Abstract

Raman scattering can be a significant contributor to the emergent radiance spectrum from the surface ocean. Here, we present an analytical approach to directly estimate the Raman contribution to remote sensing reflectance, and evaluate its effects on optical properties estimated from two common semianalytical inversion models. For application of the method to ocean color remote sensing, spectral irradiance products in the ultraviolet from the OMI instrument are merged with MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data in the visible. The resulting global fields of Raman-corrected optical properties show significant differences from standard retrievals, particularly for the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, where average errors in clear ocean waters are 50%. Given the interest in transforming bbp into biogeochemical quantities, Raman scattering must be accounted for in semianalytical inversion schemes.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. R. McClain, S. R. Signorini, and J. R. Christian, “Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean-color satellites,” Deep-Sea Research, Part II 51, 281–301 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. G. Boyce, M. R. Lewis, and B. Worm, “Global phytoplankton decline over the past century,” Nature 466, 591–596 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444, 752–755 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. V. Raman, “On the molecular scattering of light in water and the colour of the sea,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 101, 64–80 (1922).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan, “A new type of secondary radiation,” Nature 121, 501–502 (1928).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. E. Walrafen, “Raman spectral studies of effects of temperature on water structure,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114–126 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, and N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. R. Marshall and R. C. Smith, “Raman-scattering and in-water ocean optical-properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. S. Bartlett, K. J. Voss, S. Sathyendranath, and A. Vodacek, “Raman scattering by pure water and seawater,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3324–3332 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. A. Desiderio, “Application of the Raman scattering coefficient of water to calculations in marine optics,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1893–1894 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. R. Gordon, “Contribution of Raman scattering to water-leaving radiance: a reexamination,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3166–3174 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. H. Stavn and A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields—Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4002–4011 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. T. Ge, H. R. Gordon, and K. J. Voss, “Simulation of inelastic-scattering contributions to the irradiance field in the ocean—variation in Fraunhofer line depths,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4028–4036 (1993).
  15. K. J. Waters, “Effects of Raman-scattering on the water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13151–13161 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. T. Ge, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “In-situ measurements of inelastic light-scattering in Monterey Bay using solar Fraunhofer lines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13227–13236 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. M. Hu and K. J. Voss, “In situ measurements of Raman scattering in clear ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6962–6967 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. S. Bartlett, “The influence of Raman scattering by seawater and fluorescence by phytoplankton on ocean colour,” M.S. thesis (Dalhousie University, 1996).
  19. R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. 2. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. R. Gordon, M. R. Lewis, S. D. McLean, M. S. Twardowski, S. A. Freeman, K. J. Voss, and G. C. Boynton, “Spectra of particulate backscattering in natural waters,” Opt. Express 17, 16192–16208 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, and C. O. Davis, “Model for the interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, “Ocean-color model incorporating transspectral processes,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2216–2227 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Loisel and D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from the irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3001–3011 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. IOCCG, “Remote sensing of inherent optical properties: fundamentals, tests of algorithms, and applications” (International Ocean Colour Coordination Group, 2006), .
  25. C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. H. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical-models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery. A Review (Springer-Verlag, 1983).
  27. A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, “Optical-properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. Ricchiazzi, S. R. Yang, C. Gautier, and D. Sowle, “SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallell radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2101–2114 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2705–2714 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5755–5772 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. Pozdiakov and H. Grassl, Color of Inland and Coastal Waters: A Methodology for its Interpretation (Springer-Praxis, 2003), p. 192.
  33. H. R. Gordon, “Diffuse reflectance of the ocean: the theory of its augmentation by chlorophyll a fluorescence at 685 nm,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1161–1166 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).
  35. V. I. Haltrin and G. W. Kattawar, “Self-consistent solutions to the equation of transfer with elastic and inelastic-scattering in ocean optics: 1. Model,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5356–5367 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  36. C. Mobley, “Interpretation of Raman scattering computations,” HydroLight Technical Note, 10 (2012).
  37. H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  38. Z. P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  39. J. R. Morrison and N. B. Nelson, “Seasonal cycle of phytoplankton UV absorption at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 215–224 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  40. A. Bricaud, M. Babin, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Light absorption properties and absorption budget of Southeast Pacific waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08009 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  41. W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  42. P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  43. Z. P. Lee, S. L. Shang, C. M. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. H. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C09012 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  44. Z. P. Lee, C. M. Hu, S. L. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, and R. Arnone, “Penetration of UV-visible solar light in the global oceans: insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, in review.
  45. J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  46. A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111, 69–88 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  47. D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  48. T. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 22, GB2024 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010

D. G. Boyce, M. R. Lewis, and B. Worm, “Global phytoplankton decline over the past century,” Nature 466, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Light absorption properties and absorption budget of Southeast Pacific waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, S. L. Shang, C. M. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. H. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C09012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 22, GB2024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111, 69–88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444, 752–755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. R. Morrison and N. B. Nelson, “Seasonal cycle of phytoplankton UV absorption at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 215–224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, S. R. Signorini, and J. R. Christian, “Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean-color satellites,” Deep-Sea Research, Part II 51, 281–301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

1998

S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, “Ocean-color model incorporating transspectral processes,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2216–2227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bartlett, K. J. Voss, S. Sathyendranath, and A. Vodacek, “Raman scattering by pure water and seawater,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3324–3332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Ricchiazzi, S. R. Yang, C. Gautier, and D. Sowle, “SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallell radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2101–2114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

K. J. Waters, “Effects of Raman-scattering on the water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13151–13161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Ge, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “In-situ measurements of inelastic light-scattering in Monterey Bay using solar Fraunhofer lines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13227–13236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

1990

B. R. Marshall and R. C. Smith, “Raman-scattering and in-water ocean optical-properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stavn and A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields—Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4002–4011 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, and N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981

1979

1967

G. E. Walrafen, “Raman spectral studies of effects of temperature on water structure,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114–126 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1928

C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan, “A new type of secondary radiation,” Nature 121, 501–502 (1928).
[CrossRef]

1922

C. V. Raman, “On the molecular scattering of light in water and the colour of the sea,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 101, 64–80 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R.

Z. P. Lee, S. L. Shang, C. M. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. H. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C09012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, C. M. Hu, S. L. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, and R. Arnone, “Penetration of UV-visible solar light in the global oceans: insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, in review.

Arnone, R. A.

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Light absorption properties and absorption budget of Southeast Pacific waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, “Optical-properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, J. S.

J. S. Bartlett, K. J. Voss, S. Sathyendranath, and A. Vodacek, “Raman scattering by pure water and seawater,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3324–3332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bartlett, “The influence of Raman scattering by seawater and fluorescence by phytoplankton on ocean colour,” M.S. thesis (Dalhousie University, 1996).

Behrenfeld, M. J.

T. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 22, GB2024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444, 752–755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

T. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 22, GB2024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E. S.

M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444, 752–755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyce, D. G.

D. G. Boyce, M. R. Lewis, and B. Worm, “Global phytoplankton decline over the past century,” Nature 466, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, G. C.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Light absorption properties and absorption budget of Southeast Pacific waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, and C. O. Davis, “Model for the interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Christian, J. R.

C. R. McClain, S. R. Signorini, and J. R. Christian, “Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean-color satellites,” Deep-Sea Research, Part II 51, 281–301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Light absorption properties and absorption budget of Southeast Pacific waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Darecki, M.

Z. P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

Z. P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, and C. O. Davis, “Model for the interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Desiderio, R. A.

Du, K.

Z. P. Lee, C. M. Hu, S. L. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, and R. Arnone, “Penetration of UV-visible solar light in the global oceans: insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, in review.

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Falkowski, P. G.

M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444, 752–755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444, 752–755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Franz, B. A.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111, 69–88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, S. A.

Fry, E. S.

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, C.

P. Ricchiazzi, S. R. Yang, C. Gautier, and D. Sowle, “SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallell radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2101–2114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y. T.

Y. T. Ge, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “In-situ measurements of inelastic light-scattering in Monterey Bay using solar Fraunhofer lines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13227–13236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Ge, H. R. Gordon, and K. J. Voss, “Simulation of inelastic-scattering contributions to the irradiance field in the ocean—variation in Fraunhofer line depths,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4028–4036 (1993).

Gentili, B.

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111, 69–88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. H. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical-models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, M. R. Lewis, S. D. McLean, M. S. Twardowski, S. A. Freeman, K. J. Voss, and G. C. Boynton, “Spectra of particulate backscattering in natural waters,” Opt. Express 17, 16192–16208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Contribution of Raman scattering to water-leaving radiance: a reexamination,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3166–3174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Ge, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “In-situ measurements of inelastic light-scattering in Monterey Bay using solar Fraunhofer lines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13227–13236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Ge, H. R. Gordon, and K. J. Voss, “Simulation of inelastic-scattering contributions to the irradiance field in the ocean—variation in Fraunhofer line depths,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4028–4036 (1993).

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. H. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical-models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Diffuse reflectance of the ocean: the theory of its augmentation by chlorophyll a fluorescence at 685 nm,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1161–1166 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery. A Review (Springer-Verlag, 1983).

Grassl, H.

D. Pozdiakov and H. Grassl, Color of Inland and Coastal Waters: A Methodology for its Interpretation (Springer-Praxis, 2003), p. 192.

Gregg, W. W.

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haltrin, V. I.

Hawes, S. K.

Hooker, S. B.

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111, 69–88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C. M.

Z. P. Lee, S. L. Shang, C. M. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. H. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C09012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Hu and K. J. Voss, “In situ measurements of Raman scattering in clear ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6962–6967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, C. M. Hu, S. L. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, and R. Arnone, “Penetration of UV-visible solar light in the global oceans: insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, in review.

Huot, Y.

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111, 69–88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z. H.

Kaczmarek, S.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

Kishino, M.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, and N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, K. S.

C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan, “A new type of secondary radiation,” Nature 121, 501–502 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Z. P. Lee, S. L. Shang, C. M. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. H. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C09012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, and C. O. Davis, “Model for the interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, C. M. Hu, S. L. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, and R. Arnone, “Penetration of UV-visible solar light in the global oceans: insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, in review.

Letelier, R. M.

M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444, 752–755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M.

Z. P. Lee, S. L. Shang, C. M. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. H. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C09012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, C. M. Hu, S. L. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, and R. Arnone, “Penetration of UV-visible solar light in the global oceans: insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, in review.

Lewis, M. R.

D. G. Boyce, M. R. Lewis, and B. Worm, “Global phytoplankton decline over the past century,” Nature 466, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. R. Lewis, S. D. McLean, M. S. Twardowski, S. A. Freeman, K. J. Voss, and G. C. Boynton, “Spectra of particulate backscattering in natural waters,” Opt. Express 17, 16192–16208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. H.

Z. P. Lee, S. L. Shang, C. M. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. H. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C09012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loisel, H.

Lubac, B.

Z. P. Lee, S. L. Shang, C. M. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. H. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C09012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2705–2714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, B. R.

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444, 752–755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, S. R. Signorini, and J. R. Christian, “Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean-color satellites,” Deep-Sea Research, Part II 51, 281–301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McLean, S. D.

Milligan, A. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444, 752–755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C.

C. Mobley, “Interpretation of Raman scattering computations,” HydroLight Technical Note, 10 (2012).

Mobley, C. D.

Morel, A.

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111, 69–88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. H. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical-models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery. A Review (Springer-Verlag, 1983).

Morrison, J. R.

J. R. Morrison and N. B. Nelson, “Seasonal cycle of phytoplankton UV absorption at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 215–224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, N. B.

J. R. Morrison and N. B. Nelson, “Seasonal cycle of phytoplankton UV absorption at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 215–224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O’Malley, R. T.

M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444, 752–755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okami, N.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, and N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, T. G.

Peterson, A. R.

Platt, T.

Pope, R. M.

Pozdiakov, D.

D. Pozdiakov and H. Grassl, Color of Inland and Coastal Waters: A Methodology for its Interpretation (Springer-Praxis, 2003), p. 192.

Raman, C. V.

C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan, “A new type of secondary radiation,” Nature 121, 501–502 (1928).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Raman, “On the molecular scattering of light in water and the colour of the sea,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 101, 64–80 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Ras, J.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Light absorption properties and absorption budget of Southeast Pacific waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reinersman, P.

Reynolds, R. A.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rhea, W. J.

Z. P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ricchiazzi, P.

P. Ricchiazzi, S. R. Yang, C. Gautier, and D. Sowle, “SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallell radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2101–2114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rottgers, R.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sarmiento, J. L.

M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444, 752–755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

Sciandra, A.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shang, S. L.

Z. P. Lee, S. L. Shang, C. M. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. H. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C09012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, C. M. Hu, S. L. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, and R. Arnone, “Penetration of UV-visible solar light in the global oceans: insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, in review.

Siegel, D. A.

T. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 22, GB2024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444, 752–755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2705–2714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Signorini, S. R.

C. R. McClain, S. R. Signorini, and J. R. Christian, “Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean-color satellites,” Deep-Sea Research, Part II 51, 281–301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

B. R. Marshall and R. C. Smith, “Raman-scattering and in-water ocean optical-properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, “Optical-properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sowle, D.

P. Ricchiazzi, S. R. Yang, C. Gautier, and D. Sowle, “SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallell radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2101–2114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

Stavn, R. H.

Steward, R. G.

Stramska, M.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from the irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3001–3011 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, S.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, and N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tieche, F.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Light absorption properties and absorption budget of Southeast Pacific waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

H. R. Gordon, M. R. Lewis, S. D. McLean, M. S. Twardowski, S. A. Freeman, K. J. Voss, and G. C. Boynton, “Spectra of particulate backscattering in natural waters,” Opt. Express 17, 16192–16208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vodacek, A.

Voss, K. J.

Walrafen, G. E.

G. E. Walrafen, “Raman spectral studies of effects of temperature on water structure,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114–126 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Waters, K. J.

K. J. Waters, “Effects of Raman-scattering on the water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13151–13161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A. D.

Werdell, P. J.

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111, 69–88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Westberry, T.

T. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 22, GB2024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Worm, B.

D. G. Boyce, M. R. Lewis, and B. Worm, “Global phytoplankton decline over the past century,” Nature 466, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. R.

P. Ricchiazzi, S. R. Yang, C. Gautier, and D. Sowle, “SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallell radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2101–2114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

H. R. Gordon, “Diffuse reflectance of the ocean: the theory of its augmentation by chlorophyll a fluorescence at 685 nm,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1161–1166 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, “Optical-properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stavn and A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields—Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4002–4011 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Marshall and R. C. Smith, “Raman-scattering and in-water ocean optical-properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Ge, H. R. Gordon, and K. J. Voss, “Simulation of inelastic-scattering contributions to the irradiance field in the ocean—variation in Fraunhofer line depths,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4028–4036 (1993).

V. I. Haltrin and G. W. Kattawar, “Self-consistent solutions to the equation of transfer with elastic and inelastic-scattering in ocean optics: 1. Model,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5356–5367 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, and C. O. Davis, “Model for the interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Hu and K. J. Voss, “In situ measurements of Raman scattering in clear ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6962–6967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, “Ocean-color model incorporating transspectral processes,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2216–2227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Contribution of Raman scattering to water-leaving radiance: a reexamination,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3166–3174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Desiderio, “Application of the Raman scattering coefficient of water to calculations in marine optics,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1893–1894 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from the irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3001–3011 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bartlett, K. J. Voss, S. Sathyendranath, and A. Vodacek, “Raman scattering by pure water and seawater,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3324–3332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. 2. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2705–2714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. H. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical-models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Biogeosciences

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

P. Ricchiazzi, S. R. Yang, C. Gautier, and D. Sowle, “SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallell radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2101–2114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Research, Part II

C. R. McClain, S. R. Signorini, and J. R. Christian, “Subtropical gyre variability observed by ocean-color satellites,” Deep-Sea Research, Part II 51, 281–301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Global Biogeochem Cycles

T. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem Cycles 22, GB2024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

G. E. Walrafen, “Raman spectral studies of effects of temperature on water structure,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114–126 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Waters, “Effects of Raman-scattering on the water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13151–13161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Ge, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “In-situ measurements of inelastic light-scattering in Monterey Bay using solar Fraunhofer lines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13227–13236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, “Light absorption properties and absorption budget of Southeast Pacific waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C08009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, S. L. Shang, C. M. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. H. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtropical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C09012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, and N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Morrison and N. B. Nelson, “Seasonal cycle of phytoplankton UV absorption at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 215–224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan, “A new type of secondary radiation,” Nature 121, 501–502 (1928).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Boyce, M. R. Lewis, and B. Worm, “Global phytoplankton decline over the past century,” Nature 466, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444, 752–755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A

C. V. Raman, “On the molecular scattering of light in water and the colour of the sea,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 101, 64–80 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111, 69–88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

Z. P. Lee, C. M. Hu, S. L. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, and R. Arnone, “Penetration of UV-visible solar light in the global oceans: insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, in review.

D. Pozdiakov and H. Grassl, Color of Inland and Coastal Waters: A Methodology for its Interpretation (Springer-Praxis, 2003), p. 192.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

C. Mobley, “Interpretation of Raman scattering computations,” HydroLight Technical Note, 10 (2012).

J. S. Bartlett, “The influence of Raman scattering by seawater and fluorescence by phytoplankton on ocean colour,” M.S. thesis (Dalhousie University, 1996).

IOCCG, “Remote sensing of inherent optical properties: fundamentals, tests of algorithms, and applications” (International Ocean Colour Coordination Group, 2006), .

H. R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery. A Review (Springer-Verlag, 1983).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectral remote sensing reflectance from HydroLight simulations. (a) Rrs(λ) for varying Chl for cases which include Raman scatter (dotted red lines) and which do not include Raman scatter (solid black lines). (b) Percent contribution of Raman scatter to Rrs(λ) expressed as the ratio of Rrs,R(λ):Rrs(λ) times 100. Details of simulations are described in Section 2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

IOPs from inversion of HydroLight Rrs(λ) with and without Raman scatter included. Values plotted on the abscissae in each panel are taken from HydroLight and considered the “true” IOP value. (a) Chl from GSM (bottom and left axes) and aph(443) from QAA (top and right axes); (b) aCDM(443); (c) bbp(443). In each panel, “x” and “o” represent GSM and QAA retrievals, respectively. Red and blue symbols represent inversions of Rrs(λ) with and without Raman scatter included, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relative error in inverted IOPs due to Raman scatter as a function of chlorophyll concentration. Bias is calculated as normalized difference (%) between each retrieved IOP from Rrs(λ) with and without Raman scatter included. In each panel three curves are shown that represent: error in retrievals using uncorrected Rrs (black line), error in retrievals after correction of Rrs with exact IOPs (blue line), and error in retrievals after correction of Rrs with estimated IOPs from either GSM or QAA (red lines) IOPs in the top and bottom row, respectively. (a) GSM Chl; (b) GSM aCDM(443); (c) GSM bbp(443); (d) QAA aph(443); e, QAA aCDM(443); and (f) QAA bbp(443).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Estimation of Raman component of Rrs(λ). Rrs,R is directly estimated from Eq. (7). ΔRrs is the arithmetic difference between radiative transfer simulations with and without Raman scattering included. Results for all visible satellite wave bands are shown together. Diagonal line is 1:1 line.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fractional contribution of Raman component to total Rrs(λ) calculated for a single L3 monthly MODIS composite image (October 2004). Values are expressed as a percentage (%) and each panel shows different MODIS wave bands in the visible.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Fractional contribution of Raman scattered radiance to total Rrs(λ) for various ranges of observed satellite Chl (October 2004). Chl bins are for values <0.05mgm3 (top curve), 0.1<Chl<0.5mgm3 (middle curve), and Chl>1.0mgm3 (bottom curve). Error bars represent ranges of variability within each Chl bin. Results for MODIS wave bands >551nm not shown, due to contamination by Chl fluorescence.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Histograms of global IOP retrievals for a single L3 monthly composite (October 2004). Top panels show GSM retrievals of (a) Chl; (b) aCDM(443); (c) bbp(443). Bottom panels show QAA retrievals for (d) aph(443); (e) aCDM(443); (f) bbp(443). In each panel, the black histogram is from monthly values estimated without any correction for Raman scattering (the default), and the red line is from inversion after removing the Raman contribution to Rrs(λ).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison of satellite bbp(443) inversions before and after removal of Raman component of remote sensing reflectance, Rrs,R(λ). (a) and (b) show the spatial distribution of error in bbp(443) due to Raman for the GSM and QAA inversions, respectively. (c) and (d) are histograms of each respective image. Black lines are cumulative distribution functions of each field. Bias is calculated as normalized difference between bbp(443) estimated from satellite Rrs(λ) with and without Raman scatter included (×100 to express as a percentage).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Rrs(λ,0)=Rrs,E(λ,0)+Rrs,IE(λ,0),
Rrs(λ,0)=Rrs,E(λ,0)+Rrs,Raman(λ,0).
bR(λem)=λexaR(λex)fR(λexλem)dλex.
aR(λex)=2.7×104(λex488)5.3.
Lu,R(z1,Δz,λem)=β˜R(θsπ)z1+Δzz1λexbR(λem)Ed(z,λex)eKdzdλexdz,
Lu,R(0,λem)=β˜r(θsπ)br(λem)Ed(0+,λex)(Kd(λex)+κL(λem)).
Rrs,Raman(0+,λem)=t2n2β˜r(θsπ)br(λem)Ed(0+,λex)(Kd(λex)+κL(λem))Ed(0+,λem)[1+bb(λex)μu(Kd(λex)+κ(λex))+bb(λem)2μuκ(λem)].
Kd(λ)=a(λ)+bb(λ)μdandκ(λ)=a(λ)+bb(λ)μu,

Metrics