Abstract

A nematic liquid crystal (LC) mixture was doped with harvested ferroelectric BaTiO3 nanoparticles and investigated with wide- and small-angle x-ray scattering upon heating from the nematic to the isotropic phase. At moderate temperatures, colloidal crystallites were observed. LC test cells with homeotropic anchoring were placed in the x-ray beam and the realignment of the LC director was investigated upon applying an electric field.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. O. Buchnev, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Enhanced two-beam coupling in colloids of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1512–1516 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Cook, A. V. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. T. Griffith, M. A. Saleh, and D. R. Evans, “Nanoparticle doped organic–inorganic hybrid photorefractives,” Opt. Express 16, 4015–4022 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Glushchenko, C. I. Cheon, J. West, F. Lic, E. Büyüktanir, Y. Reznikov, and A. Buchnev, “Ferroelectric particles in liquid crystals: recent frontiers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 227–237 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Li, O. Buchnev, I. C. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, T. J. Sluckin, and J. L. West, “Orientational coupling amplification in ferroelectric nematic colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 147801 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basunm, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. H. de Jeu, Physical Properties of Liquid Crystalline Materials (Gordon & Breach, 1980).
  10. P. Scherrer, “Bestimmung der größe und der inneren struktur von kolloidteilchen mittels röntgenstrahlen,” Göttinger Nachrichten Math. Phys. 2, 98–100 (1918).
  11. W. L. McMillan, “Simple molecular model for smectic a phase of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 1238–1246 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  12. SAXSutilities is a piece of software developed by Michael Sztucki, July2011, ESRF.
  13. P. Davidson, D. Petermann, and A. M. Levelut, “The measurement of the nematic order parameter by x-ray scattering reconsidered,” J. Phys. II 5, 113–131 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Lorenz, N. Zimmermann, S. Kumar, D. R. Evans, G. Cook, and H.-S. Kitzerow, “Doping the nematic liquid crystal 5CB with milled BaTiO3 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 051704 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

A. Lorenz, N. Zimmermann, S. Kumar, D. R. Evans, G. Cook, and H.-S. Kitzerow, “Doping the nematic liquid crystal 5CB with milled BaTiO3 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 051704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basunm, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

A. Glushchenko, C. I. Cheon, J. West, F. Lic, E. Büyüktanir, Y. Reznikov, and A. Buchnev, “Ferroelectric particles in liquid crystals: recent frontiers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 227–237 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, O. Buchnev, I. C. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, T. J. Sluckin, and J. L. West, “Orientational coupling amplification in ferroelectric nematic colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 147801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. Davidson, D. Petermann, and A. M. Levelut, “The measurement of the nematic order parameter by x-ray scattering reconsidered,” J. Phys. II 5, 113–131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

W. L. McMillan, “Simple molecular model for smectic a phase of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 1238–1246 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1918 (1)

P. Scherrer, “Bestimmung der größe und der inneren struktur von kolloidteilchen mittels röntgenstrahlen,” Göttinger Nachrichten Math. Phys. 2, 98–100 (1918).

Atkuri, H.

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, P. P.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basunm, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. L.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basunm, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Basun, S. A.

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Basunm, S. A.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basunm, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buchnev, A.

A. Glushchenko, C. I. Cheon, J. West, F. Lic, E. Büyüktanir, Y. Reznikov, and A. Buchnev, “Ferroelectric particles in liquid crystals: recent frontiers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 227–237 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buchnev, O.

O. Buchnev, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Enhanced two-beam coupling in colloids of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1512–1516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, O. Buchnev, I. C. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, T. J. Sluckin, and J. L. West, “Orientational coupling amplification in ferroelectric nematic colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 147801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Büyüktanir, E.

A. Glushchenko, C. I. Cheon, J. West, F. Lic, E. Büyüktanir, Y. Reznikov, and A. Buchnev, “Ferroelectric particles in liquid crystals: recent frontiers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 227–237 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheon, C. I.

A. Glushchenko, C. I. Cheon, J. West, F. Lic, E. Büyüktanir, Y. Reznikov, and A. Buchnev, “Ferroelectric particles in liquid crystals: recent frontiers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 227–237 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheon, C.-I.

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheon, I. C.

F. Li, O. Buchnev, I. C. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, T. J. Sluckin, and J. L. West, “Orientational coupling amplification in ferroelectric nematic colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 147801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cook, G.

A. Lorenz, N. Zimmermann, S. Kumar, D. R. Evans, G. Cook, and H.-S. Kitzerow, “Doping the nematic liquid crystal 5CB with milled BaTiO3 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 051704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basunm, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, A. V. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. T. Griffith, M. A. Saleh, and D. R. Evans, “Nanoparticle doped organic–inorganic hybrid photorefractives,” Opt. Express 16, 4015–4022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, P.

P. Davidson, D. Petermann, and A. M. Levelut, “The measurement of the nematic order parameter by x-ray scattering reconsidered,” J. Phys. II 5, 113–131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Jeu, W. H.

W. H. de Jeu, Physical Properties of Liquid Crystalline Materials (Gordon & Breach, 1980).

Dyadyusha, A.

Evans, D. R.

A. Lorenz, N. Zimmermann, S. Kumar, D. R. Evans, G. Cook, and H.-S. Kitzerow, “Doping the nematic liquid crystal 5CB with milled BaTiO3 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 051704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basunm, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, A. V. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. T. Griffith, M. A. Saleh, and D. R. Evans, “Nanoparticle doped organic–inorganic hybrid photorefractives,” Opt. Express 16, 4015–4022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glushchenko, A.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basunm, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, O. Buchnev, I. C. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, T. J. Sluckin, and J. L. West, “Orientational coupling amplification in ferroelectric nematic colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 147801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Glushchenko, C. I. Cheon, J. West, F. Lic, E. Büyüktanir, Y. Reznikov, and A. Buchnev, “Ferroelectric particles in liquid crystals: recent frontiers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 227–237 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glushchenko, A. V.

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, A. V. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. T. Griffith, M. A. Saleh, and D. R. Evans, “Nanoparticle doped organic–inorganic hybrid photorefractives,” Opt. Express 16, 4015–4022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Griffith, A. T.

Kaczmarek, M.

Kitzerow, H.-S.

A. Lorenz, N. Zimmermann, S. Kumar, D. R. Evans, G. Cook, and H.-S. Kitzerow, “Doping the nematic liquid crystal 5CB with milled BaTiO3 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 051704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

A. Lorenz, N. Zimmermann, S. Kumar, D. R. Evans, G. Cook, and H.-S. Kitzerow, “Doping the nematic liquid crystal 5CB with milled BaTiO3 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 051704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Levelut, A. M.

P. Davidson, D. Petermann, and A. M. Levelut, “The measurement of the nematic order parameter by x-ray scattering reconsidered,” J. Phys. II 5, 113–131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

F. Li, O. Buchnev, I. C. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, T. J. Sluckin, and J. L. West, “Orientational coupling amplification in ferroelectric nematic colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 147801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lic, F.

A. Glushchenko, C. I. Cheon, J. West, F. Lic, E. Büyüktanir, Y. Reznikov, and A. Buchnev, “Ferroelectric particles in liquid crystals: recent frontiers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 227–237 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, A.

A. Lorenz, N. Zimmermann, S. Kumar, D. R. Evans, G. Cook, and H.-S. Kitzerow, “Doping the nematic liquid crystal 5CB with milled BaTiO3 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 051704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McMillan, W. L.

W. L. McMillan, “Simple molecular model for smectic a phase of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 1238–1246 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, D.

P. Davidson, D. Petermann, and A. M. Levelut, “The measurement of the nematic order parameter by x-ray scattering reconsidered,” J. Phys. II 5, 113–131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ponce, A.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basunm, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V.

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, A. V. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, A. T. Griffith, M. A. Saleh, and D. R. Evans, “Nanoparticle doped organic–inorganic hybrid photorefractives,” Opt. Express 16, 4015–4022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Buchnev, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Enhanced two-beam coupling in colloids of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1512–1516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, O. Buchnev, I. C. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, T. J. Sluckin, and J. L. West, “Orientational coupling amplification in ferroelectric nematic colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 147801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V. Y.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basunm, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V. Yu.

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Y.

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Buchnev, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Enhanced two-beam coupling in colloids of ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1512–1516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, O. Buchnev, I. C. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, T. J. Sluckin, and J. L. West, “Orientational coupling amplification in ferroelectric nematic colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 147801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Glushchenko, C. I. Cheon, J. West, F. Lic, E. Büyüktanir, Y. Reznikov, and A. Buchnev, “Ferroelectric particles in liquid crystals: recent frontiers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 227–237 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, M. A.

Scherrer, P.

P. Scherrer, “Bestimmung der größe und der inneren struktur von kolloidteilchen mittels röntgenstrahlen,” Göttinger Nachrichten Math. Phys. 2, 98–100 (1918).

Sluckin, T. J.

F. Li, O. Buchnev, I. C. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, T. J. Sluckin, and J. L. West, “Orientational coupling amplification in ferroelectric nematic colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 147801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

West, J.

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Glushchenko, C. I. Cheon, J. West, F. Lic, E. Büyüktanir, Y. Reznikov, and A. Buchnev, “Ferroelectric particles in liquid crystals: recent frontiers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 227–237 (2006).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

F. Li, O. Buchnev, I. C. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, T. J. Sluckin, and J. L. West, “Orientational coupling amplification in ferroelectric nematic colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 147801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, N.

A. Lorenz, N. Zimmermann, S. Kumar, D. R. Evans, G. Cook, and H.-S. Kitzerow, “Doping the nematic liquid crystal 5CB with milled BaTiO3 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 051704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ziolo, R. F.

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basunm, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, R. F. Ziolo, S. A. Basun, P. P. Banerjee, and D. R. Evans, “Asymmetric Freedericksz transitions from symmetric liquid crystal cells doped with harvested ferroelectric nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 17339–17345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Göttinger Nachrichten Math. Phys. (1)

P. Scherrer, “Bestimmung der größe und der inneren struktur von kolloidteilchen mittels röntgenstrahlen,” Göttinger Nachrichten Math. Phys. 2, 98–100 (1918).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Cook, J. L. Barnes, S. A. Basunm, D. R. Evans, R. F. Ziolo, A. Ponce, V. Y. Reshetnyak, A. Glushchenko, and P. P. Banerjee, “Harvesting single ferroelectric domain stressed nanoparticles for optical and ferroic applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 064309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

H. Atkuri, G. Cook, D. R. Evans, C.-I. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, J. West, and K. Zhang, “Preparation of ferroelectric nanoparticles for their use in liquid crystalline colloids,” J. Opt. A 11, 024006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. II (1)

P. Davidson, D. Petermann, and A. M. Levelut, “The measurement of the nematic order parameter by x-ray scattering reconsidered,” J. Phys. II 5, 113–131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

A. Glushchenko, C. I. Cheon, J. West, F. Lic, E. Büyüktanir, Y. Reznikov, and A. Buchnev, “Ferroelectric particles in liquid crystals: recent frontiers,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 227–237 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

W. L. McMillan, “Simple molecular model for smectic a phase of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 1238–1246 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. A. Basun, G. Cook, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, A. V. Glushchenko, and D. R. Evans, “Dipole moment and spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles in a nonpolar fluid suspension,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 024105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

A. Lorenz, N. Zimmermann, S. Kumar, D. R. Evans, G. Cook, and H.-S. Kitzerow, “Doping the nematic liquid crystal 5CB with milled BaTiO3 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 051704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Li, O. Buchnev, I. C. Cheon, A. Glushchenko, V. Reshetnyak, Y. Reznikov, T. J. Sluckin, and J. L. West, “Orientational coupling amplification in ferroelectric nematic colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 147801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

W. H. de Jeu, Physical Properties of Liquid Crystalline Materials (Gordon & Breach, 1980).

SAXSutilities is a piece of software developed by Michael Sztucki, July2011, ESRF.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of the oriented 2D diffraction pattern of a nematic LC, a coordinate system based on the angle χ and the scattering vector q, and the alignment of two detectors, which cover the SAXS and the WAXS angular regions, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Orientational order parameter versus reduced temperature, as calculated by the Maier–Saupe theory (solid line), observed upon heating pure EN18 (circles) and doped EN18 (squares).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scattering intensity versus magnitude of the scattering vector recorded for a capillary filled with BaTiO3-nanoparticle-doped EN18. The sample was slowly heated from 29°C (blue curves) to 65°C (red curves). The inset shows scattering curves observed for the pure LC.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fredericks transition in an LC test cell with homeotropic anchoring: schematic plots of the director field near one glass boundary (a) if no voltage is applied (b), if a voltage near the critical voltage is applied, and (c) if a voltage larger than the threshold voltage is applied.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Scattering intensity versus magnitude of the scattering vector recorded for planar LC test cells. The addressing voltage is varied from 0 (blue curves) to 10 V (red curves) in steps of 1 V. (a) Pure EN18. (b) EN18 doped with harvested BaTiO3 nanoparticles.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Angular scans of the scattering intensity (integrated over q in the WAXS region) versus angle χ.

Equations (3)

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S=1/23·cos2γi1.
S=(10.98·Tred)0.22.
Δθ0.9λDcos(θ).

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