Abstract

Hybrid materials based on combination of polymers and inorganic nanoparticles (NP) attracted considerable attention in the last decade due to their advantageous electrical, optical, or mechanical properties. Recently, we reported a significant improvement of the photoresponse by doping azopolymers with ZnO NP. To study the influence of the composition of the dopant, in our present work we have synthesized anisotropic organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials by incorporating 5–15 nm sized SiO2 NP in a side-chain azopolymer. As a result we observe an enhancement of the photoinduced birefringence in these composite materials with about 20% compared to the nondoped sample. Additionally, we discuss possible mechanisms leading to this enhancement related with the scattering caused by the NP and the increased mobility of the azochromophores in the vicinity of NP.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  33. G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, “Investigations on photoinduced processes in a series of azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers,” J. Opt. A 6, 324–329 (2004).
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2012

2011

M. Moothanchery, I. Naydenova, S. Mintova, and V. Toal, “Nanozeolites doped photopolymer layers with reduced shrinkage,” Opt. Express 19, 25786–25791 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Sanchez, P. Belleville, M. Popall, and L. Nicole, “Applications of advanced hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials: from laboratory to market,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40, 696–753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Naydenova, E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, N. Pandey, T. Baron, T. Yovcheva, S. Sainov, S. Martin, S. Mintova, and V. Toal, “Optical properties of photopolymerisable nanocomposites containing nanosized molecular sieves,” J. Opt. 13, 044019 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, E.-P. Ng, V. Toal, S. Mintova, and I. Naydenova, “Optical properties of photopolymer layers doped with aluminophosphate nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 16767–16775 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Wu, J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Hub, W. Wu, W. Huang, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, “Ag nanoparticle/azopolymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis, microstructure, rewritable optically induced birefringence and optical recording,” Polymer 51, 1395–1403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Leite, I. Naydenova, S. Mintova, L. Leclercq, and V. Toal, “Photopolymerizable nanocomposites for holographic recording and sensor application,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3652–3660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

K. Nishizawa, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, “Novel liquid crystalline organic-inorganic hybrid for highly sensitive photoinscriptions,” Chem. Mater. 21, 2624–2631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

X. Li, J. W. M. Chon, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, “Two-photon energy transfer enhanced three-dimensional optical memory in quantum-dot and azo-dye doped polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7242–7246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Ahonen, D. J. Schiffrin, J. Paprotny, and K. Kontturi, “Optical switching of coupled plasmons of Ag-nanoparticles by photoisomerisation of an azobenzene ligand,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 651–658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Suda, M. Nakagawa, T. Iyoda, and Y. Einaga, “Reversible photoswitching of ferromagnetic FePt nanoparticles at room temperature,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 5538–5543 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. C. Balazs, T. Emrick, and T. P. Russell, “Nanoparticle polymer composites: where two small worlds meet,” Science 314, 1107–1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Dam-Hansen, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and L. Nikolova, “Polarisation-sensitive optical elements in azobenzene polyesters and peptides,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 44, 912–925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5, 615–619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sidhaye, S. Kashyap, M. Sastry, S. Hotha, and B. L. V. Prasad, “Gold nanoparticle networks with photoresponsive interparticle spacings,” Langmuir 21, 7979–7984 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tomita, N. Suzuki, and K. Chikama, “Holographic manipulation of nanoparticle distribution morphology in nanoparticle-dispersed photopolymers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 839–841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

L. Nedelchev, A. S. Matharu, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Photoinduced anisotropy in a family of amorphous azobenzene polyesters for optical storage,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5918–5927 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Shibaev, A. Bobrovsky, and N. Boiko, “Photoactive liquid crystalline polymer systems with light-controllable structure and optical properties,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28, 729–836 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Manna, P-L. Chen, H. Akiyama, T. Wei, K. Tamada, and W. Knoll, “Optimized photoisomerization on gold nanoparticles capped by unsymmetrical azobenzene disulfides,” Chem. Mater. 15, 20–28 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102, 4139–4176 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. Lu, Y. Yang, A. Sellinger, M. Lu, J. Huang, H. Fan, J. Huang, H. Fan, R. Haddad, G. Lopez, A. R. Burns, D. Y. Sasaki, J. Shelnutt, and C. J. Brinker, “Self-assembly of mesoscopically ordered chromatic polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposites,” Nature 410, 913–917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Yaroshchuk, K. Otto, G. Pelzl, F. Janovski, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Polarization holograms in a “liquid crystal-porous glass” system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 359, 315–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. Nikolova, L. Nedelchev, T. Todorov, Tz. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Self-induced light polarization rotation in azobenzene-containing polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 657–659 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

V. Reshetnyak, L. Shanskii, O. Yaroshchuk, A. Tereshchenko, J. Lindau, G. Pelzl, F. Janovski, and K. Otto, “Photoorientation of polymer fragments in a system azopolymer-microporous glass,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 329, 447–456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Siesler, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Novel side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester architecture for reversible optical storage,” Macromolecules 28, 2172–2183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1984

Ahonen, P.

P. Ahonen, D. J. Schiffrin, J. Paprotny, and K. Kontturi, “Optical switching of coupled plasmons of Ag-nanoparticles by photoisomerisation of an azobenzene ligand,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 651–658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, H.

A. Manna, P-L. Chen, H. Akiyama, T. Wei, K. Tamada, and W. Knoll, “Optimized photoisomerization on gold nanoparticles capped by unsymmetrical azobenzene disulfides,” Chem. Mater. 15, 20–28 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andruzzi, F.

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Siesler, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Novel side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester architecture for reversible optical storage,” Macromolecules 28, 2172–2183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Babeva, Tz.

I. Naydenova, E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, N. Pandey, T. Baron, T. Yovcheva, S. Sainov, S. Martin, S. Mintova, and V. Toal, “Optical properties of photopolymerisable nanocomposites containing nanosized molecular sieves,” J. Opt. 13, 044019 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, E.-P. Ng, V. Toal, S. Mintova, and I. Naydenova, “Optical properties of photopolymer layers doped with aluminophosphate nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 16767–16775 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5, 615–619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Balazs, A. C.

A. C. Balazs, T. Emrick, and T. P. Russell, “Nanoparticle polymer composites: where two small worlds meet,” Science 314, 1107–1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baron, T.

I. Naydenova, E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, N. Pandey, T. Baron, T. Yovcheva, S. Sainov, S. Martin, S. Mintova, and V. Toal, “Optical properties of photopolymerisable nanocomposites containing nanosized molecular sieves,” J. Opt. 13, 044019 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Belleville, P.

C. Sanchez, P. Belleville, M. Popall, and L. Nicole, “Applications of advanced hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials: from laboratory to market,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40, 696–753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Berg, R. H.

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Dam-Hansen, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and L. Nikolova, “Polarisation-sensitive optical elements in azobenzene polyesters and peptides,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 44, 912–925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Billot, L.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5, 615–619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bobrovsky, A.

V. Shibaev, A. Bobrovsky, and N. Boiko, “Photoactive liquid crystalline polymer systems with light-controllable structure and optical properties,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28, 729–836 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C.

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1998).

Boiko, N.

V. Shibaev, A. Bobrovsky, and N. Boiko, “Photoactive liquid crystalline polymer systems with light-controllable structure and optical properties,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28, 729–836 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brinker, C. J.

Y. Lu, Y. Yang, A. Sellinger, M. Lu, J. Huang, H. Fan, J. Huang, H. Fan, R. Haddad, G. Lopez, A. R. Burns, D. Y. Sasaki, J. Shelnutt, and C. J. Brinker, “Self-assembly of mesoscopically ordered chromatic polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposites,” Nature 410, 913–917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burns, A. R.

Y. Lu, Y. Yang, A. Sellinger, M. Lu, J. Huang, H. Fan, J. Huang, H. Fan, R. Haddad, G. Lopez, A. R. Burns, D. Y. Sasaki, J. Shelnutt, and C. J. Brinker, “Self-assembly of mesoscopically ordered chromatic polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposites,” Nature 410, 913–917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-H.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5, 615–619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P-L.

A. Manna, P-L. Chen, H. Akiyama, T. Wei, K. Tamada, and W. Knoll, “Optimized photoisomerization on gold nanoparticles capped by unsymmetrical azobenzene disulfides,” Chem. Mater. 15, 20–28 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chikama, K.

Chon, J. W. M.

X. Li, J. W. M. Chon, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, “Two-photon energy transfer enhanced three-dimensional optical memory in quantum-dot and azo-dye doped polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dam-Hansen, C.

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Dam-Hansen, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and L. Nikolova, “Polarisation-sensitive optical elements in azobenzene polyesters and peptides,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 44, 912–925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

del Barrio, J.

J. del Barrio, R. M. Tejedor, and L. Oriol, “Thermal and light control of the chiral order of azopolymers,” Eur. Polym. J. 48, 384–390 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dragostinova, V.

L. Nedelchev, D. Nazarova, V. Dragostinova, and D. Karashanova, “Increase of photoinduced birefringence in a new type of anisotropic nanocomposite: azopolymer doped with ZnO nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2676–2678 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, “Bifocal-polarization holographic lens,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1001–1003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, “Investigations on photoinduced processes in a series of azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers,” J. Opt. A 6, 324–329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova, L. Nedelchev, T. Todorov, Tz. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Self-induced light polarization rotation in azobenzene-containing polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 657–659 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Einaga, Y.

M. Suda, M. Nakagawa, T. Iyoda, and Y. Einaga, “Reversible photoswitching of ferromagnetic FePt nanoparticles at room temperature,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 5538–5543 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Emrick, T.

A. C. Balazs, T. Emrick, and T. P. Russell, “Nanoparticle polymer composites: where two small worlds meet,” Science 314, 1107–1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. A.

X. Li, J. W. M. Chon, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, “Two-photon energy transfer enhanced three-dimensional optical memory in quantum-dot and azo-dye doped polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, H.

Y. Lu, Y. Yang, A. Sellinger, M. Lu, J. Huang, H. Fan, J. Huang, H. Fan, R. Haddad, G. Lopez, A. R. Burns, D. Y. Sasaki, J. Shelnutt, and C. J. Brinker, “Self-assembly of mesoscopically ordered chromatic polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposites,” Nature 410, 913–917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, Y. Yang, A. Sellinger, M. Lu, J. Huang, H. Fan, J. Huang, H. Fan, R. Haddad, G. Lopez, A. R. Burns, D. Y. Sasaki, J. Shelnutt, and C. J. Brinker, “Self-assembly of mesoscopically ordered chromatic polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposites,” Nature 410, 913–917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grand, J.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5, 615–619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5, 615–619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

X. Li, J. W. M. Chon, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, “Two-photon energy transfer enhanced three-dimensional optical memory in quantum-dot and azo-dye doped polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haddad, R.

Y. Lu, Y. Yang, A. Sellinger, M. Lu, J. Huang, H. Fan, J. Huang, H. Fan, R. Haddad, G. Lopez, A. R. Burns, D. Y. Sasaki, J. Shelnutt, and C. J. Brinker, “Self-assembly of mesoscopically ordered chromatic polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposites,” Nature 410, 913–917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hotha, S.

D. S. Sidhaye, S. Kashyap, M. Sastry, S. Hotha, and B. L. V. Prasad, “Gold nanoparticle networks with photoresponsive interparticle spacings,” Langmuir 21, 7979–7984 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

S. Wu, J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Hub, W. Wu, W. Huang, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, “Ag nanoparticle/azopolymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis, microstructure, rewritable optically induced birefringence and optical recording,” Polymer 51, 1395–1403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, Y. Yang, A. Sellinger, M. Lu, J. Huang, H. Fan, J. Huang, H. Fan, R. Haddad, G. Lopez, A. R. Burns, D. Y. Sasaki, J. Shelnutt, and C. J. Brinker, “Self-assembly of mesoscopically ordered chromatic polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposites,” Nature 410, 913–917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, Y. Yang, A. Sellinger, M. Lu, J. Huang, H. Fan, J. Huang, H. Fan, R. Haddad, G. Lopez, A. R. Burns, D. Y. Sasaki, J. Shelnutt, and C. J. Brinker, “Self-assembly of mesoscopically ordered chromatic polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposites,” Nature 410, 913–917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

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S. Wu, J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Hub, W. Wu, W. Huang, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, “Ag nanoparticle/azopolymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis, microstructure, rewritable optically induced birefringence and optical recording,” Polymer 51, 1395–1403 (2010).
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C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5, 615–619 (2005).
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P. S. Ramanujam, C. Dam-Hansen, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and L. Nikolova, “Polarisation-sensitive optical elements in azobenzene polyesters and peptides,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 44, 912–925 (2006).
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L. Nedelchev, A. S. Matharu, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Photoinduced anisotropy in a family of amorphous azobenzene polyesters for optical storage,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5918–5927 (2003).
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L. Nikolova, L. Nedelchev, T. Todorov, Tz. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Self-induced light polarization rotation in azobenzene-containing polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 657–659 (2000).
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S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Siesler, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Novel side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester architecture for reversible optical storage,” Macromolecules 28, 2172–2183 (1995).
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M. Suda, M. Nakagawa, T. Iyoda, and Y. Einaga, “Reversible photoswitching of ferromagnetic FePt nanoparticles at room temperature,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 5538–5543 (2007).
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O. Yaroshchuk, K. Otto, G. Pelzl, F. Janovski, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Polarization holograms in a “liquid crystal-porous glass” system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 359, 315–326 (2001).
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V. Reshetnyak, L. Shanskii, O. Yaroshchuk, A. Tereshchenko, J. Lindau, G. Pelzl, F. Janovski, and K. Otto, “Photoorientation of polymer fragments in a system azopolymer-microporous glass,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 329, 447–456 (1999).
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Kashyap, S.

D. S. Sidhaye, S. Kashyap, M. Sastry, S. Hotha, and B. L. V. Prasad, “Gold nanoparticle networks with photoresponsive interparticle spacings,” Langmuir 21, 7979–7984 (2005).
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A. Manna, P-L. Chen, H. Akiyama, T. Wei, K. Tamada, and W. Knoll, “Optimized photoisomerization on gold nanoparticles capped by unsymmetrical azobenzene disulfides,” Chem. Mater. 15, 20–28 (2003).
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P. Ahonen, D. J. Schiffrin, J. Paprotny, and K. Kontturi, “Optical switching of coupled plasmons of Ag-nanoparticles by photoisomerisation of an azobenzene ligand,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 651–658 (2007).
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C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5, 615–619 (2005).
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S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Siesler, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Novel side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester architecture for reversible optical storage,” Macromolecules 28, 2172–2183 (1995).
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Leclercq, L.

Leite, E.

I. Naydenova, E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, N. Pandey, T. Baron, T. Yovcheva, S. Sainov, S. Martin, S. Mintova, and V. Toal, “Optical properties of photopolymerisable nanocomposites containing nanosized molecular sieves,” J. Opt. 13, 044019 (2011).
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E. Leite, I. Naydenova, S. Mintova, L. Leclercq, and V. Toal, “Photopolymerizable nanocomposites for holographic recording and sensor application,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3652–3660 (2010).
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E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, E.-P. Ng, V. Toal, S. Mintova, and I. Naydenova, “Optical properties of photopolymer layers doped with aluminophosphate nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 16767–16775 (2010).
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C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5, 615–619 (2005).
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Y. Lu, Y. Yang, A. Sellinger, M. Lu, J. Huang, H. Fan, J. Huang, H. Fan, R. Haddad, G. Lopez, A. R. Burns, D. Y. Sasaki, J. Shelnutt, and C. J. Brinker, “Self-assembly of mesoscopically ordered chromatic polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposites,” Nature 410, 913–917 (2001).
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Y. Lu, Y. Yang, A. Sellinger, M. Lu, J. Huang, H. Fan, J. Huang, H. Fan, R. Haddad, G. Lopez, A. R. Burns, D. Y. Sasaki, J. Shelnutt, and C. J. Brinker, “Self-assembly of mesoscopically ordered chromatic polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposites,” Nature 410, 913–917 (2001).
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Y. Lu, Y. Yang, A. Sellinger, M. Lu, J. Huang, H. Fan, J. Huang, H. Fan, R. Haddad, G. Lopez, A. R. Burns, D. Y. Sasaki, J. Shelnutt, and C. J. Brinker, “Self-assembly of mesoscopically ordered chromatic polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposites,” Nature 410, 913–917 (2001).
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A. Manna, P-L. Chen, H. Akiyama, T. Wei, K. Tamada, and W. Knoll, “Optimized photoisomerization on gold nanoparticles capped by unsymmetrical azobenzene disulfides,” Chem. Mater. 15, 20–28 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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I. Naydenova, E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, N. Pandey, T. Baron, T. Yovcheva, S. Sainov, S. Martin, S. Mintova, and V. Toal, “Optical properties of photopolymerisable nanocomposites containing nanosized molecular sieves,” J. Opt. 13, 044019 (2011).
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G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, “Bifocal-polarization holographic lens,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1001–1003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, “Investigations on photoinduced processes in a series of azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers,” J. Opt. A 6, 324–329 (2004).
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Matharu, A. S.

Mintova, S.

I. Naydenova, E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, N. Pandey, T. Baron, T. Yovcheva, S. Sainov, S. Martin, S. Mintova, and V. Toal, “Optical properties of photopolymerisable nanocomposites containing nanosized molecular sieves,” J. Opt. 13, 044019 (2011).
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M. Moothanchery, I. Naydenova, S. Mintova, and V. Toal, “Nanozeolites doped photopolymer layers with reduced shrinkage,” Opt. Express 19, 25786–25791 (2011).
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E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, E.-P. Ng, V. Toal, S. Mintova, and I. Naydenova, “Optical properties of photopolymer layers doped with aluminophosphate nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 16767–16775 (2010).
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E. Leite, I. Naydenova, S. Mintova, L. Leclercq, and V. Toal, “Photopolymerizable nanocomposites for holographic recording and sensor application,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3652–3660 (2010).
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Moothanchery, M.

Nagano, S.

K. Nishizawa, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, “Novel liquid crystalline organic-inorganic hybrid for highly sensitive photoinscriptions,” Chem. Mater. 21, 2624–2631 (2009).
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M. Suda, M. Nakagawa, T. Iyoda, and Y. Einaga, “Reversible photoswitching of ferromagnetic FePt nanoparticles at room temperature,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 5538–5543 (2007).
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A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102, 4139–4176 (2002).
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I. Naydenova, E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, N. Pandey, T. Baron, T. Yovcheva, S. Sainov, S. Martin, S. Mintova, and V. Toal, “Optical properties of photopolymerisable nanocomposites containing nanosized molecular sieves,” J. Opt. 13, 044019 (2011).
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M. Moothanchery, I. Naydenova, S. Mintova, and V. Toal, “Nanozeolites doped photopolymer layers with reduced shrinkage,” Opt. Express 19, 25786–25791 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, E.-P. Ng, V. Toal, S. Mintova, and I. Naydenova, “Optical properties of photopolymer layers doped with aluminophosphate nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 16767–16775 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Leite, I. Naydenova, S. Mintova, L. Leclercq, and V. Toal, “Photopolymerizable nanocomposites for holographic recording and sensor application,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3652–3660 (2010).
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I. Naydenova and V. Toal, “Nanoparticle doped photopolymers for holographic applications,” Ordered Porous Solids (Elsevier, 2009).

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Nedelchev, L.

Ng, E.-P.

E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, E.-P. Ng, V. Toal, S. Mintova, and I. Naydenova, “Optical properties of photopolymer layers doped with aluminophosphate nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 16767–16775 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nicole, L.

C. Sanchez, P. Belleville, M. Popall, and L. Nicole, “Applications of advanced hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials: from laboratory to market,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40, 696–753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Dam-Hansen, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and L. Nikolova, “Polarisation-sensitive optical elements in azobenzene polyesters and peptides,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 44, 912–925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, “Bifocal-polarization holographic lens,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1001–1003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, “Investigations on photoinduced processes in a series of azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers,” J. Opt. A 6, 324–329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova, L. Nedelchev, T. Todorov, Tz. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Self-induced light polarization rotation in azobenzene-containing polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 657–659 (2000).
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T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, and N. Tomova, “Polarization holography 1. A new high-efficiency organic material with reversible photoinduced birefringence,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4309–4312 (1984).
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L. Nikolova and P. S. Ramanujam, Polarization Holography (Cambridge University, 2009).

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K. Nishizawa, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, “Novel liquid crystalline organic-inorganic hybrid for highly sensitive photoinscriptions,” Chem. Mater. 21, 2624–2631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oriol, L.

J. del Barrio, R. M. Tejedor, and L. Oriol, “Thermal and light control of the chiral order of azopolymers,” Eur. Polym. J. 48, 384–390 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Otto, K.

O. Yaroshchuk, K. Otto, G. Pelzl, F. Janovski, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Polarization holograms in a “liquid crystal-porous glass” system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 359, 315–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Reshetnyak, L. Shanskii, O. Yaroshchuk, A. Tereshchenko, J. Lindau, G. Pelzl, F. Janovski, and K. Otto, “Photoorientation of polymer fragments in a system azopolymer-microporous glass,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 329, 447–456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pandey, N.

I. Naydenova, E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, N. Pandey, T. Baron, T. Yovcheva, S. Sainov, S. Martin, S. Mintova, and V. Toal, “Optical properties of photopolymerisable nanocomposites containing nanosized molecular sieves,” J. Opt. 13, 044019 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paprotny, J.

P. Ahonen, D. J. Schiffrin, J. Paprotny, and K. Kontturi, “Optical switching of coupled plasmons of Ag-nanoparticles by photoisomerisation of an azobenzene ligand,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 651–658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pelzl, G.

O. Yaroshchuk, K. Otto, G. Pelzl, F. Janovski, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Polarization holograms in a “liquid crystal-porous glass” system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 359, 315–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Reshetnyak, L. Shanskii, O. Yaroshchuk, A. Tereshchenko, J. Lindau, G. Pelzl, F. Janovski, and K. Otto, “Photoorientation of polymer fragments in a system azopolymer-microporous glass,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 329, 447–456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petrova, T.

G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, “Bifocal-polarization holographic lens,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1001–1003 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, “Investigations on photoinduced processes in a series of azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers,” J. Opt. A 6, 324–329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petrova, Tz.

L. Nikolova, L. Nedelchev, T. Todorov, Tz. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Self-induced light polarization rotation in azobenzene-containing polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 657–659 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Popall, M.

C. Sanchez, P. Belleville, M. Popall, and L. Nicole, “Applications of advanced hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials: from laboratory to market,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40, 696–753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, B. L. V.

D. S. Sidhaye, S. Kashyap, M. Sastry, S. Hotha, and B. L. V. Prasad, “Gold nanoparticle networks with photoresponsive interparticle spacings,” Langmuir 21, 7979–7984 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, P. S.

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Dam-Hansen, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, and L. Nikolova, “Polarisation-sensitive optical elements in azobenzene polyesters and peptides,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 44, 912–925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nedelchev, A. S. Matharu, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Photoinduced anisotropy in a family of amorphous azobenzene polyesters for optical storage,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5918–5927 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Yaroshchuk, K. Otto, G. Pelzl, F. Janovski, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Polarization holograms in a “liquid crystal-porous glass” system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 359, 315–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova, L. Nedelchev, T. Todorov, Tz. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Self-induced light polarization rotation in azobenzene-containing polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 657–659 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Siesler, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Novel side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester architecture for reversible optical storage,” Macromolecules 28, 2172–2183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova and P. S. Ramanujam, Polarization Holography (Cambridge University, 2009).

Reshetnyak, V.

V. Reshetnyak, L. Shanskii, O. Yaroshchuk, A. Tereshchenko, J. Lindau, G. Pelzl, F. Janovski, and K. Otto, “Photoorientation of polymer fragments in a system azopolymer-microporous glass,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 329, 447–456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102, 4139–4176 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5, 615–619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rumyantseva, A.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5, 615–619 (2005).
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A. C. Balazs, T. Emrick, and T. P. Russell, “Nanoparticle polymer composites: where two small worlds meet,” Science 314, 1107–1110 (2006).
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I. Naydenova, E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, N. Pandey, T. Baron, T. Yovcheva, S. Sainov, S. Martin, S. Mintova, and V. Toal, “Optical properties of photopolymerisable nanocomposites containing nanosized molecular sieves,” J. Opt. 13, 044019 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, C.

C. Sanchez, P. Belleville, M. Popall, and L. Nicole, “Applications of advanced hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials: from laboratory to market,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40, 696–753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, D. Y.

Y. Lu, Y. Yang, A. Sellinger, M. Lu, J. Huang, H. Fan, J. Huang, H. Fan, R. Haddad, G. Lopez, A. R. Burns, D. Y. Sasaki, J. Shelnutt, and C. J. Brinker, “Self-assembly of mesoscopically ordered chromatic polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposites,” Nature 410, 913–917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sastry, M.

D. S. Sidhaye, S. Kashyap, M. Sastry, S. Hotha, and B. L. V. Prasad, “Gold nanoparticle networks with photoresponsive interparticle spacings,” Langmuir 21, 7979–7984 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5, 615–619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schiffrin, D. J.

P. Ahonen, D. J. Schiffrin, J. Paprotny, and K. Kontturi, “Optical switching of coupled plasmons of Ag-nanoparticles by photoisomerisation of an azobenzene ligand,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 651–658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seki, T.

K. Nishizawa, S. Nagano, and T. Seki, “Novel liquid crystalline organic-inorganic hybrid for highly sensitive photoinscriptions,” Chem. Mater. 21, 2624–2631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sellinger, A.

Y. Lu, Y. Yang, A. Sellinger, M. Lu, J. Huang, H. Fan, J. Huang, H. Fan, R. Haddad, G. Lopez, A. R. Burns, D. Y. Sasaki, J. Shelnutt, and C. J. Brinker, “Self-assembly of mesoscopically ordered chromatic polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposites,” Nature 410, 913–917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shanskii, L.

V. Reshetnyak, L. Shanskii, O. Yaroshchuk, A. Tereshchenko, J. Lindau, G. Pelzl, F. Janovski, and K. Otto, “Photoorientation of polymer fragments in a system azopolymer-microporous glass,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 329, 447–456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shelnutt, J.

Y. Lu, Y. Yang, A. Sellinger, M. Lu, J. Huang, H. Fan, J. Huang, H. Fan, R. Haddad, G. Lopez, A. R. Burns, D. Y. Sasaki, J. Shelnutt, and C. J. Brinker, “Self-assembly of mesoscopically ordered chromatic polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposites,” Nature 410, 913–917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

S. Wu, J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Hub, W. Wu, W. Huang, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, “Ag nanoparticle/azopolymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis, microstructure, rewritable optically induced birefringence and optical recording,” Polymer 51, 1395–1403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7242–7246 (2007).
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V. Shibaev, A. Bobrovsky, and N. Boiko, “Photoactive liquid crystalline polymer systems with light-controllable structure and optical properties,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28, 729–836 (2003).
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D. S. Sidhaye, S. Kashyap, M. Sastry, S. Hotha, and B. L. V. Prasad, “Gold nanoparticle networks with photoresponsive interparticle spacings,” Langmuir 21, 7979–7984 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siesler, H. W.

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Siesler, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Novel side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester architecture for reversible optical storage,” Macromolecules 28, 2172–2183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suda, M.

M. Suda, M. Nakagawa, T. Iyoda, and Y. Einaga, “Reversible photoswitching of ferromagnetic FePt nanoparticles at room temperature,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 5538–5543 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7242–7246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, N.

Tamada, K.

A. Manna, P-L. Chen, H. Akiyama, T. Wei, K. Tamada, and W. Knoll, “Optimized photoisomerization on gold nanoparticles capped by unsymmetrical azobenzene disulfides,” Chem. Mater. 15, 20–28 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tejedor, R. M.

J. del Barrio, R. M. Tejedor, and L. Oriol, “Thermal and light control of the chiral order of azopolymers,” Eur. Polym. J. 48, 384–390 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tereshchenko, A.

V. Reshetnyak, L. Shanskii, O. Yaroshchuk, A. Tereshchenko, J. Lindau, G. Pelzl, F. Janovski, and K. Otto, “Photoorientation of polymer fragments in a system azopolymer-microporous glass,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 329, 447–456 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toal, V.

M. Moothanchery, I. Naydenova, S. Mintova, and V. Toal, “Nanozeolites doped photopolymer layers with reduced shrinkage,” Opt. Express 19, 25786–25791 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, “Bifocal-polarization holographic lens,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1001–1003 (2004).
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G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, “Investigations on photoinduced processes in a series of azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers,” J. Opt. A 6, 324–329 (2004).
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L. Nikolova, L. Nedelchev, T. Todorov, Tz. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Self-induced light polarization rotation in azobenzene-containing polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 657–659 (2000).
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C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5, 615–619 (2005).
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C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5, 615–619 (2005).
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S. Wu, J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Hub, W. Wu, W. Huang, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, “Ag nanoparticle/azopolymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis, microstructure, rewritable optically induced birefringence and optical recording,” Polymer 51, 1395–1403 (2010).
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S. Wu, J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Hub, W. Wu, W. Huang, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, “Ag nanoparticle/azopolymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis, microstructure, rewritable optically induced birefringence and optical recording,” Polymer 51, 1395–1403 (2010).
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S. Wu, J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Hub, W. Wu, W. Huang, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, “Ag nanoparticle/azopolymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis, microstructure, rewritable optically induced birefringence and optical recording,” Polymer 51, 1395–1403 (2010).
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J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7242–7246 (2007).
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J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7242–7246 (2007).
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S. Wu, J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Hub, W. Wu, W. Huang, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, “Ag nanoparticle/azopolymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis, microstructure, rewritable optically induced birefringence and optical recording,” Polymer 51, 1395–1403 (2010).
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J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7242–7246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

S. Wu, J. Shen, J. Huang, Y. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Hub, W. Wu, W. Huang, K. Wang, and Q. Zhang, “Ag nanoparticle/azopolymer nanocomposites: in situ synthesis, microstructure, rewritable optically induced birefringence and optical recording,” Polymer 51, 1395–1403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 7242–7246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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L. Nikolova, L. Nedelchev, T. Todorov, Tz. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Self-induced light polarization rotation in azobenzene-containing polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 657–659 (2000).
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J. Opt. A

G. Martinez-Ponce, T. Petrova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, T. Todorov, and L. Nikolova, “Investigations on photoinduced processes in a series of azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers,” J. Opt. A 6, 324–329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

E. Leite, Tz. Babeva, E.-P. Ng, V. Toal, S. Mintova, and I. Naydenova, “Optical properties of photopolymer layers doped with aluminophosphate nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 16767–16775 (2010).
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C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, “Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 5, 615–619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Lu, Y. Yang, A. Sellinger, M. Lu, J. Huang, H. Fan, J. Huang, H. Fan, R. Haddad, G. Lopez, A. R. Burns, D. Y. Sasaki, J. Shelnutt, and C. J. Brinker, “Self-assembly of mesoscopically ordered chromatic polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposites,” Nature 410, 913–917 (2001).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure of the azopolymer used in the present study.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Thickness measurement profiles. (a) Nondoped film d=0.40μm and (b) film doped with 2% SiO2 NP d=0.48μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Absorbance spectra of silica doped azopolymer samples for all concentrations of the dopant 0% (nondoped film), 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 25 wt. %. The inset gives a magnification of the peak of absorbance.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Polarimetric setup for real time measurement of the photoinduced birefringence. 1, probe laser; 2, pump laser; 3, polarizers; 4, Glan’s prism; 5, HOIM sample; 6, digital power meter; 7, computer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Kinetics of the photoinduced birefringence for the investigated samples with NP concentrations from 0 to 25 wt.% (Irecording=400mW/cm2, λ=473nm).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dependence of the enhancement ratio on the silica NP concentration. Inset shows comparison between HOIMs based on SiO2 and ZnO in the same azopolymer.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Angle distribution of the scattered irradiance at 473 nm for both 5–15 nm SiO2 and 50 nm ZnO NP dispersed in the same azopolymer P1.

Equations (1)

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Δn=λprobeπd·arcsinI/I0,

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