Abstract

This paper presents a concept for ultralightweight deformable mirrors, based on a thin substrate of optical surface quality, coated with continuous active layers that provide separate modes of actuation at different length scales. This concept eliminates any kind of stiff backing structure for the mirror surface and exploits microfabrication technologies to provide tight integration of the active materials into the mirror structure, to avoid actuator print-through effects. Proof-of-concept, 10 cm diameter mirrors with an areal density of 0.6kg/m2 have been designed, built, and tested to measure their shape-correction performance and verify the finite-element models used for design. The low-cost manufacturing scheme involves low-temperature processing steps (below 140°C) to minimize residual stresses, does not require precision photolithography, and is therefore scalable to larger diameters depending on application requirements.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52, 091803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

R. Bastaits, G. Rodrigues, P. Jetteur, P. Hagedorn, and A. Preumont, “Multi-layer adaptive thin shells for future space telescopes,” Smart Mater. Struct. 21, 064004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Cotroneo, W. N. Davis, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, and R. H. T. Wilke, “Adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics based on thin PZT films,” Proc. SPIE 8503, 850309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

G. Hickey, T. Barbee, M. Ealey, and D. Redding, “Actuated hybrid mirrors for space telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, and S. Cornelissen, “Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7209, 72090I (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Zhang, “Manufacture of mirror glass substrates for the NUSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE. 7437, 74370N (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, T. Shirata, I. Mitsuishi, M. Ishida, K. Mitsuda, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Shaped silicon wafers obtained by hot plastic deformation: performance evaluation for future astronomical x-ray telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3830–3838 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. P. Stahl, “Design study of 8 meter monolithic mirror UV/optical space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7010, 701022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Q. Chen, D. Natale, B. Neese, K. Ren, M. Lin, Q. M. Zhang, M. Pattom, K. W. Wang, H. Fang, and E. Im, “Piezoelectric polymers actuators for precise shape control of large scale space antennas,” Proc. SPIE 6524, 65241P (2007).

2006 (2)

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Yang, Y. Hishinuma, J.-G. Cheng, S. Trolier-McKinstry, E. Bloemhof, and B. M. Levine, “Thin-film piezoelectric unimorph actuator-based deformable mirror with a transferred silicon membrane,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 1214–1225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Song, A. Simonov, and G. Vdovin, “Multiplexing control of a multichannel piezoelectric deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 60181F (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

C. M. Mountain, “The future of ELTS (Extremely Large Telescopes), a personal view,” Proc. SPIE 5382, 763–770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin, S. Thomas, and G. Vdovin, “Using 50 mm electrostatic membrane deformable mirror in astronomical adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 580–585 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

W. K. Wilkie, R. G. Bryant, J. W. High, R. L. Fox, R. F. Hellbaum, A. Jalink Jr., B. D. Little, and P. H. Mirick, “Low-cost piezocomposite actuator for structural control applications,” Proc. SPIE 3991, 323–334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Freund, “Substrate curvature due to thin film mismatch strain in the nonlinear deformation range,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids 48, 1159–1174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. A. Kellogg and A. B. Flatau, “Blocked force investigation of a Terfenol-D transducer,” Proc. SPIE 3668, 184–195 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. E. Huber, N. A. Fleck, and M. F. Ashby, “The selection of mechanical actuators based on performance indices,” Proc. R. Soc. London 453, 2185–2205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. P. Kuo, “A deformable mirror concept for adaptive optics in space,” Proc. SPIE 1542, 420–433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

1909 (1)

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Ashby, M. F.

J. E. Huber, N. A. Fleck, and M. F. Ashby, “The selection of mechanical actuators based on performance indices,” Proc. R. Soc. London 453, 2185–2205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Assink, R. A.

T. R. Dargaville, M. C. Celina, J. M. Elliott, P. M. Chaplya, G. D. Jones, D. M. Mowery, R. A. Assink, R. L. Clough, and J. W. Martin, “Characterization, performance and optimization of PVDF as a piezoelectric film for advanced space mirror concepts,” (Sandia National Laboratories, 2005).

Bagenal, F.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T.

G. Hickey, T. Barbee, M. Ealey, and D. Redding, “Actuated hybrid mirrors for space telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bastaits, R.

R. Bastaits, G. Rodrigues, P. Jetteur, P. Hagedorn, and A. Preumont, “Multi-layer adaptive thin shells for future space telescopes,” Smart Mater. Struct. 21, 064004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Batiste, S.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bely, P.

P. Bely, The Design and Construction of Large Optical Telescopes (Springer, 2003).

Biliotti, V.

P. Salinari, C. Del Vecchio, and V. Biliotti, “A study of an adaptive secondary mirror,” in Proceedings of the ICO-16 (International Commission for Optics) Satellite Conference on Active and Adaptive Optics, Vol. 48 of European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, 1994), p. 247.

Bloemhof, E.

E. H. Yang, Y. Hishinuma, J.-G. Cheng, S. Trolier-McKinstry, E. Bloemhof, and B. M. Levine, “Thin-film piezoelectric unimorph actuator-based deformable mirror with a transferred silicon membrane,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 1214–1225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1989).

Breckinridge, J. B.

J. B. Breckinridge, J. Dooley, M. Ortiz, and S. Pellegrino, “Large space apertures (LSA) study report” (Keck Institute of Space Studies, 2009).

Bryant, C.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, R. G.

W. K. Wilkie, R. G. Bryant, J. W. High, R. L. Fox, R. F. Hellbaum, A. Jalink Jr., B. D. Little, and P. H. Mirick, “Low-cost piezocomposite actuator for structural control applications,” Proc. SPIE 3991, 323–334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bunch, N.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cavaco, J. L.

D. D. Pearson, J. L. Cavaco, and J. Roche, “Multichannel, surface parallel, zonal transducer system,” U.S. patent7,683,524 B2 (March23, 2010).

Celina, M. C.

T. R. Dargaville, M. C. Celina, J. M. Elliott, P. M. Chaplya, G. D. Jones, D. M. Mowery, R. A. Assink, R. L. Clough, and J. W. Martin, “Characterization, performance and optimization of PVDF as a piezoelectric film for advanced space mirror concepts,” (Sandia National Laboratories, 2005).

Chanthawanich, T.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chaplya, P. M.

T. R. Dargaville, M. C. Celina, J. M. Elliott, P. M. Chaplya, G. D. Jones, D. M. Mowery, R. A. Assink, R. L. Clough, and J. W. Martin, “Characterization, performance and optimization of PVDF as a piezoelectric film for advanced space mirror concepts,” (Sandia National Laboratories, 2005).

Chazallet, F.

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52, 091803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, D. Natale, B. Neese, K. Ren, M. Lin, Q. M. Zhang, M. Pattom, K. W. Wang, H. Fang, and E. Im, “Piezoelectric polymers actuators for precise shape control of large scale space antennas,” Proc. SPIE 6524, 65241P (2007).

Cheng, J.-G.

E. H. Yang, Y. Hishinuma, J.-G. Cheng, S. Trolier-McKinstry, E. Bloemhof, and B. M. Levine, “Thin-film piezoelectric unimorph actuator-based deformable mirror with a transferred silicon membrane,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 1214–1225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, F.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clampin, M.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clough, R. L.

T. R. Dargaville, M. C. Celina, J. M. Elliott, P. M. Chaplya, G. D. Jones, D. M. Mowery, R. A. Assink, R. L. Clough, and J. W. Martin, “Characterization, performance and optimization of PVDF as a piezoelectric film for advanced space mirror concepts,” (Sandia National Laboratories, 2005).

Colgan, M.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cornelissen, S.

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, and S. Cornelissen, “Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7209, 72090I (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cotroneo, V.

V. Cotroneo, W. N. Davis, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, and R. H. T. Wilke, “Adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics based on thin PZT films,” Proc. SPIE 8503, 850309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dargaville, T. R.

T. R. Dargaville, M. C. Celina, J. M. Elliott, P. M. Chaplya, G. D. Jones, D. M. Mowery, R. A. Assink, R. L. Clough, and J. W. Martin, “Characterization, performance and optimization of PVDF as a piezoelectric film for advanced space mirror concepts,” (Sandia National Laboratories, 2005).

Davis, W. N.

V. Cotroneo, W. N. Davis, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, and R. H. T. Wilke, “Adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics based on thin PZT films,” Proc. SPIE 8503, 850309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

de Blonk, B.

B. de Blonk, J. Moore, B. Patrick, and E. Flint, “Membrane mirrors in space telescopes,” in Recent Advances in Gossamer Spacecraft, C. Jenkins, ed. (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006), pp. 45–108.

Del Vecchio, C.

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Devilliers, C.

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52, 091803 (2013).
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A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, and S. Cornelissen, “Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7209, 72090I (2009).
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J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
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Drake, G.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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Dunn, T.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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G. Hickey, T. Barbee, M. Ealey, and D. Redding, “Actuated hybrid mirrors for space telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773120 (2010).
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T. R. Dargaville, M. C. Celina, J. M. Elliott, P. M. Chaplya, G. D. Jones, D. M. Mowery, R. A. Assink, R. L. Clough, and J. W. Martin, “Characterization, performance and optimization of PVDF as a piezoelectric film for advanced space mirror concepts,” (Sandia National Laboratories, 2005).

Evans, J. W.

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, and S. Cornelissen, “Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7209, 72090I (2009).
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Ezoe, Y.

Fang, H.

Q. Chen, D. Natale, B. Neese, K. Ren, M. Lin, Q. M. Zhang, M. Pattom, K. W. Wang, H. Fang, and E. Im, “Piezoelectric polymers actuators for precise shape control of large scale space antennas,” Proc. SPIE 6524, 65241P (2007).

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Fernandez, A.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52, 091803 (2013).
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W. K. Wilkie, R. G. Bryant, J. W. High, R. L. Fox, R. F. Hellbaum, A. Jalink Jr., B. D. Little, and P. H. Mirick, “Low-cost piezocomposite actuator for structural control applications,” Proc. SPIE 3991, 323–334 (2000).
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Gavel, D.

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, and S. Cornelissen, “Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7209, 72090I (2009).
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J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
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Grogan, B.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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Hammel, H. B.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
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Hellbaum, R. F.

W. K. Wilkie, R. G. Bryant, J. W. High, R. L. Fox, R. F. Hellbaum, A. Jalink Jr., B. D. Little, and P. H. Mirick, “Low-cost piezocomposite actuator for structural control applications,” Proc. SPIE 3991, 323–334 (2000).
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Hickey, G.

G. Hickey, T. Barbee, M. Ealey, and D. Redding, “Actuated hybrid mirrors for space telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773120 (2010).
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High, J. W.

W. K. Wilkie, R. G. Bryant, J. W. High, R. L. Fox, R. F. Hellbaum, A. Jalink Jr., B. D. Little, and P. H. Mirick, “Low-cost piezocomposite actuator for structural control applications,” Proc. SPIE 3991, 323–334 (2000).
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Hishinuma, Y.

E. H. Yang, Y. Hishinuma, J.-G. Cheng, S. Trolier-McKinstry, E. Bloemhof, and B. M. Levine, “Thin-film piezoelectric unimorph actuator-based deformable mirror with a transferred silicon membrane,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 1214–1225 (2006).
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Holland, G.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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Hourtoule, C.

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52, 091803 (2013).
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M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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J. E. Huber, N. A. Fleck, and M. F. Ashby, “The selection of mechanical actuators based on performance indices,” Proc. R. Soc. London 453, 2185–2205 (1997).
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Hugot, E.

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52, 091803 (2013).
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J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
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Ikeda, O.

Im, E.

Q. Chen, D. Natale, B. Neese, K. Ren, M. Lin, Q. M. Zhang, M. Pattom, K. W. Wang, H. Fang, and E. Im, “Piezoelectric polymers actuators for precise shape control of large scale space antennas,” Proc. SPIE 6524, 65241P (2007).

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Ishida, M.

Jakobsen, P.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
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W. K. Wilkie, R. G. Bryant, J. W. High, R. L. Fox, R. F. Hellbaum, A. Jalink Jr., B. D. Little, and P. H. Mirick, “Low-cost piezocomposite actuator for structural control applications,” Proc. SPIE 3991, 323–334 (2000).
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James, D.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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Jenkins, A.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jetteur, P.

R. Bastaits, G. Rodrigues, P. Jetteur, P. Hagedorn, and A. Preumont, “Multi-layer adaptive thin shells for future space telescopes,” Smart Mater. Struct. 21, 064004 (2012).
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M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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Krauss, E.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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Lankton, M.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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Laslandes, M.

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52, 091803 (2013).
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Levine, B. M.

E. H. Yang, Y. Hishinuma, J.-G. Cheng, S. Trolier-McKinstry, E. Bloemhof, and B. M. Levine, “Thin-film piezoelectric unimorph actuator-based deformable mirror with a transferred silicon membrane,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 1214–1225 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lilly, S. J.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M.

Q. Chen, D. Natale, B. Neese, K. Ren, M. Lin, Q. M. Zhang, M. Pattom, K. W. Wang, H. Fang, and E. Im, “Piezoelectric polymers actuators for precise shape control of large scale space antennas,” Proc. SPIE 6524, 65241P (2007).

Lindler, J.

J. Lindler and E. Flint, “Robustness of thin film shells with discrete boundary actuation,” in 47th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006), paper AIAA 2006-1904.

Lipson, S.

Little, B. D.

W. K. Wilkie, R. G. Bryant, J. W. High, R. L. Fox, R. F. Hellbaum, A. Jalink Jr., B. D. Little, and P. H. Mirick, “Low-cost piezocomposite actuator for structural control applications,” Proc. SPIE 3991, 323–334 (2000).
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Long, K. S.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
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Lopez, C.

M. Laslandes, E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, C. Hourtoule, C. Singer, C. Devilliers, C. Lopez, and F. Chazallet, “Mirror actively deformed and regulated for applications in space: design and performance,” Opt. Eng. 52, 091803 (2013).
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Lunine, J. I.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
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Macintosh, B.

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, and S. Cornelissen, “Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7209, 72090I (2009).
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Mack, J.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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Marquez, V.

V. Cotroneo, W. N. Davis, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, and R. H. T. Wilke, “Adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics based on thin PZT films,” Proc. SPIE 8503, 850309 (2012).
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T. R. Dargaville, M. C. Celina, J. M. Elliott, P. M. Chaplya, G. D. Jones, D. M. Mowery, R. A. Assink, R. L. Clough, and J. W. Martin, “Characterization, performance and optimization of PVDF as a piezoelectric film for advanced space mirror concepts,” (Sandia National Laboratories, 2005).

Mather, J. C.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
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J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
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Morzinski, K.

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, and S. Cornelissen, “Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7209, 72090I (2009).
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T. R. Dargaville, M. C. Celina, J. M. Elliott, P. M. Chaplya, G. D. Jones, D. M. Mowery, R. A. Assink, R. L. Clough, and J. W. Martin, “Characterization, performance and optimization of PVDF as a piezoelectric film for advanced space mirror concepts,” (Sandia National Laboratories, 2005).

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Natale, D.

Q. Chen, D. Natale, B. Neese, K. Ren, M. Lin, Q. M. Zhang, M. Pattom, K. W. Wang, H. Fang, and E. Im, “Piezoelectric polymers actuators for precise shape control of large scale space antennas,” Proc. SPIE 6524, 65241P (2007).

Natori, M. C.

M. C. Natori and K. Ukegawa, “Concept of self-assembly of space structure systems using autonomous modules,” in 54th International Astronautical Congress of the International Astronautical Federation (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2003), paper IAC-03-U.1.01.

Neeland, M.

M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
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A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, and S. Cornelissen, “Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7209, 72090I (2009).
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A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, and S. Cornelissen, “Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7209, 72090I (2009).
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B. de Blonk, J. Moore, B. Patrick, and E. Flint, “Membrane mirrors in space telescopes,” in Recent Advances in Gossamer Spacecraft, C. Jenkins, ed. (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006), pp. 45–108.

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Q. Chen, D. Natale, B. Neese, K. Ren, M. Lin, Q. M. Zhang, M. Pattom, K. W. Wang, H. Fang, and E. Im, “Piezoelectric polymers actuators for precise shape control of large scale space antennas,” Proc. SPIE 6524, 65241P (2007).

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J. Pearson, J. Moore, and H. Fang, “Large and high precision inflatable membrane reflector,” in 51st AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2010), paper AIAA-2010-2500.

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K. Patterson and S. Pellegrino, “Shape correction of thin mirrors,” presented at 52nd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, Denver, Colorado, 4–7 April2011.

K. Patterson, N. Yamamoto, and S. Pellegrino, “Thin deformable mirrors for a reconfigurable space aperture” in 53rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2012), paper AIAA-2012-1668.

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M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
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Schwartz, D. A.

V. Cotroneo, W. N. Davis, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, D. A. Schwartz, R. L. Johnson-Wilke, S. E. Trolier-McKinstry, and R. H. T. Wilke, “Adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics based on thin PZT films,” Proc. SPIE 8503, 850309 (2012).
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H. Song, A. Simonov, and G. Vdovin, “Multiplexing control of a multichannel piezoelectric deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 60181F (2005).
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J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
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Stockman, H. S.

J. P. Gardner, J. C. Mather, M. Clampin, R. Doyon, M. A. Greenhouse, H. B. Hammel, J. B. Hutchings, P. Jakobsen, S. J. Lilly, K. S. Long, J. I. Lunine, M. J. McCaughrean, M. Mountain, J. Nella, G. H. Rieke, M. J. Rieke, H.-W. Rix, E. P. Smnith, G. Sonneborn, M. Staivelli, H. S. Stockman, R. A. Windhorst, and G. S. Wright, “The James Webb space telescope,” Space Sci. Rev. 123485–606 (2006).
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M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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H. Song, A. Simonov, and G. Vdovin, “Multiplexing control of a multichannel piezoelectric deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 60181F (2005).
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A. Tokovinin, S. Thomas, and G. Vdovin, “Using 50 mm electrostatic membrane deformable mirror in astronomical adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 580–585 (2004).
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Q. Chen, D. Natale, B. Neese, K. Ren, M. Lin, Q. M. Zhang, M. Pattom, K. W. Wang, H. Fang, and E. Im, “Piezoelectric polymers actuators for precise shape control of large scale space antennas,” Proc. SPIE 6524, 65241P (2007).

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M. Horányi, V. Hoxie, D. James, A. Poppe, C. Bryant, B. Grogan, B. Lamprecht, J. Mack, F. Bagenal, S. Batiste, N. Bunch, T. Chanthawanich, F. Christensen, M. Colgan, T. Dunn, G. Drake, A. Fernandez, T. Finley, G. Holland, A. Jenkins, C. Krauss, E. Krauss, O. Krauss, M. Lankton, C. Mitchell, M. Neeland, T. Reese, K. Rash, G. Tate, C. Vaudrin, and J. Westfall, “The Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons Mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 140, 387–402 (2008).
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A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, and S. Cornelissen, “Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7209, 72090I (2009).
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Figures (18)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Deformation of uniformly coated disk consisting of 20 μm P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer on a 200 μm thick silicon wafer, during poling cycle. (a) Peak-to-valley deflection of mirror and (b) estimated piezoelectric strain in the polymer layer from Eq. (1), showing residual poling strain.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cyclical actuation of uniformly coated disk consisting of 20 μm P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer on 200 μm thick silicon wafer, after poling process. (a) Peak-to-valley deflection and (b) estimated piezostrain in the polymer layer, from Eq. (1).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Estimated actuation capability of 20 μm thick P(VDF-TrFE) coating as a function of substrate biaxial modulus and thickness. A practical lower limit is imposed by substrate buckling due to residual poling strain.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Exploded views of example mirror layers: (a) single active layer and (b) double active layer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Finite-element predictions of the influence of function shapes for selected electrodes from (a) coarse and (b) fine patterns of Fig. 4. Units are μm/V.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Electrode design patterns: (a)–(c) triangular lattices with 42, 90, and 156 actuators; (d)–(f) hexagonal patch tessellations with 43, 91, and 151 actuators.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Correctabilities of six actuation patterns in Fig. 6, for first 30 Zernike modes.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

General relationship between residual and input error in any chosen mode.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Variation of residual RMS error with RMS error in three chosen modes for the six actuation patterns in Fig. 6. (a) Mode Z20 defocus, (b) mode Z22 astimagtism, and (c) mode Z31 coma. The reference wavelength is 633 nm.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Cross section of magnetic mounting scheme. Pairs of polished, magnetized spheres pinch the mirror at three places around the rim to hold it on a PCB. Tiny wire-bonded electrical connections jump from the board to the mirror.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) Schematic diagram of control system showing wavefront feedback from the mirror passed to a controller; the controller then uses a high-voltage amplifier and multiplexer to apply a new set of voltages to the mirror electrodes. (b) Photograph of a 10cm×10cm prototype high-voltage multiplexer board populated with solid-state switches is shown on the right; it is capable of running 42 channels to ±500V.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Traces showing time-varying high-voltage input (heavy black) and multiple actuator channels (light colored) that shows a steady quasi-DC level. Channel decay between refresh points is exaggerated for illustration purposes.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Photographs of deformable mirror prototypes: (a) a mirror with a segmented annular electrode pattern, (b) another mirror with a triangular lattice of closely spaced electrodes, (c) rear view of mounted mirror showing three-axis positioning gimbal and mounting board, and (d) front view of mirror showing reflective surface and three low-stress mounting points.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Schematic diagram of experimental measurement setup.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Influence functions of preliminary 100 mm mirror prototype with 16 channels with the pattern in Fig. 13(a). (a) Experimental measurements and (b) finite element predictions due to 400 V inputs. Deflection color scale is in units of waves at 633 nm. The diameter of the images is only 75 mm owing to objective lens size constraints.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Definition of actuator numbers in 16-channel prototype.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Demonstration of defocus control using a single input voltage.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

(a) Reduction of static RMS shape error using 16 channels and (b) evolution of channel voltages.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Candidate Active Materials

Tables Icon

Table 2. Candidate Materials for Mirror Substrates

Tables Icon

Table 3. Summary of Mirror Layers

Tables Icon

Table 4. Material Properties

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

κ=6εaMatats2Ms=6σatats2Ms,
tcrit(1.05εpMataR2Ms)1/3.
κ=i6si(εiεs)Mitits2Ms=i6si(αiαs)ΔTMitits2Ms=6ΔTts2Msisi(αiαs)Miti,
0=isi(αiαs)Miti.
A=[a1a2an]Rm×n.
Au=δ.
WAu=Wδ.
r^=WAuWδRm.
r^2=r^Tr^=(Auδ)TW2(Auδ)
iri2SiiSi.

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