Abstract

In many situations in which an optic fiber carries a signal through a radiation field, an unwanted background signal is produced consisting of fluorescent and/or Cerenkov light. This presents a major problem in the measurement of the light signal, for example, in scintillation dosimetry of medical therapeutic beams. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method of measuring and removing the background signal through the use of a twisted pair of optic fibers. The twisted pair consists of a fiber carrying the scintillation signal that is twisted with a second optic fiber to form a double helix. The two twisted fibers will experience the same radiation environment provided the periodicity of the twist is correlated to the dose rate gradient. An expression for the required twist periodicity is presented. A scintillation dosimeter with a twisted pair optic fiber was tested in a megavoltage beam and found to accurately measure its beam characteristics. The twisted pair approach is not restricted to medical applications and can be used in many situations in which optical signals are carried through radiation fields.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. E. Cartwright, N. Suchowerska, Y. Yin, J. Lambert, M. Haque, and D. R. McKenzie, “Dose mapping of the rectal wall during brachytherapy with an array of scintillation dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 37, 2247–2255 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Suchowerska, M. Jackson, J. Lambert, Y. B. Yin, G. Hruby, and D. R. McKenzie, “Clinical trials of a urethral dose measurement system in brachytherapy using scintillation detectors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 79, 609–615 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Kertzscher, C. Andersen, J. Lindegaard, L. Fokdal, M. Paludan, S. Nielsen, and K. Tanderup, “OC-69 bringing in vivo fiber-coupled brachytherapy dosimetry to the patient,” Radiother. Oncol. 103, S1–S178 (2012).
  4. P. A. Cherenkov, “Visible emission of clean liquids by action of γ radiation,” Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR 2, 451 (1934).
  5. A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: II. Properties and measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1901–1913 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Fontbonne, G. Iltis, G. Ban, A. Battala, J. Vernhes, J. Tillier, N. Bellaize, C. Le Brun, B. Tamain, K. Mercier, and J. Motin, “Scintillating fiber dosimeter for radiation therapy accelerator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2223–2227 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. M. Frelin, J. M. Fontbonne, G. Ban, J. Colin, M. Labalme, A. Batalla, A. Isambert, A. Vela, and T. Leroux, “Spectral discrimination of Cerenkov radiation in scintillating dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 32, 3000–3006 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1421–1433 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. E. Andersen, S. M. S. Damkjær, G. Kertzscher, S. Greilich, and M. Aznar, “Fiber-coupled radioluminescence dosimetry with saturated Al2O3:C crystals: characterization in 6 and 18 MV photon beams,” Radiation Measurement 46, 1090–1098 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. E. Andersen, S. K. Nielsen, S. Greilich, J. Helt-Hansen, J. C. Lindegaard, and K. Tanderup, “Characterization of a fiber-coupled Al2O3:C luminescence dosimetry system for online in vivo dose verification during 192Ir brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 708–718 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Gaza, S. McKeever, M. Akselrod, A. Akselrod, T. Underwood, C. Yoder, C. Andersen, M. Aznar, C. Marckmann, and L. Bøtter-Jensen, “A fiber-dosimetry method based on OSL from Al 2O3:C for radiotherapy applications,” Radiation Measurement 38, 809–812 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. C. Konnoff, T. K. Plant, and E. Shiner, “SSPM based radiation sensing: preliminary laboratory and clinical results,” Radiation Measurement 46, 76–87 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, and N. Suchowerska, “Cerenkov-free scintillation dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy with an air core light guide,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3071–3080 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. H. Law, A. Ralston, and N. Suchowerska, “A prototype scintillation dosimeter customized for small and dynamic megavoltage radiation fields,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 1115–1126 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Measurement accuracy and Cerenkov removal for high performance, high spatial resolution scintillation dosimetry,” Med. Phys. 33, 128–135 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Therriault-Proulx, L. Beaulieu, L. Archambault, and S. Beddar, “On the nature of the light produced within PMMA optical light guides in scintillation fiber-optic dosimetry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2073–2084 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. J. Lee, P. Z. Liu, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “A method to remove residual signals in fibre optic luminescence dosimeters,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 1581–1590 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Z. Liu, N. Suchowerska, J. Lambert, P. Abolfathi, and D. R. McKenzie, “Plastic scintillation dosimetry: comparison of three solutions for the Cerenkov challenge,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56, 5805–5821 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Ralston, P. Liu, K. Warrener, D. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “Small field diode correction factors derived using an air core fibre optic scintillation dosimeter and EBT2 film,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2587–2602 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. G. Bell, “Telephone circuit,” U.S. patent244,426 (19July1881).
  21. S. Shenfeld, “Magnetic fields of twisted-wire pairs,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. EMC-11, 164–169 (1969).
  22. E. Smela and J. J. Santiago-Aviles, “A versatile twisted optical fiber sensor,” Sens. Actuators 13, 117–129 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. A. El-Sherif and J. N. Zemel, “Twisted pair optical fiber pH sensors,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Transducers, Philadelphia, PA (1985).
  24. P. Z. Liu, N. Suchowerska, P. Abolfathi, and D. R. McKenzie, “Real-time scintillation array dosimetry for radiotherapy: the advantages of photomultiplier detectors,” Med. Phys. 39, 1688–1695 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. M. Khan, The Physics of Radiation Therapy, 4th ed. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010).
  26. J. Lambert, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, J. Elsey, and N. Suchowerska, “A plastic scintillation dosimeter for high dose rate brachytherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5505–5516 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. F. Therriault-Proulx, T. M. Briere, F. Mourtada, S. Aubin, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “A phantom study of an in vivo dosimetry system using plastic scintillation detectors for real-time verification of 192Ir HDR brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 38, 2542–2551 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013

F. Therriault-Proulx, L. Beaulieu, L. Archambault, and S. Beddar, “On the nature of the light produced within PMMA optical light guides in scintillation fiber-optic dosimetry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2073–2084 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Lee, P. Z. Liu, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “A method to remove residual signals in fibre optic luminescence dosimeters,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 1581–1590 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

G. Kertzscher, C. Andersen, J. Lindegaard, L. Fokdal, M. Paludan, S. Nielsen, and K. Tanderup, “OC-69 bringing in vivo fiber-coupled brachytherapy dosimetry to the patient,” Radiother. Oncol. 103, S1–S178 (2012).

A. Ralston, P. Liu, K. Warrener, D. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “Small field diode correction factors derived using an air core fibre optic scintillation dosimeter and EBT2 film,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2587–2602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Liu, N. Suchowerska, P. Abolfathi, and D. R. McKenzie, “Real-time scintillation array dosimetry for radiotherapy: the advantages of photomultiplier detectors,” Med. Phys. 39, 1688–1695 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

F. Therriault-Proulx, T. M. Briere, F. Mourtada, S. Aubin, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “A phantom study of an in vivo dosimetry system using plastic scintillation detectors for real-time verification of 192Ir HDR brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 38, 2542–2551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Suchowerska, M. Jackson, J. Lambert, Y. B. Yin, G. Hruby, and D. R. McKenzie, “Clinical trials of a urethral dose measurement system in brachytherapy using scintillation detectors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 79, 609–615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Liu, N. Suchowerska, J. Lambert, P. Abolfathi, and D. R. McKenzie, “Plastic scintillation dosimetry: comparison of three solutions for the Cerenkov challenge,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56, 5805–5821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Andersen, S. M. S. Damkjær, G. Kertzscher, S. Greilich, and M. Aznar, “Fiber-coupled radioluminescence dosimetry with saturated Al2O3:C crystals: characterization in 6 and 18 MV photon beams,” Radiation Measurement 46, 1090–1098 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Konnoff, T. K. Plant, and E. Shiner, “SSPM based radiation sensing: preliminary laboratory and clinical results,” Radiation Measurement 46, 76–87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. H. Law, A. Ralston, and N. Suchowerska, “A prototype scintillation dosimeter customized for small and dynamic megavoltage radiation fields,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 1115–1126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Cartwright, N. Suchowerska, Y. Yin, J. Lambert, M. Haque, and D. R. McKenzie, “Dose mapping of the rectal wall during brachytherapy with an array of scintillation dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 37, 2247–2255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. E. Andersen, S. K. Nielsen, S. Greilich, J. Helt-Hansen, J. C. Lindegaard, and K. Tanderup, “Characterization of a fiber-coupled Al2O3:C luminescence dosimetry system for online in vivo dose verification during 192Ir brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 708–718 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, and N. Suchowerska, “Cerenkov-free scintillation dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy with an air core light guide,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Measurement accuracy and Cerenkov removal for high performance, high spatial resolution scintillation dosimetry,” Med. Phys. 33, 128–135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambert, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, J. Elsey, and N. Suchowerska, “A plastic scintillation dosimeter for high dose rate brachytherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5505–5516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. M. Frelin, J. M. Fontbonne, G. Ban, J. Colin, M. Labalme, A. Batalla, A. Isambert, A. Vela, and T. Leroux, “Spectral discrimination of Cerenkov radiation in scintillating dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 32, 3000–3006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Gaza, S. McKeever, M. Akselrod, A. Akselrod, T. Underwood, C. Yoder, C. Andersen, M. Aznar, C. Marckmann, and L. Bøtter-Jensen, “A fiber-dosimetry method based on OSL from Al 2O3:C for radiotherapy applications,” Radiation Measurement 38, 809–812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1421–1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Fontbonne, G. Iltis, G. Ban, A. Battala, J. Vernhes, J. Tillier, N. Bellaize, C. Le Brun, B. Tamain, K. Mercier, and J. Motin, “Scintillating fiber dosimeter for radiation therapy accelerator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2223–2227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: II. Properties and measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1901–1913 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

E. Smela and J. J. Santiago-Aviles, “A versatile twisted optical fiber sensor,” Sens. Actuators 13, 117–129 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1969

S. Shenfeld, “Magnetic fields of twisted-wire pairs,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. EMC-11, 164–169 (1969).

1934

P. A. Cherenkov, “Visible emission of clean liquids by action of γ radiation,” Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR 2, 451 (1934).

Abolfathi, P.

P. Z. Liu, N. Suchowerska, P. Abolfathi, and D. R. McKenzie, “Real-time scintillation array dosimetry for radiotherapy: the advantages of photomultiplier detectors,” Med. Phys. 39, 1688–1695 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Liu, N. Suchowerska, J. Lambert, P. Abolfathi, and D. R. McKenzie, “Plastic scintillation dosimetry: comparison of three solutions for the Cerenkov challenge,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56, 5805–5821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Akselrod, A.

R. Gaza, S. McKeever, M. Akselrod, A. Akselrod, T. Underwood, C. Yoder, C. Andersen, M. Aznar, C. Marckmann, and L. Bøtter-Jensen, “A fiber-dosimetry method based on OSL from Al 2O3:C for radiotherapy applications,” Radiation Measurement 38, 809–812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Akselrod, M.

R. Gaza, S. McKeever, M. Akselrod, A. Akselrod, T. Underwood, C. Yoder, C. Andersen, M. Aznar, C. Marckmann, and L. Bøtter-Jensen, “A fiber-dosimetry method based on OSL from Al 2O3:C for radiotherapy applications,” Radiation Measurement 38, 809–812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, C.

G. Kertzscher, C. Andersen, J. Lindegaard, L. Fokdal, M. Paludan, S. Nielsen, and K. Tanderup, “OC-69 bringing in vivo fiber-coupled brachytherapy dosimetry to the patient,” Radiother. Oncol. 103, S1–S178 (2012).

R. Gaza, S. McKeever, M. Akselrod, A. Akselrod, T. Underwood, C. Yoder, C. Andersen, M. Aznar, C. Marckmann, and L. Bøtter-Jensen, “A fiber-dosimetry method based on OSL from Al 2O3:C for radiotherapy applications,” Radiation Measurement 38, 809–812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, C. E.

C. E. Andersen, S. M. S. Damkjær, G. Kertzscher, S. Greilich, and M. Aznar, “Fiber-coupled radioluminescence dosimetry with saturated Al2O3:C crystals: characterization in 6 and 18 MV photon beams,” Radiation Measurement 46, 1090–1098 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Andersen, S. K. Nielsen, S. Greilich, J. Helt-Hansen, J. C. Lindegaard, and K. Tanderup, “Characterization of a fiber-coupled Al2O3:C luminescence dosimetry system for online in vivo dose verification during 192Ir brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 708–718 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, L.

F. Therriault-Proulx, L. Beaulieu, L. Archambault, and S. Beddar, “On the nature of the light produced within PMMA optical light guides in scintillation fiber-optic dosimetry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2073–2084 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Measurement accuracy and Cerenkov removal for high performance, high spatial resolution scintillation dosimetry,” Med. Phys. 33, 128–135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Attix, F. H.

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: II. Properties and measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1901–1913 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aubin, S.

F. Therriault-Proulx, T. M. Briere, F. Mourtada, S. Aubin, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “A phantom study of an in vivo dosimetry system using plastic scintillation detectors for real-time verification of 192Ir HDR brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 38, 2542–2551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aznar, M.

C. E. Andersen, S. M. S. Damkjær, G. Kertzscher, S. Greilich, and M. Aznar, “Fiber-coupled radioluminescence dosimetry with saturated Al2O3:C crystals: characterization in 6 and 18 MV photon beams,” Radiation Measurement 46, 1090–1098 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Gaza, S. McKeever, M. Akselrod, A. Akselrod, T. Underwood, C. Yoder, C. Andersen, M. Aznar, C. Marckmann, and L. Bøtter-Jensen, “A fiber-dosimetry method based on OSL from Al 2O3:C for radiotherapy applications,” Radiation Measurement 38, 809–812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ban, G.

A. M. Frelin, J. M. Fontbonne, G. Ban, J. Colin, M. Labalme, A. Batalla, A. Isambert, A. Vela, and T. Leroux, “Spectral discrimination of Cerenkov radiation in scintillating dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 32, 3000–3006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fontbonne, G. Iltis, G. Ban, A. Battala, J. Vernhes, J. Tillier, N. Bellaize, C. Le Brun, B. Tamain, K. Mercier, and J. Motin, “Scintillating fiber dosimeter for radiation therapy accelerator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2223–2227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Batalla, A.

A. M. Frelin, J. M. Fontbonne, G. Ban, J. Colin, M. Labalme, A. Batalla, A. Isambert, A. Vela, and T. Leroux, “Spectral discrimination of Cerenkov radiation in scintillating dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 32, 3000–3006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Battala, A.

J. Fontbonne, G. Iltis, G. Ban, A. Battala, J. Vernhes, J. Tillier, N. Bellaize, C. Le Brun, B. Tamain, K. Mercier, and J. Motin, “Scintillating fiber dosimeter for radiation therapy accelerator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2223–2227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beaulieu, L.

F. Therriault-Proulx, L. Beaulieu, L. Archambault, and S. Beddar, “On the nature of the light produced within PMMA optical light guides in scintillation fiber-optic dosimetry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2073–2084 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Therriault-Proulx, T. M. Briere, F. Mourtada, S. Aubin, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “A phantom study of an in vivo dosimetry system using plastic scintillation detectors for real-time verification of 192Ir HDR brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 38, 2542–2551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Measurement accuracy and Cerenkov removal for high performance, high spatial resolution scintillation dosimetry,” Med. Phys. 33, 128–135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beddar, A. S.

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Measurement accuracy and Cerenkov removal for high performance, high spatial resolution scintillation dosimetry,” Med. Phys. 33, 128–135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: II. Properties and measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1901–1913 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Beddar, S.

F. Therriault-Proulx, L. Beaulieu, L. Archambault, and S. Beddar, “On the nature of the light produced within PMMA optical light guides in scintillation fiber-optic dosimetry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2073–2084 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Therriault-Proulx, T. M. Briere, F. Mourtada, S. Aubin, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “A phantom study of an in vivo dosimetry system using plastic scintillation detectors for real-time verification of 192Ir HDR brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 38, 2542–2551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bell, A. G.

A. G. Bell, “Telephone circuit,” U.S. patent244,426 (19July1881).

Bellaize, N.

J. Fontbonne, G. Iltis, G. Ban, A. Battala, J. Vernhes, J. Tillier, N. Bellaize, C. Le Brun, B. Tamain, K. Mercier, and J. Motin, “Scintillating fiber dosimeter for radiation therapy accelerator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2223–2227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bøtter-Jensen, L.

R. Gaza, S. McKeever, M. Akselrod, A. Akselrod, T. Underwood, C. Yoder, C. Andersen, M. Aznar, C. Marckmann, and L. Bøtter-Jensen, “A fiber-dosimetry method based on OSL from Al 2O3:C for radiotherapy applications,” Radiation Measurement 38, 809–812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Briere, T. M.

F. Therriault-Proulx, T. M. Briere, F. Mourtada, S. Aubin, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “A phantom study of an in vivo dosimetry system using plastic scintillation detectors for real-time verification of 192Ir HDR brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 38, 2542–2551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cartwright, L. E.

L. E. Cartwright, N. Suchowerska, Y. Yin, J. Lambert, M. Haque, and D. R. McKenzie, “Dose mapping of the rectal wall during brachytherapy with an array of scintillation dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 37, 2247–2255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cherenkov, P. A.

P. A. Cherenkov, “Visible emission of clean liquids by action of γ radiation,” Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR 2, 451 (1934).

Clift, M. A.

M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1421–1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colin, J.

A. M. Frelin, J. M. Fontbonne, G. Ban, J. Colin, M. Labalme, A. Batalla, A. Isambert, A. Vela, and T. Leroux, “Spectral discrimination of Cerenkov radiation in scintillating dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 32, 3000–3006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Damkjær, S. M. S.

C. E. Andersen, S. M. S. Damkjær, G. Kertzscher, S. Greilich, and M. Aznar, “Fiber-coupled radioluminescence dosimetry with saturated Al2O3:C crystals: characterization in 6 and 18 MV photon beams,” Radiation Measurement 46, 1090–1098 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Elsey, J.

J. Lambert, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, J. Elsey, and N. Suchowerska, “A plastic scintillation dosimeter for high dose rate brachytherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5505–5516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

El-Sherif, M. A.

M. A. El-Sherif and J. N. Zemel, “Twisted pair optical fiber pH sensors,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Transducers, Philadelphia, PA (1985).

Fokdal, L.

G. Kertzscher, C. Andersen, J. Lindegaard, L. Fokdal, M. Paludan, S. Nielsen, and K. Tanderup, “OC-69 bringing in vivo fiber-coupled brachytherapy dosimetry to the patient,” Radiother. Oncol. 103, S1–S178 (2012).

Fontbonne, J.

J. Fontbonne, G. Iltis, G. Ban, A. Battala, J. Vernhes, J. Tillier, N. Bellaize, C. Le Brun, B. Tamain, K. Mercier, and J. Motin, “Scintillating fiber dosimeter for radiation therapy accelerator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2223–2227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fontbonne, J. M.

A. M. Frelin, J. M. Fontbonne, G. Ban, J. Colin, M. Labalme, A. Batalla, A. Isambert, A. Vela, and T. Leroux, “Spectral discrimination of Cerenkov radiation in scintillating dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 32, 3000–3006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frelin, A. M.

A. M. Frelin, J. M. Fontbonne, G. Ban, J. Colin, M. Labalme, A. Batalla, A. Isambert, A. Vela, and T. Leroux, “Spectral discrimination of Cerenkov radiation in scintillating dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 32, 3000–3006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaza, R.

R. Gaza, S. McKeever, M. Akselrod, A. Akselrod, T. Underwood, C. Yoder, C. Andersen, M. Aznar, C. Marckmann, and L. Bøtter-Jensen, “A fiber-dosimetry method based on OSL from Al 2O3:C for radiotherapy applications,” Radiation Measurement 38, 809–812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gingras, L.

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Measurement accuracy and Cerenkov removal for high performance, high spatial resolution scintillation dosimetry,” Med. Phys. 33, 128–135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Greilich, S.

C. E. Andersen, S. M. S. Damkjær, G. Kertzscher, S. Greilich, and M. Aznar, “Fiber-coupled radioluminescence dosimetry with saturated Al2O3:C crystals: characterization in 6 and 18 MV photon beams,” Radiation Measurement 46, 1090–1098 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Andersen, S. K. Nielsen, S. Greilich, J. Helt-Hansen, J. C. Lindegaard, and K. Tanderup, “Characterization of a fiber-coupled Al2O3:C luminescence dosimetry system for online in vivo dose verification during 192Ir brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 708–718 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haque, M.

L. E. Cartwright, N. Suchowerska, Y. Yin, J. Lambert, M. Haque, and D. R. McKenzie, “Dose mapping of the rectal wall during brachytherapy with an array of scintillation dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 37, 2247–2255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Helt-Hansen, J.

C. E. Andersen, S. K. Nielsen, S. Greilich, J. Helt-Hansen, J. C. Lindegaard, and K. Tanderup, “Characterization of a fiber-coupled Al2O3:C luminescence dosimetry system for online in vivo dose verification during 192Ir brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 708–718 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hruby, G.

N. Suchowerska, M. Jackson, J. Lambert, Y. B. Yin, G. Hruby, and D. R. McKenzie, “Clinical trials of a urethral dose measurement system in brachytherapy using scintillation detectors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 79, 609–615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iltis, G.

J. Fontbonne, G. Iltis, G. Ban, A. Battala, J. Vernhes, J. Tillier, N. Bellaize, C. Le Brun, B. Tamain, K. Mercier, and J. Motin, “Scintillating fiber dosimeter for radiation therapy accelerator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2223–2227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Isambert, A.

A. M. Frelin, J. M. Fontbonne, G. Ban, J. Colin, M. Labalme, A. Batalla, A. Isambert, A. Vela, and T. Leroux, “Spectral discrimination of Cerenkov radiation in scintillating dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 32, 3000–3006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, M.

N. Suchowerska, M. Jackson, J. Lambert, Y. B. Yin, G. Hruby, and D. R. McKenzie, “Clinical trials of a urethral dose measurement system in brachytherapy using scintillation detectors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 79, 609–615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, P. N.

M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1421–1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kertzscher, G.

G. Kertzscher, C. Andersen, J. Lindegaard, L. Fokdal, M. Paludan, S. Nielsen, and K. Tanderup, “OC-69 bringing in vivo fiber-coupled brachytherapy dosimetry to the patient,” Radiother. Oncol. 103, S1–S178 (2012).

C. E. Andersen, S. M. S. Damkjær, G. Kertzscher, S. Greilich, and M. Aznar, “Fiber-coupled radioluminescence dosimetry with saturated Al2O3:C crystals: characterization in 6 and 18 MV photon beams,” Radiation Measurement 46, 1090–1098 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khan, F. M.

F. M. Khan, The Physics of Radiation Therapy, 4th ed. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010).

Konnoff, D. C.

D. C. Konnoff, T. K. Plant, and E. Shiner, “SSPM based radiation sensing: preliminary laboratory and clinical results,” Radiation Measurement 46, 76–87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Labalme, M.

A. M. Frelin, J. M. Fontbonne, G. Ban, J. Colin, M. Labalme, A. Batalla, A. Isambert, A. Vela, and T. Leroux, “Spectral discrimination of Cerenkov radiation in scintillating dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 32, 3000–3006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, J.

N. Suchowerska, M. Jackson, J. Lambert, Y. B. Yin, G. Hruby, and D. R. McKenzie, “Clinical trials of a urethral dose measurement system in brachytherapy using scintillation detectors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 79, 609–615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Liu, N. Suchowerska, J. Lambert, P. Abolfathi, and D. R. McKenzie, “Plastic scintillation dosimetry: comparison of three solutions for the Cerenkov challenge,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56, 5805–5821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Cartwright, N. Suchowerska, Y. Yin, J. Lambert, M. Haque, and D. R. McKenzie, “Dose mapping of the rectal wall during brachytherapy with an array of scintillation dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 37, 2247–2255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. H. Law, A. Ralston, and N. Suchowerska, “A prototype scintillation dosimeter customized for small and dynamic megavoltage radiation fields,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 1115–1126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, and N. Suchowerska, “Cerenkov-free scintillation dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy with an air core light guide,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambert, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, J. Elsey, and N. Suchowerska, “A plastic scintillation dosimeter for high dose rate brachytherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5505–5516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Law, S.

J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, and N. Suchowerska, “Cerenkov-free scintillation dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy with an air core light guide,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambert, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, J. Elsey, and N. Suchowerska, “A plastic scintillation dosimeter for high dose rate brachytherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5505–5516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Law, S. H.

J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. H. Law, A. Ralston, and N. Suchowerska, “A prototype scintillation dosimeter customized for small and dynamic megavoltage radiation fields,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 1115–1126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Le Brun, C.

J. Fontbonne, G. Iltis, G. Ban, A. Battala, J. Vernhes, J. Tillier, N. Bellaize, C. Le Brun, B. Tamain, K. Mercier, and J. Motin, “Scintillating fiber dosimeter for radiation therapy accelerator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2223–2227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. J.

J. J. Lee, P. Z. Liu, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “A method to remove residual signals in fibre optic luminescence dosimeters,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 1581–1590 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leroux, T.

A. M. Frelin, J. M. Fontbonne, G. Ban, J. Colin, M. Labalme, A. Batalla, A. Isambert, A. Vela, and T. Leroux, “Spectral discrimination of Cerenkov radiation in scintillating dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 32, 3000–3006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lindegaard, J.

G. Kertzscher, C. Andersen, J. Lindegaard, L. Fokdal, M. Paludan, S. Nielsen, and K. Tanderup, “OC-69 bringing in vivo fiber-coupled brachytherapy dosimetry to the patient,” Radiother. Oncol. 103, S1–S178 (2012).

Lindegaard, J. C.

C. E. Andersen, S. K. Nielsen, S. Greilich, J. Helt-Hansen, J. C. Lindegaard, and K. Tanderup, “Characterization of a fiber-coupled Al2O3:C luminescence dosimetry system for online in vivo dose verification during 192Ir brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 708–718 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P.

A. Ralston, P. Liu, K. Warrener, D. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “Small field diode correction factors derived using an air core fibre optic scintillation dosimeter and EBT2 film,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2587–2602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P. Z.

J. J. Lee, P. Z. Liu, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “A method to remove residual signals in fibre optic luminescence dosimeters,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 1581–1590 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Liu, N. Suchowerska, P. Abolfathi, and D. R. McKenzie, “Real-time scintillation array dosimetry for radiotherapy: the advantages of photomultiplier detectors,” Med. Phys. 39, 1688–1695 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Liu, N. Suchowerska, J. Lambert, P. Abolfathi, and D. R. McKenzie, “Plastic scintillation dosimetry: comparison of three solutions for the Cerenkov challenge,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56, 5805–5821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mackie, T. R.

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: II. Properties and measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1901–1913 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marckmann, C.

R. Gaza, S. McKeever, M. Akselrod, A. Akselrod, T. Underwood, C. Yoder, C. Andersen, M. Aznar, C. Marckmann, and L. Bøtter-Jensen, “A fiber-dosimetry method based on OSL from Al 2O3:C for radiotherapy applications,” Radiation Measurement 38, 809–812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McKeever, S.

R. Gaza, S. McKeever, M. Akselrod, A. Akselrod, T. Underwood, C. Yoder, C. Andersen, M. Aznar, C. Marckmann, and L. Bøtter-Jensen, “A fiber-dosimetry method based on OSL from Al 2O3:C for radiotherapy applications,” Radiation Measurement 38, 809–812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, D.

A. Ralston, P. Liu, K. Warrener, D. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “Small field diode correction factors derived using an air core fibre optic scintillation dosimeter and EBT2 film,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2587–2602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, D. R.

J. J. Lee, P. Z. Liu, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “A method to remove residual signals in fibre optic luminescence dosimeters,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 1581–1590 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Liu, N. Suchowerska, P. Abolfathi, and D. R. McKenzie, “Real-time scintillation array dosimetry for radiotherapy: the advantages of photomultiplier detectors,” Med. Phys. 39, 1688–1695 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Suchowerska, M. Jackson, J. Lambert, Y. B. Yin, G. Hruby, and D. R. McKenzie, “Clinical trials of a urethral dose measurement system in brachytherapy using scintillation detectors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 79, 609–615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Liu, N. Suchowerska, J. Lambert, P. Abolfathi, and D. R. McKenzie, “Plastic scintillation dosimetry: comparison of three solutions for the Cerenkov challenge,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56, 5805–5821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Cartwright, N. Suchowerska, Y. Yin, J. Lambert, M. Haque, and D. R. McKenzie, “Dose mapping of the rectal wall during brachytherapy with an array of scintillation dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 37, 2247–2255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. H. Law, A. Ralston, and N. Suchowerska, “A prototype scintillation dosimeter customized for small and dynamic megavoltage radiation fields,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 1115–1126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, and N. Suchowerska, “Cerenkov-free scintillation dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy with an air core light guide,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambert, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, J. Elsey, and N. Suchowerska, “A plastic scintillation dosimeter for high dose rate brachytherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5505–5516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mercier, K.

J. Fontbonne, G. Iltis, G. Ban, A. Battala, J. Vernhes, J. Tillier, N. Bellaize, C. Le Brun, B. Tamain, K. Mercier, and J. Motin, “Scintillating fiber dosimeter for radiation therapy accelerator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2223–2227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Motin, J.

J. Fontbonne, G. Iltis, G. Ban, A. Battala, J. Vernhes, J. Tillier, N. Bellaize, C. Le Brun, B. Tamain, K. Mercier, and J. Motin, “Scintillating fiber dosimeter for radiation therapy accelerator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2223–2227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mourtada, F.

F. Therriault-Proulx, T. M. Briere, F. Mourtada, S. Aubin, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “A phantom study of an in vivo dosimetry system using plastic scintillation detectors for real-time verification of 192Ir HDR brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 38, 2542–2551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, S.

G. Kertzscher, C. Andersen, J. Lindegaard, L. Fokdal, M. Paludan, S. Nielsen, and K. Tanderup, “OC-69 bringing in vivo fiber-coupled brachytherapy dosimetry to the patient,” Radiother. Oncol. 103, S1–S178 (2012).

Nielsen, S. K.

C. E. Andersen, S. K. Nielsen, S. Greilich, J. Helt-Hansen, J. C. Lindegaard, and K. Tanderup, “Characterization of a fiber-coupled Al2O3:C luminescence dosimetry system for online in vivo dose verification during 192Ir brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 708–718 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paludan, M.

G. Kertzscher, C. Andersen, J. Lindegaard, L. Fokdal, M. Paludan, S. Nielsen, and K. Tanderup, “OC-69 bringing in vivo fiber-coupled brachytherapy dosimetry to the patient,” Radiother. Oncol. 103, S1–S178 (2012).

Plant, T. K.

D. C. Konnoff, T. K. Plant, and E. Shiner, “SSPM based radiation sensing: preliminary laboratory and clinical results,” Radiation Measurement 46, 76–87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, A.

A. Ralston, P. Liu, K. Warrener, D. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “Small field diode correction factors derived using an air core fibre optic scintillation dosimeter and EBT2 film,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2587–2602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. H. Law, A. Ralston, and N. Suchowerska, “A prototype scintillation dosimeter customized for small and dynamic megavoltage radiation fields,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 1115–1126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Measurement accuracy and Cerenkov removal for high performance, high spatial resolution scintillation dosimetry,” Med. Phys. 33, 128–135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santiago-Aviles, J. J.

E. Smela and J. J. Santiago-Aviles, “A versatile twisted optical fiber sensor,” Sens. Actuators 13, 117–129 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shenfeld, S.

S. Shenfeld, “Magnetic fields of twisted-wire pairs,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. EMC-11, 164–169 (1969).

Shiner, E.

D. C. Konnoff, T. K. Plant, and E. Shiner, “SSPM based radiation sensing: preliminary laboratory and clinical results,” Radiation Measurement 46, 76–87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smela, E.

E. Smela and J. J. Santiago-Aviles, “A versatile twisted optical fiber sensor,” Sens. Actuators 13, 117–129 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Suchowerska, N.

J. J. Lee, P. Z. Liu, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “A method to remove residual signals in fibre optic luminescence dosimeters,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 1581–1590 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Liu, N. Suchowerska, P. Abolfathi, and D. R. McKenzie, “Real-time scintillation array dosimetry for radiotherapy: the advantages of photomultiplier detectors,” Med. Phys. 39, 1688–1695 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ralston, P. Liu, K. Warrener, D. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “Small field diode correction factors derived using an air core fibre optic scintillation dosimeter and EBT2 film,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2587–2602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Liu, N. Suchowerska, J. Lambert, P. Abolfathi, and D. R. McKenzie, “Plastic scintillation dosimetry: comparison of three solutions for the Cerenkov challenge,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56, 5805–5821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Suchowerska, M. Jackson, J. Lambert, Y. B. Yin, G. Hruby, and D. R. McKenzie, “Clinical trials of a urethral dose measurement system in brachytherapy using scintillation detectors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 79, 609–615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Cartwright, N. Suchowerska, Y. Yin, J. Lambert, M. Haque, and D. R. McKenzie, “Dose mapping of the rectal wall during brachytherapy with an array of scintillation dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 37, 2247–2255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. H. Law, A. Ralston, and N. Suchowerska, “A prototype scintillation dosimeter customized for small and dynamic megavoltage radiation fields,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 1115–1126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, and N. Suchowerska, “Cerenkov-free scintillation dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy with an air core light guide,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambert, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, J. Elsey, and N. Suchowerska, “A plastic scintillation dosimeter for high dose rate brachytherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5505–5516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tamain, B.

J. Fontbonne, G. Iltis, G. Ban, A. Battala, J. Vernhes, J. Tillier, N. Bellaize, C. Le Brun, B. Tamain, K. Mercier, and J. Motin, “Scintillating fiber dosimeter for radiation therapy accelerator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2223–2227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanderup, K.

G. Kertzscher, C. Andersen, J. Lindegaard, L. Fokdal, M. Paludan, S. Nielsen, and K. Tanderup, “OC-69 bringing in vivo fiber-coupled brachytherapy dosimetry to the patient,” Radiother. Oncol. 103, S1–S178 (2012).

C. E. Andersen, S. K. Nielsen, S. Greilich, J. Helt-Hansen, J. C. Lindegaard, and K. Tanderup, “Characterization of a fiber-coupled Al2O3:C luminescence dosimetry system for online in vivo dose verification during 192Ir brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 708–718 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Therriault-Proulx, F.

F. Therriault-Proulx, L. Beaulieu, L. Archambault, and S. Beddar, “On the nature of the light produced within PMMA optical light guides in scintillation fiber-optic dosimetry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2073–2084 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Therriault-Proulx, T. M. Briere, F. Mourtada, S. Aubin, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “A phantom study of an in vivo dosimetry system using plastic scintillation detectors for real-time verification of 192Ir HDR brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 38, 2542–2551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tillier, J.

J. Fontbonne, G. Iltis, G. Ban, A. Battala, J. Vernhes, J. Tillier, N. Bellaize, C. Le Brun, B. Tamain, K. Mercier, and J. Motin, “Scintillating fiber dosimeter for radiation therapy accelerator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2223–2227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, T.

R. Gaza, S. McKeever, M. Akselrod, A. Akselrod, T. Underwood, C. Yoder, C. Andersen, M. Aznar, C. Marckmann, and L. Bøtter-Jensen, “A fiber-dosimetry method based on OSL from Al 2O3:C for radiotherapy applications,” Radiation Measurement 38, 809–812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vela, A.

A. M. Frelin, J. M. Fontbonne, G. Ban, J. Colin, M. Labalme, A. Batalla, A. Isambert, A. Vela, and T. Leroux, “Spectral discrimination of Cerenkov radiation in scintillating dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 32, 3000–3006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vernhes, J.

J. Fontbonne, G. Iltis, G. Ban, A. Battala, J. Vernhes, J. Tillier, N. Bellaize, C. Le Brun, B. Tamain, K. Mercier, and J. Motin, “Scintillating fiber dosimeter for radiation therapy accelerator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2223–2227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Warrener, K.

A. Ralston, P. Liu, K. Warrener, D. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “Small field diode correction factors derived using an air core fibre optic scintillation dosimeter and EBT2 film,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2587–2602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. V.

M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1421–1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Y.

J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. H. Law, A. Ralston, and N. Suchowerska, “A prototype scintillation dosimeter customized for small and dynamic megavoltage radiation fields,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 1115–1126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Cartwright, N. Suchowerska, Y. Yin, J. Lambert, M. Haque, and D. R. McKenzie, “Dose mapping of the rectal wall during brachytherapy with an array of scintillation dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 37, 2247–2255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, and N. Suchowerska, “Cerenkov-free scintillation dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy with an air core light guide,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Y. B.

N. Suchowerska, M. Jackson, J. Lambert, Y. B. Yin, G. Hruby, and D. R. McKenzie, “Clinical trials of a urethral dose measurement system in brachytherapy using scintillation detectors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 79, 609–615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoder, C.

R. Gaza, S. McKeever, M. Akselrod, A. Akselrod, T. Underwood, C. Yoder, C. Andersen, M. Aznar, C. Marckmann, and L. Bøtter-Jensen, “A fiber-dosimetry method based on OSL from Al 2O3:C for radiotherapy applications,” Radiation Measurement 38, 809–812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zemel, J. N.

M. A. El-Sherif and J. N. Zemel, “Twisted pair optical fiber pH sensors,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Transducers, Philadelphia, PA (1985).

Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR

P. A. Cherenkov, “Visible emission of clean liquids by action of γ radiation,” Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR 2, 451 (1934).

IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat.

S. Shenfeld, “Magnetic fields of twisted-wire pairs,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. EMC-11, 164–169 (1969).

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

J. Fontbonne, G. Iltis, G. Ban, A. Battala, J. Vernhes, J. Tillier, N. Bellaize, C. Le Brun, B. Tamain, K. Mercier, and J. Motin, “Scintillating fiber dosimeter for radiation therapy accelerator,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2223–2227 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.

N. Suchowerska, M. Jackson, J. Lambert, Y. B. Yin, G. Hruby, and D. R. McKenzie, “Clinical trials of a urethral dose measurement system in brachytherapy using scintillation detectors,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 79, 609–615 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys.

A. M. Frelin, J. M. Fontbonne, G. Ban, J. Colin, M. Labalme, A. Batalla, A. Isambert, A. Vela, and T. Leroux, “Spectral discrimination of Cerenkov radiation in scintillating dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 32, 3000–3006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Andersen, S. K. Nielsen, S. Greilich, J. Helt-Hansen, J. C. Lindegaard, and K. Tanderup, “Characterization of a fiber-coupled Al2O3:C luminescence dosimetry system for online in vivo dose verification during 192Ir brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 36, 708–718 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Measurement accuracy and Cerenkov removal for high performance, high spatial resolution scintillation dosimetry,” Med. Phys. 33, 128–135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Liu, N. Suchowerska, P. Abolfathi, and D. R. McKenzie, “Real-time scintillation array dosimetry for radiotherapy: the advantages of photomultiplier detectors,” Med. Phys. 39, 1688–1695 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Cartwright, N. Suchowerska, Y. Yin, J. Lambert, M. Haque, and D. R. McKenzie, “Dose mapping of the rectal wall during brachytherapy with an array of scintillation dosimeters,” Med. Phys. 37, 2247–2255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Therriault-Proulx, T. M. Briere, F. Mourtada, S. Aubin, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “A phantom study of an in vivo dosimetry system using plastic scintillation detectors for real-time verification of 192Ir HDR brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 38, 2542–2551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

J. Lambert, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, J. Elsey, and N. Suchowerska, “A plastic scintillation dosimeter for high dose rate brachytherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5505–5516 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Therriault-Proulx, L. Beaulieu, L. Archambault, and S. Beddar, “On the nature of the light produced within PMMA optical light guides in scintillation fiber-optic dosimetry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2073–2084 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Lee, P. Z. Liu, D. R. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “A method to remove residual signals in fibre optic luminescence dosimeters,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 1581–1590 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Liu, N. Suchowerska, J. Lambert, P. Abolfathi, and D. R. McKenzie, “Plastic scintillation dosimetry: comparison of three solutions for the Cerenkov challenge,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56, 5805–5821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ralston, P. Liu, K. Warrener, D. McKenzie, and N. Suchowerska, “Small field diode correction factors derived using an air core fibre optic scintillation dosimeter and EBT2 film,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2587–2602 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. Law, and N. Suchowerska, “Cerenkov-free scintillation dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy with an air core light guide,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lambert, Y. Yin, D. R. McKenzie, S. H. Law, A. Ralston, and N. Suchowerska, “A prototype scintillation dosimeter customized for small and dynamic megavoltage radiation fields,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 1115–1126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Clift, P. N. Johnston, and D. V. Webb, “A temporal method of avoiding the Cerenkov radiation generated in organic scintillator dosimeters by pulsed mega-voltage electron and photon beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1421–1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for high-energy beam dosimetry: II. Properties and measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1901–1913 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Radiation Measurement

C. E. Andersen, S. M. S. Damkjær, G. Kertzscher, S. Greilich, and M. Aznar, “Fiber-coupled radioluminescence dosimetry with saturated Al2O3:C crystals: characterization in 6 and 18 MV photon beams,” Radiation Measurement 46, 1090–1098 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Gaza, S. McKeever, M. Akselrod, A. Akselrod, T. Underwood, C. Yoder, C. Andersen, M. Aznar, C. Marckmann, and L. Bøtter-Jensen, “A fiber-dosimetry method based on OSL from Al 2O3:C for radiotherapy applications,” Radiation Measurement 38, 809–812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Konnoff, T. K. Plant, and E. Shiner, “SSPM based radiation sensing: preliminary laboratory and clinical results,” Radiation Measurement 46, 76–87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Radiother. Oncol.

G. Kertzscher, C. Andersen, J. Lindegaard, L. Fokdal, M. Paludan, S. Nielsen, and K. Tanderup, “OC-69 bringing in vivo fiber-coupled brachytherapy dosimetry to the patient,” Radiother. Oncol. 103, S1–S178 (2012).

Sens. Actuators

E. Smela and J. J. Santiago-Aviles, “A versatile twisted optical fiber sensor,” Sens. Actuators 13, 117–129 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. A. El-Sherif and J. N. Zemel, “Twisted pair optical fiber pH sensors,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Transducers, Philadelphia, PA (1985).

F. M. Khan, The Physics of Radiation Therapy, 4th ed. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010).

A. G. Bell, “Telephone circuit,” U.S. patent244,426 (19July1881).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the twisted pair extension fiber with (1) plastic scintillator, (2) air core waveguide, (3) signal fiber, and (4) background fiber in a twisted pair.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(A) Cross section of a twisted pair with radius r in the yz axis with radius r and (B) geometric arrangement of a twisted pair with pitch distance h and length L under irradiation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dose rate and induced residual Cerenkov signal, measured with an ionization chamber and an optic fiber, respectively. The curve of best fit [Eq. (3)] is shown in red. Measurements have been normalized at x=0.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Percentage difference in the residual Cerenkov background generated in the two fibers of a twisted pair as a function of distance x. The curve is a plot of P(x) for h=0.06m.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Total percentage difference in the residual Cerenkov induced in the two fibers of a twisted pair as a function of the pitch distance of the twists (h). A length of L=3 was used in the calculations.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Deviation in the ratio of the Cerenkov signal between the two fibers of a blind twisted pair (Cs/Cb), as a function of the azimuthal angle of the central beam axis relative to the dosimeter axis. A beam angle of 90° represents irradiating the blind twisted pair from above, and 270° represents the beam coming from below.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Deviation in the ratio of the Cerenkov signal between the two fibers of a blind twisted pair (Cs/Cb), as a function of the axial angle of the beam. A beam angle of 0° represents irradiating the blind twisted pair from above; that is, θ=0 at the position x=0 for the arrangement in Fig. 2(B).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Beam output factors measured with an air core dosimeter with a twisted fiber extension compared to measurements made with an ionization chamber. Measurements were taken isocentrically at a depth of 15 mm in solid water.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Normalized dose as a function of depth in equivalent water (tissue maximum ratio, TMR) for three field sizes measured with an air core dosimeter with a twisted fiber extension compared to measurements made with an ionization chamber.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Axial angular dependence of the air core dosimeter with a twisted pair extension compared to measurements made with an ionization chamber. A beam angle of 0° represents irradiating the dosimeter from above such that the twisted pair extension is at an angle θ=0 at the position x=0 for the arrangement in Fig. 2(B). Measurements have been normalized to the average reading over all angles.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Total percentage measurement uncertainty in dose as a function of both the ratio of the scintillation signal to the residual Cerenkov signal and the percentage change that the ratio of residual Cerenkov signals in the twisted pair extension deviates from unity. The region in red represents an uncertainty of 1% or better.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ(x)=2πxh,
I(θ)=zsinθ,
G(x)=0.073(x+0.1)1.14.
P(x)=I(x)G(x)=0.30sin(2πxh)·0.073(x+0.1)1.14.
0LP(x)dx=0Lhh0.30sin(2πxh)·0.073(x+0.1)1.14dx.
Rs=a(D+Cs),Rb=bCb,
aD=RskRb,

Metrics