Abstract

Liquid-crystalline blue phases are attracting significant interest due to their potential for applications related to tunable photonic crystals and fast optical displays. In this work a brief theoretical model is presented accounting for the impact of anisotropic nanoparticles on the blue phase stability region. This model is tested by means of high-resolution calorimetric and optical measurements of the effect of anisotropic, surface-functionalized MoS2 nanoparticles on the blue phase range of a chiral liquid crystal. The addition of these nanoparticles effectively increases the temperature range of blue phases and especially the cubic structure of blue phase I.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. V. Gorkunov and M. A. Osipov, “Mean-field theory of a nematic liquid crystal doped with anisotropic nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 7, 4348–4356 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. B. Bowling, P. J. Collings, C. J. Booth, and J. W. Goodby, “Phase diagrams for the blue phases of highly chiral liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 48, 4113–4115 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2013

G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

J. Fukuda, “Stability of cholesteric blue phases in the presence of a guest component,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 041704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, W. He, X. Xiao, F. Meng, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, L. Wang, J. Xiao, H. Yang, and Y. Lu, “Hysteresis-free blue phase liquid-crystal-stabilized by ZnS nanoparticles,” Small 8, 2189–2193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent blue-phase liquid crystal cylindrical lens with a resistive film,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2568–2572 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, Y. Ogawa, and H. Kikuchi, “Polymer-stabilized supercooled blue phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 131904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Dierking, W. Blenkhorn, E. Credland, W. Drake, R. Kociuruba, B. Kayser, and T. Michael, “Stabilising liquid crystalline blue phases,” Soft Matter 8, 4355–4362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

B. Rožič, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, U. Tkalec, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, G. Cordoyiannis, R. Rosso, E. G. Virga, I. Muševič, and S. Kralj, “Theoretical and experimental study of the nanoparticle-driven blue phase stabilisation,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 17 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ravnik, J. Fukuda, J. M. Yeomans, and S. Žumer, “Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases,” Soft Matter 7, 10144–10150 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshizawa, M. Kamiyama, and T. Hirose, “Amorphous blue phase III exhibiting submillisecond response and hysteresis-free switching at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 101701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Henrich, K. Stratford, M. E. Cates, and D. Marenduzzo, “Structure of blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 107801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Gorkunov and M. A. Osipov, “Mean-field theory of a nematic liquid crystal doped with anisotropic nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 7, 4348–4356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Hsieh and H. M. P. Chen, “Evaluation of Kerr constant of blue-phase liquid crystals by measuring off-axis retardation in vertical electric field cells,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5299–5302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

G. Cordoyiannis, P. Losada-Pérez, C. S. P. Tripathi, B. Rožič, U. Tkalec, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, I. Muševič, C. Glorieux, S. Kralj, and J. Thoen, “Blue phase III widening in CE6-dispersed surface-functionalized CdSe nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1419–1426 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karatairi, B. Rožič, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. 17, 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Kralj and V. Popa-Nita, “Random anisotropy nematic model: connection with experimental systems,” Eur. Phys. J. E 14, 115–125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nature Mater. 1, 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nature Mater. 1, 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Yao, K. Ema, and C. W. Garland, “Nonadiabatic scanning calorimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 172–178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

E. P. Koistinen and P. H. Keyes, “Light-scattering study of the structure of blue phase III,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4460–4463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. B. Bowling, P. J. Collings, C. J. Booth, and J. W. Goodby, “Phase diagrams for the blue phases of highly chiral liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 48, 4113–4115 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

E. Dubois-Violette, B. Pansu, and P. Pieranski, “Infinite periodic minimal-surfaces—a model for blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 192, 221–237 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. Thoen, “Adiabatic scanning calorimetric results for the blue phases of cholesteryl nonanoate,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 1754–1759 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

P. H. Keyes, “Is blue phase II fcc?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 83–85 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. P.

D. J. Cleaver, S. Kralj, T. J. Sluckin, and M. P. Allen, Liquid Crystals in Complex Geometries Formed by Polymer and Porous Networks, G. P. Crawford and S. Žumer, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1996), Chap. 21, pp. 467–482.

Amenitsch, H.

G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Basina, G.

G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Blenkhorn, W.

I. Dierking, W. Blenkhorn, E. Credland, W. Drake, R. Kociuruba, B. Kayser, and T. Michael, “Stabilising liquid crystalline blue phases,” Soft Matter 8, 4355–4362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Booth, C. J.

M. B. Bowling, P. J. Collings, C. J. Booth, and J. W. Goodby, “Phase diagrams for the blue phases of highly chiral liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 48, 4113–4115 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bowling, M. B.

M. B. Bowling, P. J. Collings, C. J. Booth, and J. W. Goodby, “Phase diagrams for the blue phases of highly chiral liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 48, 4113–4115 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nature Mater. 1, 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cates, M. E.

O. Henrich, K. Stratford, M. E. Cates, and D. Marenduzzo, “Structure of blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 107801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. M. P.

Choi, H.

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, Y. Ogawa, and H. Kikuchi, “Polymer-stabilized supercooled blue phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 131904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cleaver, D. J.

D. J. Cleaver, S. Kralj, T. J. Sluckin, and M. P. Allen, Liquid Crystals in Complex Geometries Formed by Polymer and Porous Networks, G. P. Crawford and S. Žumer, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1996), Chap. 21, pp. 467–482.

Collings, P. J.

M. B. Bowling, P. J. Collings, C. J. Booth, and J. W. Goodby, “Phase diagrams for the blue phases of highly chiral liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 48, 4113–4115 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cordoyiannis, G.

G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Rožič, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, U. Tkalec, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, G. Cordoyiannis, R. Rosso, E. G. Virga, I. Muševič, and S. Kralj, “Theoretical and experimental study of the nanoparticle-driven blue phase stabilisation,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 17 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cordoyiannis, P. Losada-Pérez, C. S. P. Tripathi, B. Rožič, U. Tkalec, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, I. Muševič, C. Glorieux, S. Kralj, and J. Thoen, “Blue phase III widening in CE6-dispersed surface-functionalized CdSe nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1419–1426 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karatairi, B. Rožič, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Credland, E.

I. Dierking, W. Blenkhorn, E. Credland, W. Drake, R. Kociuruba, B. Kayser, and T. Michael, “Stabilising liquid crystalline blue phases,” Soft Matter 8, 4355–4362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dhara, S.

G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dierking, I.

I. Dierking, W. Blenkhorn, E. Credland, W. Drake, R. Kociuruba, B. Kayser, and T. Michael, “Stabilising liquid crystalline blue phases,” Soft Matter 8, 4355–4362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Drake, W.

I. Dierking, W. Blenkhorn, E. Credland, W. Drake, R. Kociuruba, B. Kayser, and T. Michael, “Stabilising liquid crystalline blue phases,” Soft Matter 8, 4355–4362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dubois-Violette, E.

E. Dubois-Violette, B. Pansu, and P. Pieranski, “Infinite periodic minimal-surfaces—a model for blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 192, 221–237 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ema, K.

H. Yao, K. Ema, and C. W. Garland, “Nonadiabatic scanning calorimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 172–178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, A.

H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, J.

J. Fukuda, “Stability of cholesteric blue phases in the presence of a guest component,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 041704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ravnik, J. Fukuda, J. M. Yeomans, and S. Žumer, “Three-dimensional colloidal crystals in liquid crystalline blue phases,” Soft Matter 7, 10144–10150 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Garland, C. W.

H. Yao, K. Ema, and C. W. Garland, “Nonadiabatic scanning calorimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 172–178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Glorieux, C.

G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Cordoyiannis, P. Losada-Pérez, C. S. P. Tripathi, B. Rožič, U. Tkalec, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, I. Muševič, C. Glorieux, S. Kralj, and J. Thoen, “Blue phase III widening in CE6-dispersed surface-functionalized CdSe nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1419–1426 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karatairi, B. Rožič, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goodby, J. W.

M. B. Bowling, P. J. Collings, C. J. Booth, and J. W. Goodby, “Phase diagrams for the blue phases of highly chiral liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 48, 4113–4115 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gorkunov, M. V.

M. V. Gorkunov and M. A. Osipov, “Mean-field theory of a nematic liquid crystal doped with anisotropic nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 7, 4348–4356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

He, W.

L. Wang, W. He, X. Xiao, F. Meng, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, L. Wang, J. Xiao, H. Yang, and Y. Lu, “Hysteresis-free blue phase liquid-crystal-stabilized by ZnS nanoparticles,” Small 8, 2189–2193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Henrich, O.

O. Henrich, K. Stratford, M. E. Cates, and D. Marenduzzo, “Structure of blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 107801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, H.

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, Y. Ogawa, and H. Kikuchi, “Polymer-stabilized supercooled blue phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 131904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hirose, T.

A. Yoshizawa, M. Kamiyama, and T. Hirose, “Amorphous blue phase III exhibiting submillisecond response and hysteresis-free switching at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 101701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hisakado, Y.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. 17, 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nature Mater. 1, 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, P. J.

Jampani, V. S. R.

G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jesenek, D.

G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, M.

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, T.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. 17, 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nature Mater. 1, 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kamiyama, M.

A. Yoshizawa, M. Kamiyama, and T. Hirose, “Amorphous blue phase III exhibiting submillisecond response and hysteresis-free switching at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 101701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Karatairi, E.

B. Rožič, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, U. Tkalec, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, G. Cordoyiannis, R. Rosso, E. G. Virga, I. Muševič, and S. Kralj, “Theoretical and experimental study of the nanoparticle-driven blue phase stabilisation,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 17 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cordoyiannis, P. Losada-Pérez, C. S. P. Tripathi, B. Rožič, U. Tkalec, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, I. Muševič, C. Glorieux, S. Kralj, and J. Thoen, “Blue phase III widening in CE6-dispersed surface-functionalized CdSe nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1419–1426 (2010).
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E. Karatairi, B. Rožič, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 041703 (2010).
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H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
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B. Rožič, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, U. Tkalec, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, G. Cordoyiannis, R. Rosso, E. G. Virga, I. Muševič, and S. Kralj, “Theoretical and experimental study of the nanoparticle-driven blue phase stabilisation,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 17 (2011).
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G. Cordoyiannis, P. Losada-Pérez, C. S. P. Tripathi, B. Rožič, U. Tkalec, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, I. Muševič, C. Glorieux, S. Kralj, and J. Thoen, “Blue phase III widening in CE6-dispersed surface-functionalized CdSe nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1419–1426 (2010).
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E. Karatairi, B. Rožič, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 041703 (2010).
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S. Kralj and V. Popa-Nita, “Random anisotropy nematic model: connection with experimental systems,” Eur. Phys. J. E 14, 115–125 (2004).
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D. J. Cleaver, S. Kralj, T. J. Sluckin, and M. P. Allen, Liquid Crystals in Complex Geometries Formed by Polymer and Porous Networks, G. P. Crawford and S. Žumer, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1996), Chap. 21, pp. 467–482.

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H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
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G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
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B. Rožič, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, U. Tkalec, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, G. Cordoyiannis, R. Rosso, E. G. Virga, I. Muševič, and S. Kralj, “Theoretical and experimental study of the nanoparticle-driven blue phase stabilisation,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 17 (2011).
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G. Cordoyiannis, P. Losada-Pérez, C. S. P. Tripathi, B. Rožič, U. Tkalec, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, I. Muševič, C. Glorieux, S. Kralj, and J. Thoen, “Blue phase III widening in CE6-dispersed surface-functionalized CdSe nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1419–1426 (2010).
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E. Karatairi, B. Rožič, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 041703 (2010).
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H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
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M. Kleman and O. D. Lavrentovich, Soft Matter Physics-An Introduction (Springer, 2003), Chap. 4, pp. 105–134.

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L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).
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Li, Y.

Y. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent blue-phase liquid crystal cylindrical lens with a resistive film,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2568–2572 (2012).
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M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 011102 (2010).
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Losada-Pérez, P.

G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
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G. Cordoyiannis, P. Losada-Pérez, C. S. P. Tripathi, B. Rožič, U. Tkalec, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, I. Muševič, C. Glorieux, S. Kralj, and J. Thoen, “Blue phase III widening in CE6-dispersed surface-functionalized CdSe nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1419–1426 (2010).
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L. Wang, W. He, X. Xiao, F. Meng, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, L. Wang, J. Xiao, H. Yang, and Y. Lu, “Hysteresis-free blue phase liquid-crystal-stabilized by ZnS nanoparticles,” Small 8, 2189–2193 (2012).
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Meng, F.

L. Wang, W. He, X. Xiao, F. Meng, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, L. Wang, J. Xiao, H. Yang, and Y. Lu, “Hysteresis-free blue phase liquid-crystal-stabilized by ZnS nanoparticles,” Small 8, 2189–2193 (2012).
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I. Dierking, W. Blenkhorn, E. Credland, W. Drake, R. Kociuruba, B. Kayser, and T. Michael, “Stabilising liquid crystalline blue phases,” Soft Matter 8, 4355–4362 (2012).
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G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
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B. Rožič, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, U. Tkalec, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, G. Cordoyiannis, R. Rosso, E. G. Virga, I. Muševič, and S. Kralj, “Theoretical and experimental study of the nanoparticle-driven blue phase stabilisation,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 17 (2011).
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G. Cordoyiannis, P. Losada-Pérez, C. S. P. Tripathi, B. Rožič, U. Tkalec, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, I. Muševič, C. Glorieux, S. Kralj, and J. Thoen, “Blue phase III widening in CE6-dispersed surface-functionalized CdSe nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1419–1426 (2010).
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G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
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B. Rožič, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, U. Tkalec, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, G. Cordoyiannis, R. Rosso, E. G. Virga, I. Muševič, and S. Kralj, “Theoretical and experimental study of the nanoparticle-driven blue phase stabilisation,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 17 (2011).
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G. Cordoyiannis, P. Losada-Pérez, C. S. P. Tripathi, B. Rožič, U. Tkalec, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, I. Muševič, C. Glorieux, S. Kralj, and J. Thoen, “Blue phase III widening in CE6-dispersed surface-functionalized CdSe nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1419–1426 (2010).
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E. Karatairi, B. Rožič, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 041703 (2010).
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W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nature Mater. 1, 111–113 (2002).
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Pieranski, P.

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S. Kralj and V. Popa-Nita, “Random anisotropy nematic model: connection with experimental systems,” Eur. Phys. J. E 14, 115–125 (2004).
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L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).
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B. Rožič, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, U. Tkalec, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, G. Cordoyiannis, R. Rosso, E. G. Virga, I. Muševič, and S. Kralj, “Theoretical and experimental study of the nanoparticle-driven blue phase stabilisation,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 17 (2011).
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B. Rožič, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, U. Tkalec, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, G. Cordoyiannis, R. Rosso, E. G. Virga, I. Muševič, and S. Kralj, “Theoretical and experimental study of the nanoparticle-driven blue phase stabilisation,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 17 (2011).
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G. Cordoyiannis, P. Losada-Pérez, C. S. P. Tripathi, B. Rožič, U. Tkalec, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, I. Muševič, C. Glorieux, S. Kralj, and J. Thoen, “Blue phase III widening in CE6-dispersed surface-functionalized CdSe nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1419–1426 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karatairi, B. Rožič, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 041703 (2010).
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D. J. Cleaver, S. Kralj, T. J. Sluckin, and M. P. Allen, Liquid Crystals in Complex Geometries Formed by Polymer and Porous Networks, G. P. Crawford and S. Žumer, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1996), Chap. 21, pp. 467–482.

Stratford, K.

O. Henrich, K. Stratford, M. E. Cates, and D. Marenduzzo, “Structure of blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 107801 (2011).
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Taheri, B.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nature Mater. 1, 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
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G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
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E. Karatairi, B. Rožič, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cordoyiannis, P. Losada-Pérez, C. S. P. Tripathi, B. Rožič, U. Tkalec, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, I. Muševič, C. Glorieux, S. Kralj, and J. Thoen, “Blue phase III widening in CE6-dispersed surface-functionalized CdSe nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1419–1426 (2010).
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B. Rožič, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, U. Tkalec, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, G. Cordoyiannis, R. Rosso, E. G. Virga, I. Muševič, and S. Kralj, “Theoretical and experimental study of the nanoparticle-driven blue phase stabilisation,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 17 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cordoyiannis, P. Losada-Pérez, C. S. P. Tripathi, B. Rožič, U. Tkalec, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, I. Muševič, C. Glorieux, S. Kralj, and J. Thoen, “Blue phase III widening in CE6-dispersed surface-functionalized CdSe nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1419–1426 (2010).
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G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Cordoyiannis, P. Losada-Pérez, C. S. P. Tripathi, B. Rožič, U. Tkalec, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, I. Muševič, C. Glorieux, S. Kralj, and J. Thoen, “Blue phase III widening in CE6-dispersed surface-functionalized CdSe nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1419–1426 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Nanoparticle-stabilized cholesteric blue phases,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tzitzios, V.

G. Cordoyiannis, V. S. R. Jampani, S. Kralj, S. Dhara, V. Tzitzios, G. Basina, Z. Kutnjak, G. Nounesis, C. S. P. Tripathi, P. Losada-Pérez, D. Jesenek, C. Glorieux, I. Muševič, A. Zidanšek, H. Amenitsch, and J. Thoen, “Different modulated structures of topological defects stabilized by adaptive targeting nanoparticles,” Soft Matter 9, 3956–3964 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Rožič, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, U. Tkalec, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, G. Cordoyiannis, R. Rosso, E. G. Virga, I. Muševič, and S. Kralj, “Theoretical and experimental study of the nanoparticle-driven blue phase stabilisation,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 17 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cordoyiannis, P. Losada-Pérez, C. S. P. Tripathi, B. Rožič, U. Tkalec, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, I. Muševič, C. Glorieux, S. Kralj, and J. Thoen, “Blue phase III widening in CE6-dispersed surface-functionalized CdSe nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst. 37, 1419–1426 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karatairi, B. Rožič, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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B. Rožič, V. Tzitzios, E. Karatairi, U. Tkalec, G. Nounesis, Z. Kutnjak, G. Cordoyiannis, R. Rosso, E. G. Virga, I. Muševič, and S. Kralj, “Theoretical and experimental study of the nanoparticle-driven blue phase stabilisation,” Eur. Phys. J. E 34, 17 (2011).
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L. Wang, W. He, X. Xiao, F. Meng, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, L. Wang, J. Xiao, H. Yang, and Y. Lu, “Hysteresis-free blue phase liquid-crystal-stabilized by ZnS nanoparticles,” Small 8, 2189–2193 (2012).
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L. Wang, W. He, X. Xiao, F. Meng, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, L. Wang, J. Xiao, H. Yang, and Y. Lu, “Hysteresis-free blue phase liquid-crystal-stabilized by ZnS nanoparticles,” Small 8, 2189–2193 (2012).
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Y. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent blue-phase liquid crystal cylindrical lens with a resistive film,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2568–2572 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. Wang, W. He, X. Xiao, F. Meng, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, L. Wang, J. Xiao, H. Yang, and Y. Lu, “Hysteresis-free blue phase liquid-crystal-stabilized by ZnS nanoparticles,” Small 8, 2189–2193 (2012).
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L. Wang, W. He, X. Xiao, F. Meng, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, L. Wang, J. Xiao, H. Yang, and Y. Lu, “Hysteresis-free blue phase liquid-crystal-stabilized by ZnS nanoparticles,” Small 8, 2189–2193 (2012).
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Yang, H.

L. Wang, W. He, X. Xiao, F. Meng, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, L. Wang, J. Xiao, H. Yang, and Y. Lu, “Hysteresis-free blue phase liquid-crystal-stabilized by ZnS nanoparticles,” Small 8, 2189–2193 (2012).
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H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nature Mater. 1, 64–68 (2002).
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H. S. Kitzerow, Chirality in Liquid Crystals, H. S. Kitzerow and C. Bahr, eds. (Springer, 2001), Chap. 10, pp. 296–354.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Chemical formula of the chiral LC CE8; its phase transitions and transition temperatures between the I and N* phases are shown.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Small-angle x-ray scattering data are shown here, defining the size of MoS2 NPs. The average size of particles is slightly below 10 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temperature profiles of heat capacity are shown upon (a) cooling and (b) heating. The data have been obtained using the ac mode of operation and a scanning rate of 150mKh1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

BPI textures, obtained upon decreasing temperature from the I phase, are presented. Images A, B, and C show the BPI texture at 417.5, 415.0, and 412.5 K, respectively. Image D shows the N* domains appearing at 410.2 K, i.e., in the onset of the first-order BPI-N* phase transition.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ=NNPvNP/VχρLC/ρNP
Q=S(n⃗n⃗13I)
F=(fc+fe)d3r⃗+fid2r⃗.
fc=3A02(TT*)QijQij9B2QikQkjQji+9C4(QijQij)2
fe=L2Qik,jQik,j+2q0LεiklQijQlj,k,
fi=34wviQijvj,
WiπR2wSP2(v⃗.n⃗loc),
u=wπR2Sβ
P2=P2euP2dΩeuP2dΩ.
P2wπR2Sβ/5.
Wi(l)(πR2w)2βS2/5,
Wi(s)απR2w2S,
fi(l)=weff(l)S2,
fi(s)=weff(l)S.
ΔTc(l)TcT*ϕπR2w2βξc2hK,
ΔTc(s)TcT*ϕαξc2deh,

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