiuk, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and T. J. Sluckin, “Frederiks transition in ferroelectric liquid-crystal nanosuspensions,” Phys. Rev. E 83, 041705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Silotia, P.

A. Kumar, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Effect of polymeric nanoparticles on dielectric and electro-optical properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 024107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, P. Goel, T. Khan, S. K. Dhawan, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Polymeric-nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 88, 26003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singh, D.

R. Manohar, A. Srivastava, P. Tripathi, and D. Singh, “Dielectric and electro-optical study of ZnO nano rods doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Sci. 46, 5969–5976 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S.

T. Joshi, J. Prakash, A. Kumar, J. Gangwar, A. K. Srivastava, S. Singh, and A. M. Biradar, “Alumina nanoparticles find an application to reduce the ionic effects of ferroelectric liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D 44, 315404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S. P.

S. Kaur, S. P. Singh, A. N. Biradar, A. Choudhary, and K. Sreenivas, “Enhanced electro-optical properties in gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sluckin, T. J.

S. M. Shelestiuk, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and T. J. Sluckin, “Frederiks transition in ferroelectric liquid-crystal nanosuspensions,” Phys. Rev. E 83, 041705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sreenivas, K.

S. Kaur, S. P. Singh, A. N. Biradar, A. Choudhary, and K. Sreenivas, “Enhanced electro-optical properties in gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A.

S. Gupta, A. Kumar, A. Srivastava, and R. Manohar, “Modification in dielectric properties of SWCNT doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1822–1826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Manohar, A. Srivastava, P. Tripathi, and D. Singh, “Dielectric and electro-optical study of ZnO nano rods doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Sci. 46, 5969–5976 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A. K.

T. Joshi, J. Prakash, A. Kumar, J. Gangwar, A. K. Srivastava, S. Singh, and A. M. Biradar, “Alumina nanoparticles find an application to reduce the ionic effects of ferroelectric liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D 44, 315404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stark, H.

H. Stark, “Physics of colloidal dispersions in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rep. 351, 387–474 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stuehn, B.

P. K. Mandal, A. Lapanik, R. Wipf, B. Stuehn, and W. Haase, “Sub-hertz relaxation process in chiral smectic mixtures doped with silver nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 073112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Suvorova, A.

F. V. Podgornov, A. Suvorova, A. Lapanik, and W. Haase, “Electrooptic and dielectric properties of ferroelectric liquid crystal/single walled carbon nanotubes dispersions confined in thin cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 479, 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki and K. Kijima, “Phase transformation of BaTiO3 nanoparticles synthesized by RF-plasma CVD,” J. Alloys Compd. 419, 234–242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Testino, A.

Z. Zhao, V. Buscaglia, M. Viviani, M. T. Buscaglia, L. Mitoseriu, A. Testino, M. Nygren, M. Johnsson, and P. Nanni, “Grain-size effects on the ferroelectric behavior of dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 024107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, P.

R. Manohar, A. Srivastava, P. Tripathi, and D. Singh, “Dielectric and electro-optical study of ZnO nano rods doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Sci. 46, 5969–5976 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsunekawa, S.

S. Tsunekawa, S. Ito, T. Mori, K. Ishikawa, Z.-Q. Li, and Y. Kawazoe, “Critical size and anomalous lattice expansion in nanocrystalline BaTiO3 particles,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 3065–3070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Viviani, M.

Z. Zhao, V. Buscaglia, M. Viviani, M. T. Buscaglia, L. Mitoseriu, A. Testino, M. Nygren, M. Johnsson, and P. Nanni, “Grain-size effects on the ferroelectric behavior of dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 024107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. R.

B. H. Fan, J. W. Zha, D. R. Wang, J. Zhao, and Z. M. Dang, “Size-dependent low-frequency dielectric properties in the BaTiO3/poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 012903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

West, J.

O. Kurochkin, H. Atkuri, O. Buchnev, A. Glushchenko, O. Grabar, R. Karapinar, V. Reshetnyak, J. West, and Y. Reznikov, “Nano-colloids of Sn2P2S6 in nematic liquid crystal pentyl-cyanobiphenyle,” Condens. Matter Phys. 13, 33701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wipf, R.

P. K. Mandal, A. Lapanik, R. Wipf, B. Stuehn, and W. Haase, “Sub-hertz relaxation process in chiral smectic mixtures doped with silver nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 073112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-C.

H.-H. Liang, Y.-Z. Xiao, F.-J. Hsh, C.-C. Wu, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the electro-optical properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals by doping ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 255–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y.-Z.

H.-H. Liang, Y.-Z. Xiao, F.-J. Hsh, C.-C. Wu, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the electro-optical properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals by doping ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 255–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeks, B.

T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, and A. Levstik, “Theoretical-model of the frequency- and temperature-dependence of the dielectric-constant of ferroelectric liquid crystals near the smectic-C-star smectic-A phase-transition,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 877–889 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zha, J. W.

B. H. Fan, J. W. Zha, D. R. Wang, J. Zhao, and Z. M. Dang, “Size-dependent low-frequency dielectric properties in the BaTiO3/poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 012903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

B. H. Fan, J. W. Zha, D. R. Wang, J. Zhao, and Z. M. Dang, “Size-dependent low-frequency dielectric properties in the BaTiO3/poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 012903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Zhao, V. Buscaglia, M. Viviani, M. T. Buscaglia, L. Mitoseriu, A. Testino, M. Nygren, M. Johnsson, and P. Nanni, “Grain-size effects on the ferroelectric behavior of dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 024107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ziolo, R. F.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

B. H. Fan, J. W. Zha, D. R. Wang, J. Zhao, and Z. M. Dang, “Size-dependent low-frequency dielectric properties in the BaTiO3/poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 012903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaur, S. P. Singh, A. N. Biradar, A. Choudhary, and K. Sreenivas, “Enhanced electro-optical properties in gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, D. S. Mehta, A. M. Biradar, and W. Haase, “Enhanced photoluminescence in gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 023117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. V. Podgornov, A. Ryzhkova, and W. Haase, “Influence of gold nanorods size on electro-optical and dielectric properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 212903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Prakash, A. Choudhary, A. Kumar, D. S. Mehta, and A. M. Biradar, “Nonvolatile memory effect based on gold nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 112904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Mandal, A. Lapanik, R. Wipf, B. Stuehn, and W. Haase, “Sub-hertz relaxation process in chiral smectic mixtures doped with silver nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 073112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, A. Kumar, J. Prakash, and A. M. Biradar, “Low power operation of ferroelectric liquid crystal system dispersed with zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 253109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. V. Podgornov, A. Suvorova, A. Lapanik, and W. Haase, “Electrooptic and dielectric properties of ferroelectric liquid crystal/single walled carbon nanotubes dispersions confined in thin cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 479, 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Condens. Matter Phys. (1)

O. Kurochkin, H. Atkuri, O. Buchnev, A. Glushchenko, O. Grabar, R. Karapinar, V. Reshetnyak, J. West, and Y. Reznikov, “Nano-colloids of Sn2P2S6 in nematic liquid crystal pentyl-cyanobiphenyle,” Condens. Matter Phys. 13, 33701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

S. Ghosh, P. Nayek, S. K. Roy, R. Gangopadhyay, M. Rahaman Molla, and T. P. Majumder, “Effect of conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanotubes on electro-optical and dielectric properties of a ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 1–6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (2)

A. Mikulko, P. Arora, A. Glushchenko, A. Lapanik, and W. Haase, “Complementary studies of BaTiO3 nanoparticles suspended in a ferroelectric liquid-crystalline mixture,” Europhys. Lett. 87, 27009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, J. Prakash, P. Goel, T. Khan, S. K. Dhawan, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Polymeric-nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 88, 26003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Integr. Ferroelectr. (1)

I. Coondoo, P. Goel, A. Malik, and A. M. Biradar, “Dielectric and polarization properties of BaTiO3 nanoparticle/ferroelectric liquid crystal colloidal suspension,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 125, 81–88 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

K. Suzuki and K. Kijima, “Phase transformation of BaTiO3 nanoparticles synthesized by RF-plasma CVD,” J. Alloys Compd. 419, 234–242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, P. Silotia, and A. M. Biradar, “Effect of polymeric nanoparticles on dielectric and electro-optical properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 024107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

R. Manohar, A. Srivastava, P. Tripathi, and D. Singh, “Dielectric and electro-optical study of ZnO nano rods doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Sci. 46, 5969–5976 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

S. Gupta, A. Kumar, A. Srivastava, and R. Manohar, “Modification in dielectric properties of SWCNT doped ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 1822–1826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (2)

O. Kurochkin, O. Buchnev, A. Iljin, S. K. Park, S. B. Kwon, O. Grabar, and Y. Reznikov, “A colloid of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a cholesteric liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 11, 024003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

J. Y. Huang, L. S. Li, and M. C. Chen, “Probing molecular binding effect from zinc oxide nanocrystal doping in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal with two-dimensional infrared correlation technique,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 5410–5415 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (3)

L.-S. Li and J. Y. Huang, “Tailoring switching properties of dipolar species in ferroelectric liquid crystal with ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D 42, 125413 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, J. Prakash, A. Kumar, J. Gangwar, A. K. Srivastava, S. Singh, and A. M. Biradar, “Alumina nanoparticles find an application to reduce the ionic effects of ferroelectric liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D 44, 315404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Lewis, “Interfaces: nanometric dielectrics,” J. Phys. D 38, 202–212 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (3)

H.-H. Liang, Y.-Z. Xiao, F.-J. Hsh, C.-C. Wu, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the electro-optical properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals by doping ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 255–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Joshi, A. Kumar, J. Prakash, and A. M. Biradar, “Low frequency dielectric relaxations of gold nanoparticles/ferroelectric liquid crystal composites,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1433–1438 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, O. Buchnev, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, and H. Kresse, “Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 30, 1235–1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (2)

J. Prakash, A. Kumar, T. Joshi, D. S. Mehta, A. M. Biradar, and W. Haase, “Spontaneous polarization in smectic A phase of carbon nanotubes doped deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 541, 404–414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Arora, A. Mikulko, F. Podgornov, and W. Haase, “Dielectric and electro-optic properties of new ferroelectric liquid crystalline mixture doped with carbon nanotubes,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 502, 1–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

H. Stark, “Physics of colloidal dispersions in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rep. 351, 387–474 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, and A. Levstik, “Theoretical-model of the frequency- and temperature-dependence of the dielectric-constant of ferroelectric liquid crystals near the smectic-C-star smectic-A phase-transition,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 877–889 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (5)

Z. Zhao, V. Buscaglia, M. Viviani, M. T. Buscaglia, L. Mitoseriu, A. Testino, M. Nygren, M. Johnsson, and P. Nanni, “Grain-size effects on the ferroelectric behavior of dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 024107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Morozovska, M. D. Glinchuk, and E. A. Eliseev, “Phase transitions induced by confinement of ferroic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 014102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsunekawa, S. Ito, T. Mori, K. Ishikawa, Z.-Q. Li, and Y. Kawazoe, “Critical size and anomalous lattice expansion in nanocrystalline BaTiO3 particles,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 3065–3070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Y. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

M. Copic, A. Mertelj, O. Buchnev, and Y. Reznikov, “Coupled director and polarization fluctuations in suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 011702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Mertelj, L. Cmok, M. Copic, G. Cook, and D. R. Evans, “Critical behavior of director fluctuations in suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals at the nematic to smectic-A phase transition,” Phys. Rev. E 85, 021705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Shelestiuk, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and T. J. Sluckin, “Frederiks transition in ferroelectric liquid-crystal nanosuspensions,” Phys. Rev. E 83, 041705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Haase, A. Lapanik, and M. Ottinger, “Nanomaterials dispersed in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8114, 81140H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Soft Matter (2)

A. Lapanik, A. Rudzki, B. Kinkead, H. Qi, T. Hegmann, and W. Haase, “Electrooptical and dielectric properties of alkylthiol-capped gold nanoparticle-ferroelectric liquid crystal nanocomposites: influence of chain length and tethered liquid crystal functional groups,” Soft Matter 8, 8722–8728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Gorkunov and M. A. Osipov, “Mean-field theory of a nematic liquid crystal doped with anisotropic nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 7, 4348–4356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Phys. (1)

Y. A. Garbovskiy and A. V. Glushchenko, “Liquid crystalline colloids of nanoparticles: preparation, properties, and applications,” Solid State Phys. 61, 1–74 (2011).

Other (1)

W. Haase, “Change of dielectric parameters of ferroelectric liquid crystals by doping with various nanoparticles,” Crystals (to be published).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spontaneous polarization versus reduced temperature: (a) LNSM6, LNSM 6 / BaTiO 3 (9 nm), LNSM 6 / BaTiO 3 (26 nm) and (b) LNSM8, LNSM 8 / BaTiO 3 (9 nm), LNSM 8 / BaTiO 3 (15 nm), LNSM 8 / BaTiO 3 (26 nm).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Tilt angle versus reduced temperature (a) LNSM5, LNSM 5 / BaTiO 3 (9 nm), LNSM 5 / BaTiO 3 (26 nm) and (b) LNSM8, LNSM 8 / BaTiO 3 (9 nm), LNSM 8 / BaTiO 3 (15 nm), LNSM 8 / BaTiO 3 (26 nm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Switching on time versus reduced temperature: (a) LNSM5, LNSM 5 / BaTiO 3 (9 nm), LNSM 5 / BaTiO 3 (26 nm) and (b) LNSM8, LNSM 8 / BaTiO 3 (9 nm), LNSM 8 / BaTiO 3 (15 nm), LNSM 8 / BaTiO 3 (26 nm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dielectric absorption versus frequency for LNSM8, LNSM 8 / BaTiO 3 (9 nm), LNSM 8 / BaTiO 3 (15 nm), LNSM 8 / BaTiO 3 (26 nm). The line for LNSM 8 / BaTiO 3 (15 nm) is the result of the fit using Eq. (7).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

GM viscosity versus reduced temperature for LNSM6, LNSM 6 / BaTiO 3 (9 nm), LNSM 6 / BaTiO 3 (26 nm).

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Composition of the Three FLC Mixtures Used

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Table 2. Investigated FLC / BaTiO 3 Nanocolloids

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Table 3. Characterization of the Developed FLC Mixturesa

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ = γ φ P S E⃗ loc ,
E⃗ loc = E⃗ ext + E⃗ dep .
τ = γ G / P s E⃗ loc .
γ G = K 33 q 2 / 2 π f G ,
τ = K 33 2 π / P o 2 f G P s E⃗ loc .
f G = ( P s / θ ) 2 / 4 π ε o Δ ε G γ G ,
ε = ε i ε = ε ( ) + j Δ ε j 1 + ( i ω τ j ) 1 h j + A ω n + σ ( d c ) i ε 0 ω ,

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