Abstract

In this paper, we will explore how optical and ferroelectric properties of the stressed ferroelectric nanoparticles prepared through ball milling set a limit on the performance of optical and electro-optical devices based on such materials. It was found that suspensions of BaTiO3 nanoparticles exhibit a blue shift in the optical band gap with a decrease in particle size. The optical band gap of PbTiO3 nanoparticles is not affected by the milling time. Polarization switching is composed of slow and fast components. A slow component is threshold-less and is caused by the particle reorientation while a fast component has a threshold, and its rise time is inversely proportional to the electric field. The absorption edge of these suspensions accounts for the applications in the near UV range, while kinetics of the polarization switching governs the speed of electro-optical devices.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  5. G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
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  6. S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Yu. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (2)

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Yu. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Barik, T. K. Kundu, and S. Ram, “Light emission from ferroelectric barium titanate nanocrystals,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 89(9), 545–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

S. C. Roya, G. L. Sharma, and M. C. Bhatnagar, “Large blue shift in the optical band-gap of sol–gel derived Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Solid State Commun. 141, 243–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. F. Scott, “Nano-scale ferroelectric devices for memory applications,” Ferroelectrics 314, 207–222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Orhan, J. A. Varela, A. Zenatti, M. F. C. Gurgel, F. M. Pontes, E. R. Leite, E. Longo, P. S. Pizani, A. Beltràn, and J. Andrès, “Room-temperature photoluminescence of BaTiO3: joint experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Y. Reznikov, O. Buchnev, O. Tereshchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and J. West, “Ferroelectric nematic suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1917–1919 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Bao, Xi Yao, K. Shinozaki, and N. Mizutani, “Crystallization and optical properties of sol–gel-derived PbTiO3 thin films,” J. Phys. D 36, 2141–2145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M.-Sh. Zhanga, Z. Yina, Q. Chena, W. Zhangb, and W. Chen, “Study of structural and photoluminescent properties in barium titanate nanocrystals synthesized by hydrothermal process,” Solid State Commun. 119, 659–663 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. Kohiki, S. Takada, A. Shimizu, K. Yamada, H. Higashijima, and M. Mitome, “Quantum confinement effects on the optical and dielectric properties for mesocrystals of BaTiO3 and SrBi2Ta2O9,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 474–478 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Scott, Comment on “Quantum confinement effects on the optical and dielectric properties for mesocrystals of BaTiO3 and SrBi2Ta2O9,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. S. Zhu, X. M. Lu, W. Jiang, W. Tian, M. Zhu, M. S. Zhang, X. B. Chen, X. Liu, and Y. N. Wang, “Optical study on the size effects in BaTiO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1392–1395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

G. A. Cox, G. G. Roberts, and R. H. Tredgold, “The optical absorption edge of barium titanate,” Br. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 743–745 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

M. Cardona, “Optical properties and band structure of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3,” Phys. Rev. 140, A651–A655 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

E. Fatuzzo and W. J. Merz, “Switching mechanism in triglycine sulfate and other ferroelectrics,” Phys. Rev. 116, 61–68 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1954 (2)

E. Burstein, “Anomalous optical absorption limit in InSb,” Phys. Rev. 93, 632–633 (1954).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Moss, “The interpretation of the properties of indium antimonide,” Proc. Phys. Soc. B 67, 775–782 (1954).

Andrès, J.

E. Orhan, J. A. Varela, A. Zenatti, M. F. C. Gurgel, F. M. Pontes, E. R. Leite, E. Longo, P. S. Pizani, A. Beltràn, and J. Andrès, “Room-temperature photoluminescence of BaTiO3: joint experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Atkuri, H.

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, P. P.

G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bao, D.

D. Bao, Xi Yao, K. Shinozaki, and N. Mizutani, “Crystallization and optical properties of sol–gel-derived PbTiO3 thin films,” J. Phys. D 36, 2141–2145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barik, P.

P. Barik, T. K. Kundu, and S. Ram, “Light emission from ferroelectric barium titanate nanocrystals,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 89(9), 545–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. L.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Basun, S. A.

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Yu. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beltràn, A.

E. Orhan, J. A. Varela, A. Zenatti, M. F. C. Gurgel, F. M. Pontes, E. R. Leite, E. Longo, P. S. Pizani, A. Beltràn, and J. Andrès, “Room-temperature photoluminescence of BaTiO3: joint experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bhatnagar, M. C.

S. C. Roya, G. L. Sharma, and M. C. Bhatnagar, “Large blue shift in the optical band-gap of sol–gel derived Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Solid State Commun. 141, 243–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buchnev, O.

Y. Reznikov, O. Buchnev, O. Tereshchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and J. West, “Ferroelectric nematic suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1917–1919 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burstein, E.

E. Burstein, “Anomalous optical absorption limit in InSb,” Phys. Rev. 93, 632–633 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

M. Cardona, “Optical properties and band structure of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3,” Phys. Rev. 140, A651–A655 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

M.-Sh. Zhanga, Z. Yina, Q. Chena, W. Zhangb, and W. Chen, “Study of structural and photoluminescent properties in barium titanate nanocrystals synthesized by hydrothermal process,” Solid State Commun. 119, 659–663 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. B.

J. S. Zhu, X. M. Lu, W. Jiang, W. Tian, M. Zhu, M. S. Zhang, X. B. Chen, X. Liu, and Y. N. Wang, “Optical study on the size effects in BaTiO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1392–1395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chena, Q.

M.-Sh. Zhanga, Z. Yina, Q. Chena, W. Zhangb, and W. Chen, “Study of structural and photoluminescent properties in barium titanate nanocrystals synthesized by hydrothermal process,” Solid State Commun. 119, 659–663 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheon, C.-I.

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V. G.

V. G. Chigrinov, Liquid Crystal Devices: Physics and Applications (Artech House, 1999), pp. 21–80.

Cook, G.

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Yu. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, A. V. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. T. Griffith, M. A. Saleh, and D. R. Evans, “Nanoparticle doped organic-inorganic hybrid photorefractives,” Opt. Express 16, 4015–4022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cox, G. A.

G. A. Cox, G. G. Roberts, and R. H. Tredgold, “The optical absorption edge of barium titanate,” Br. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 743–745 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Evans, D. R.

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Yu. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, A. V. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. T. Griffith, M. A. Saleh, and D. R. Evans, “Nanoparticle doped organic-inorganic hybrid photorefractives,” Opt. Express 16, 4015–4022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fatuzzo, E.

E. Fatuzzo and W. J. Merz, “Switching mechanism in triglycine sulfate and other ferroelectrics,” Phys. Rev. 116, 61–68 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Garbovskiy, Y.

Y. Garbovskiy, O. Zribi, and A. Glushchenko, “Emerging applications of ferroelectric nanoparticles in materials technologies, biology and medicine,” Advances in Ferroelectrics, A. Peláiz-Barranco, ed. (InTech, 2012), pp. 475–498.

Y. Garbovskiy and A. Glushchenko, “Liquid crystalline colloids of nanoparticles: preparation, properties, and applications,” in Solid State PhysicsR. E. Camley, ed. (Academic, 2010), pp. 1–74.

Glushchenko, A.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Reznikov, O. Buchnev, O. Tereshchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and J. West, “Ferroelectric nematic suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1917–1919 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Garbovskiy and A. Glushchenko, “Liquid crystalline colloids of nanoparticles: preparation, properties, and applications,” in Solid State PhysicsR. E. Camley, ed. (Academic, 2010), pp. 1–74.

Y. Garbovskiy, O. Zribi, and A. Glushchenko, “Emerging applications of ferroelectric nanoparticles in materials technologies, biology and medicine,” Advances in Ferroelectrics, A. Peláiz-Barranco, ed. (InTech, 2012), pp. 475–498.

Glushchenko, A. V.

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, A. V. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. T. Griffith, M. A. Saleh, and D. R. Evans, “Nanoparticle doped organic-inorganic hybrid photorefractives,” Opt. Express 16, 4015–4022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Griffith, A. T.

Gurgel, M. F. C.

E. Orhan, J. A. Varela, A. Zenatti, M. F. C. Gurgel, F. M. Pontes, E. R. Leite, E. Longo, P. S. Pizani, A. Beltràn, and J. Andrès, “Room-temperature photoluminescence of BaTiO3: joint experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Higashijima, H.

S. Kohiki, S. Takada, A. Shimizu, K. Yamada, H. Higashijima, and M. Mitome, “Quantum confinement effects on the optical and dielectric properties for mesocrystals of BaTiO3 and SrBi2Ta2O9,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 474–478 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

J. S. Zhu, X. M. Lu, W. Jiang, W. Tian, M. Zhu, M. S. Zhang, X. B. Chen, X. Liu, and Y. N. Wang, “Optical study on the size effects in BaTiO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1392–1395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kohiki, S.

S. Kohiki, S. Takada, A. Shimizu, K. Yamada, H. Higashijima, and M. Mitome, “Quantum confinement effects on the optical and dielectric properties for mesocrystals of BaTiO3 and SrBi2Ta2O9,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 474–478 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kundu, T. K.

P. Barik, T. K. Kundu, and S. Ram, “Light emission from ferroelectric barium titanate nanocrystals,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 89(9), 545–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leite, E. R.

E. Orhan, J. A. Varela, A. Zenatti, M. F. C. Gurgel, F. M. Pontes, E. R. Leite, E. Longo, P. S. Pizani, A. Beltràn, and J. Andrès, “Room-temperature photoluminescence of BaTiO3: joint experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

J. S. Zhu, X. M. Lu, W. Jiang, W. Tian, M. Zhu, M. S. Zhang, X. B. Chen, X. Liu, and Y. N. Wang, “Optical study on the size effects in BaTiO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1392–1395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Longo, E.

E. Orhan, J. A. Varela, A. Zenatti, M. F. C. Gurgel, F. M. Pontes, E. R. Leite, E. Longo, P. S. Pizani, A. Beltràn, and J. Andrès, “Room-temperature photoluminescence of BaTiO3: joint experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X. M.

J. S. Zhu, X. M. Lu, W. Jiang, W. Tian, M. Zhu, M. S. Zhang, X. B. Chen, X. Liu, and Y. N. Wang, “Optical study on the size effects in BaTiO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1392–1395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Merz, W. J.

E. Fatuzzo and W. J. Merz, “Switching mechanism in triglycine sulfate and other ferroelectrics,” Phys. Rev. 116, 61–68 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Mitome, M.

S. Kohiki, S. Takada, A. Shimizu, K. Yamada, H. Higashijima, and M. Mitome, “Quantum confinement effects on the optical and dielectric properties for mesocrystals of BaTiO3 and SrBi2Ta2O9,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 474–478 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, N.

D. Bao, Xi Yao, K. Shinozaki, and N. Mizutani, “Crystallization and optical properties of sol–gel-derived PbTiO3 thin films,” J. Phys. D 36, 2141–2145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moss, T. S.

T. S. Moss, “The interpretation of the properties of indium antimonide,” Proc. Phys. Soc. B 67, 775–782 (1954).

Orhan, E.

E. Orhan, J. A. Varela, A. Zenatti, M. F. C. Gurgel, F. M. Pontes, E. R. Leite, E. Longo, P. S. Pizani, A. Beltràn, and J. Andrès, “Room-temperature photoluminescence of BaTiO3: joint experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pinkevych, I. P.

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Yu. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pizani, P. S.

E. Orhan, J. A. Varela, A. Zenatti, M. F. C. Gurgel, F. M. Pontes, E. R. Leite, E. Longo, P. S. Pizani, A. Beltràn, and J. Andrès, “Room-temperature photoluminescence of BaTiO3: joint experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ponce, A.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pontes, F. M.

E. Orhan, J. A. Varela, A. Zenatti, M. F. C. Gurgel, F. M. Pontes, E. R. Leite, E. Longo, P. S. Pizani, A. Beltràn, and J. Andrès, “Room-temperature photoluminescence of BaTiO3: joint experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ram, S.

P. Barik, T. K. Kundu, and S. Ram, “Light emission from ferroelectric barium titanate nanocrystals,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 89(9), 545–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, A. V. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. T. Griffith, M. A. Saleh, and D. R. Evans, “Nanoparticle doped organic-inorganic hybrid photorefractives,” Opt. Express 16, 4015–4022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Reznikov, O. Buchnev, O. Tereshchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and J. West, “Ferroelectric nematic suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1917–1919 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V. Yu.

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Yu. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Y.

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Reznikov, O. Buchnev, O. Tereshchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and J. West, “Ferroelectric nematic suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1917–1919 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Reznikov, “Ferroelectric colloids in liquid crystals,” in Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications, Q. Li, ed. (Wiley, 2012), pp. 402–426.

Roberts, G. G.

G. A. Cox, G. G. Roberts, and R. H. Tredgold, “The optical absorption edge of barium titanate,” Br. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 743–745 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Roya, S. C.

S. C. Roya, G. L. Sharma, and M. C. Bhatnagar, “Large blue shift in the optical band-gap of sol–gel derived Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Solid State Commun. 141, 243–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, M. A.

Scott, J. F.

J. F. Scott, “Nano-scale ferroelectric devices for memory applications,” Ferroelectrics 314, 207–222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Scott, Comment on “Quantum confinement effects on the optical and dielectric properties for mesocrystals of BaTiO3 and SrBi2Ta2O9,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, G. L.

S. C. Roya, G. L. Sharma, and M. C. Bhatnagar, “Large blue shift in the optical band-gap of sol–gel derived Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Solid State Commun. 141, 243–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, A.

S. Kohiki, S. Takada, A. Shimizu, K. Yamada, H. Higashijima, and M. Mitome, “Quantum confinement effects on the optical and dielectric properties for mesocrystals of BaTiO3 and SrBi2Ta2O9,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 474–478 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shinozaki, K.

D. Bao, Xi Yao, K. Shinozaki, and N. Mizutani, “Crystallization and optical properties of sol–gel-derived PbTiO3 thin films,” J. Phys. D 36, 2141–2145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takada, S.

S. Kohiki, S. Takada, A. Shimizu, K. Yamada, H. Higashijima, and M. Mitome, “Quantum confinement effects on the optical and dielectric properties for mesocrystals of BaTiO3 and SrBi2Ta2O9,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 474–478 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tereshchenko, O.

Y. Reznikov, O. Buchnev, O. Tereshchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and J. West, “Ferroelectric nematic suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1917–1919 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tian, W.

J. S. Zhu, X. M. Lu, W. Jiang, W. Tian, M. Zhu, M. S. Zhang, X. B. Chen, X. Liu, and Y. N. Wang, “Optical study on the size effects in BaTiO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1392–1395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tredgold, R. H.

G. A. Cox, G. G. Roberts, and R. H. Tredgold, “The optical absorption edge of barium titanate,” Br. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 743–745 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Tscharnuter, W.

W. Tscharnuter, “Photon correlation spectroscopy in particle sizing,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, 2012), pp. 5469–5485.

Varela, J. A.

E. Orhan, J. A. Varela, A. Zenatti, M. F. C. Gurgel, F. M. Pontes, E. R. Leite, E. Longo, P. S. Pizani, A. Beltràn, and J. Andrès, “Room-temperature photoluminescence of BaTiO3: joint experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volk, T.

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Lithium Niobate: Defects, Photorefraction and Ferroelectric Switching, Vol. 115, Series: Springer Series in Materials Science (Springer, 2009), pp. 153–213.

Wang, Y. N.

J. S. Zhu, X. M. Lu, W. Jiang, W. Tian, M. Zhu, M. S. Zhang, X. B. Chen, X. Liu, and Y. N. Wang, “Optical study on the size effects in BaTiO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1392–1395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

West, J.

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Reznikov, O. Buchnev, O. Tereshchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and J. West, “Ferroelectric nematic suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1917–1919 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wöhlecke, M.

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Lithium Niobate: Defects, Photorefraction and Ferroelectric Switching, Vol. 115, Series: Springer Series in Materials Science (Springer, 2009), pp. 153–213.

Yamada, K.

S. Kohiki, S. Takada, A. Shimizu, K. Yamada, H. Higashijima, and M. Mitome, “Quantum confinement effects on the optical and dielectric properties for mesocrystals of BaTiO3 and SrBi2Ta2O9,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 474–478 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Xi

D. Bao, Xi Yao, K. Shinozaki, and N. Mizutani, “Crystallization and optical properties of sol–gel-derived PbTiO3 thin films,” J. Phys. D 36, 2141–2145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yina, Z.

M.-Sh. Zhanga, Z. Yina, Q. Chena, W. Zhangb, and W. Chen, “Study of structural and photoluminescent properties in barium titanate nanocrystals synthesized by hydrothermal process,” Solid State Commun. 119, 659–663 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zenatti, A.

E. Orhan, J. A. Varela, A. Zenatti, M. F. C. Gurgel, F. M. Pontes, E. R. Leite, E. Longo, P. S. Pizani, A. Beltràn, and J. Andrès, “Room-temperature photoluminescence of BaTiO3: joint experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M. S.

J. S. Zhu, X. M. Lu, W. Jiang, W. Tian, M. Zhu, M. S. Zhang, X. B. Chen, X. Liu, and Y. N. Wang, “Optical study on the size effects in BaTiO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1392–1395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhanga, M.-Sh.

M.-Sh. Zhanga, Z. Yina, Q. Chena, W. Zhangb, and W. Chen, “Study of structural and photoluminescent properties in barium titanate nanocrystals synthesized by hydrothermal process,” Solid State Commun. 119, 659–663 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhangb, W.

M.-Sh. Zhanga, Z. Yina, Q. Chena, W. Zhangb, and W. Chen, “Study of structural and photoluminescent properties in barium titanate nanocrystals synthesized by hydrothermal process,” Solid State Commun. 119, 659–663 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J. S.

J. S. Zhu, X. M. Lu, W. Jiang, W. Tian, M. Zhu, M. S. Zhang, X. B. Chen, X. Liu, and Y. N. Wang, “Optical study on the size effects in BaTiO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1392–1395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

J. S. Zhu, X. M. Lu, W. Jiang, W. Tian, M. Zhu, M. S. Zhang, X. B. Chen, X. Liu, and Y. N. Wang, “Optical study on the size effects in BaTiO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1392–1395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ziolo, R. F.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zribi, O.

Y. Garbovskiy, O. Zribi, and A. Glushchenko, “Emerging applications of ferroelectric nanoparticles in materials technologies, biology and medicine,” Advances in Ferroelectrics, A. Peláiz-Barranco, ed. (InTech, 2012), pp. 475–498.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Reznikov, O. Buchnev, O. Tereshchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and J. West, “Ferroelectric nematic suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1917–1919 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. A. Cox, G. G. Roberts, and R. H. Tredgold, “The optical absorption edge of barium titanate,” Br. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 743–745 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

J. F. Scott, “Nano-scale ferroelectric devices for memory applications,” Ferroelectrics 314, 207–222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohiki, S. Takada, A. Shimizu, K. Yamada, H. Higashijima, and M. Mitome, “Quantum confinement effects on the optical and dielectric properties for mesocrystals of BaTiO3 and SrBi2Ta2O9,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 474–478 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Scott, Comment on “Quantum confinement effects on the optical and dielectric properties for mesocrystals of BaTiO3 and SrBi2Ta2O9,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6092 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Zhu, X. M. Lu, W. Jiang, W. Tian, M. Zhu, M. S. Zhang, X. B. Chen, X. Liu, and Y. N. Wang, “Optical study on the size effects in BaTiO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1392–1395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

D. Bao, Xi Yao, K. Shinozaki, and N. Mizutani, “Crystallization and optical properties of sol–gel-derived PbTiO3 thin films,” J. Phys. D 36, 2141–2145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Philos. Mag. Lett. (1)

P. Barik, T. K. Kundu, and S. Ram, “Light emission from ferroelectric barium titanate nanocrystals,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 89(9), 545–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (3)

E. Burstein, “Anomalous optical absorption limit in InSb,” Phys. Rev. 93, 632–633 (1954).
[CrossRef]

E. Fatuzzo and W. J. Merz, “Switching mechanism in triglycine sulfate and other ferroelectrics,” Phys. Rev. 116, 61–68 (1959).
[CrossRef]

M. Cardona, “Optical properties and band structure of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3,” Phys. Rev. 140, A651–A655 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Evans, S. A. Basun, G. Cook, I. P. Pinkevych, and V. Yu. Reshetnyak, “Electric field interactions and aggregation dynamics of ferroelectric nanoparticles in isotropic fluid suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 174111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Orhan, J. A. Varela, A. Zenatti, M. F. C. Gurgel, F. M. Pontes, E. R. Leite, E. Longo, P. S. Pizani, A. Beltràn, and J. Andrès, “Room-temperature photoluminescence of BaTiO3: joint experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. B (1)

T. S. Moss, “The interpretation of the properties of indium antimonide,” Proc. Phys. Soc. B 67, 775–782 (1954).

Solid State Commun. (2)

M.-Sh. Zhanga, Z. Yina, Q. Chena, W. Zhangb, and W. Chen, “Study of structural and photoluminescent properties in barium titanate nanocrystals synthesized by hydrothermal process,” Solid State Commun. 119, 659–663 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Roya, G. L. Sharma, and M. C. Bhatnagar, “Large blue shift in the optical band-gap of sol–gel derived Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Solid State Commun. 141, 243–247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

Y. Garbovskiy, O. Zribi, and A. Glushchenko, “Emerging applications of ferroelectric nanoparticles in materials technologies, biology and medicine,” Advances in Ferroelectrics, A. Peláiz-Barranco, ed. (InTech, 2012), pp. 475–498.

W. Tscharnuter, “Photon correlation spectroscopy in particle sizing,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, 2012), pp. 5469–5485.

V. G. Chigrinov, Liquid Crystal Devices: Physics and Applications (Artech House, 1999), pp. 21–80.

Y. Reznikov, “Ferroelectric colloids in liquid crystals,” in Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications, Q. Li, ed. (Wiley, 2012), pp. 402–426.

Y. Garbovskiy and A. Glushchenko, “Liquid crystalline colloids of nanoparticles: preparation, properties, and applications,” in Solid State PhysicsR. E. Camley, ed. (Academic, 2010), pp. 1–74.

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Lithium Niobate: Defects, Photorefraction and Ferroelectric Switching, Vol. 115, Series: Springer Series in Materials Science (Springer, 2009), pp. 153–213.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical transmission spectra of the suspensions of BaTiO3 stressed nanoparticles for different milling times (dotted curve—5 h; dashed curve—10 h; solid curve—25 h). Tauc’s plot is shown in the inset for the same suspensions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical transmission spectra of the suspensions of PbTiO3 stressed nanoparticles for different milling times (dotted curve—5 h; dashed curve—10 h; solid curve—50 h). Tauc’s plot is shown in the inset for the same suspensions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Room temperature photoluminescence spectra of PbTiO3 stressed nanoparticles for different milling times (dashed curve—5 h; dotted curve—10 h; solid curve—25 h; dashed–dotted curve—50 h). Inset in the figure shows the same data for BaTiO3 suspensions (dashed curve—5 h; solid curve—10 h).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Kinetics of the switching current in low (dashed curve) and high (solid curve) electric fields for the 10 h milled PbTiO3 suspension.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Rise time of the slow and fast components of the switching current as a function of the applied electric field for BaTiO3 suspensions. Slow component: (solid square) 5 h; (solid circle) 10 h; (solid triangle) 50 h. Fast component: (open square) 5 h; (open circle) 10 h; (open triangle) 50 h. Inset shows the dependence of the fast component on the inverse electric field.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Rise time of the slow and fast components of the switching current as a function of the applied electric field for PbTiO3 suspensions. Slow component: (solid square) 5 h; (solid circle) 10 h; (solid triangle) 50 h. Fast component: (open square) 5 h; (open circle) 10 h; (open triangle) 50 h. Inset shows the dependence of the fast component on the inverse electric field.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. DLS Data (Effective Hydrodynamic Diameter)

Equations (3)

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(α··ω)2const·(·ωEg)
T=eα·d
tfast1E.

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