Abstract

We propose a method for in-plane switching of vertically aligned negative liquid crystals (LCs) for high transmittance and wide viewing angle. By applying an in-plane electric field using a double-layered electrode structure, LC molecules can be rotated by the vertical as well as the in-plane components of the applied field over the entire region so that high transmittance can be achieved. The threshold voltage difference can be obtained simply by varying the electrode structure, which can reduce the off-axis gamma shift in a multidomain vertical alignment LC cell.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, D. H. Song, J.-H. Lee, G. S. Lee, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Pixel electrode structure for high transmittance in a multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display device,” J. Phys. D 45, 065103 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 056507 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmura, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 29, 1077–1080 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895–3897 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Hong, H. Shin, and I. Chung, “In-plane switching technology for liquid crystal display television,” J. Display Technol. 3, 361–370 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. H. Jo, H. J. Yun, I. W. Jang, I. H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Heo, “Electro-optic characteristics of the fringe in-plane switching liquid crystal device for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 40, 368–373 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Ge, X. Zhu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “High transmittance in-plane switching liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 2, 114–120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D.-K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).
  9. S. S. Kim, “Super PVA sets new state-of-the-art for LCD-TV,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 35, 760–763 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. S. Kim, “The world’s largest (82 in.) TFT-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1842–1847 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S.-W. Choi, H. Jin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Lee, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Formation of dual threshold in a vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 170–173 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J.-H. Lee, H. Jin, J.-W. Kim, K.-H. Kim, B.-W. Park, T.-H. Yoon, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, and H. S. Kim, “Formation of liquid crystal multi-domains with different threshold voltages by varying the surface anchoring energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 054107 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Lu, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing the color shift of a multidomain vertical alignment liquid crystal display using dual threshold voltages,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051114 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Ma, Y.-C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, “A multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display to improve the V–T property,” Displays 30, 185–189 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Yang and Y. Sun, “A high-transmittance vertical alignment liquid crystal display using a fringe and in-plane electrical field,” Liq. Cryst. 38, 469–473 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. H. Lee and M.-H. Lee, “Liquid crystal displays with high image quality and fast response time,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 39, S42–S48 (2001).
  17. D. Xu, L. Rao, C.-D. Tu, and S.-T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Display Technol. 9, 67–70 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford, 1993).
  19. J.-W. Kim, D. H. Song, K.-H. Kim, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fringe-field switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals,” Proc. IMID 12, 202–203 (2012).

2013

M. H. Jo, H. J. Yun, I. W. Jang, I. H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Heo, “Electro-optic characteristics of the fringe in-plane switching liquid crystal device for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 40, 368–373 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Xu, L. Rao, C.-D. Tu, and S.-T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Display Technol. 9, 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

J.-W. Kim, D. H. Song, K.-H. Kim, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fringe-field switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals,” Proc. IMID 12, 202–203 (2012).

S.-W. Choi, H. Jin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Lee, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Formation of dual threshold in a vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 170–173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Lee, H. Jin, J.-W. Kim, K.-H. Kim, B.-W. Park, T.-H. Yoon, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, and H. S. Kim, “Formation of liquid crystal multi-domains with different threshold voltages by varying the surface anchoring energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 054107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, D. H. Song, J.-H. Lee, G. S. Lee, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Pixel electrode structure for high transmittance in a multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display device,” J. Phys. D 45, 065103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

G. Yang and Y. Sun, “A high-transmittance vertical alignment liquid crystal display using a fringe and in-plane electrical field,” Liq. Cryst. 38, 469–473 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Ma, Y.-C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, “A multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display to improve the V–T property,” Displays 30, 185–189 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 056507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. Lu, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing the color shift of a multidomain vertical alignment liquid crystal display using dual threshold voltages,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

S. S. Kim, “The world’s largest (82 in.) TFT-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1842–1847 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. S. Kim, “Super PVA sets new state-of-the-art for LCD-TV,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 35, 760–763 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. H. Lee and M.-H. Lee, “Liquid crystal displays with high image quality and fast response time,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 39, S42–S48 (2001).

1998

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmura, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 29, 1077–1080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S. H.

M. H. Jo, H. J. Yun, I. W. Jang, I. H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Heo, “Electro-optic characteristics of the fringe in-plane switching liquid crystal device for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 40, 368–373 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J.-I.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 056507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

J. Ma, Y.-C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, “A multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display to improve the V–T property,” Displays 30, 185–189 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chida, H.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmura, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 29, 1077–1080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

M. H. Jo, H. J. Yun, I. W. Jang, I. H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Heo, “Electro-optic characteristics of the fringe in-plane switching liquid crystal device for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 40, 368–373 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.-W.

Chung, I.

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford, 1993).

Ge, Z.

Heo, H. J.

M. H. Jo, H. J. Yun, I. W. Jang, I. H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Heo, “Electro-optic characteristics of the fringe in-plane switching liquid crystal device for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 40, 368–373 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hong, H.

Jang, I. W.

M. H. Jo, H. J. Yun, I. W. Jang, I. H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Heo, “Electro-optic characteristics of the fringe in-plane switching liquid crystal device for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 40, 368–373 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, E.-Y.

K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, D. H. Song, J.-H. Lee, G. S. Lee, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Pixel electrode structure for high transmittance in a multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display device,” J. Phys. D 45, 065103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, I. H.

M. H. Jo, H. J. Yun, I. W. Jang, I. H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Heo, “Electro-optic characteristics of the fringe in-plane switching liquid crystal device for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 40, 368–373 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jin, H.

J.-H. Lee, H. Jin, J.-W. Kim, K.-H. Kim, B.-W. Park, T.-H. Yoon, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, and H. S. Kim, “Formation of liquid crystal multi-domains with different threshold voltages by varying the surface anchoring energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 054107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Choi, H. Jin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Lee, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Formation of dual threshold in a vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 170–173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jo, M. H.

M. H. Jo, H. J. Yun, I. W. Jang, I. H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Heo, “Electro-optic characteristics of the fringe in-plane switching liquid crystal device for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 40, 368–373 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, S.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmura, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 29, 1077–1080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J.-H. Lee, H. Jin, J.-W. Kim, K.-H. Kim, B.-W. Park, T.-H. Yoon, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, and H. S. Kim, “Formation of liquid crystal multi-domains with different threshold voltages by varying the surface anchoring energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 054107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Choi, H. Jin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Lee, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Formation of dual threshold in a vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 170–173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Kim, D. H. Song, K.-H. Kim, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fringe-field switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals,” Proc. IMID 12, 202–203 (2012).

Kim, H. S.

J.-W. Kim, D. H. Song, K.-H. Kim, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fringe-field switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals,” Proc. IMID 12, 202–203 (2012).

K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, D. H. Song, J.-H. Lee, G. S. Lee, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Pixel electrode structure for high transmittance in a multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display device,” J. Phys. D 45, 065103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Choi, H. Jin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Lee, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Formation of dual threshold in a vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 170–173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Lee, H. Jin, J.-W. Kim, K.-H. Kim, B.-W. Park, T.-H. Yoon, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, and H. S. Kim, “Formation of liquid crystal multi-domains with different threshold voltages by varying the surface anchoring energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 054107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 056507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-W.

J.-W. Kim, D. H. Song, K.-H. Kim, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fringe-field switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals,” Proc. IMID 12, 202–203 (2012).

J.-H. Lee, H. Jin, J.-W. Kim, K.-H. Kim, B.-W. Park, T.-H. Yoon, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, and H. S. Kim, “Formation of liquid crystal multi-domains with different threshold voltages by varying the surface anchoring energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 054107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-H.

J.-H. Lee, H. Jin, J.-W. Kim, K.-H. Kim, B.-W. Park, T.-H. Yoon, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, and H. S. Kim, “Formation of liquid crystal multi-domains with different threshold voltages by varying the surface anchoring energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 054107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Kim, D. H. Song, K.-H. Kim, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fringe-field switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals,” Proc. IMID 12, 202–203 (2012).

K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, D. H. Song, J.-H. Lee, G. S. Lee, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Pixel electrode structure for high transmittance in a multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display device,” J. Phys. D 45, 065103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Choi, H. Jin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Lee, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Formation of dual threshold in a vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 170–173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 056507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

S. S. Kim, “The world’s largest (82 in.) TFT-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1842–1847 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kim, “Super PVA sets new state-of-the-art for LCD-TV,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 35, 760–763 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koike, Y.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmura, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 29, 1077–1080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G. S.

K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, D. H. Song, J.-H. Lee, G. S. Lee, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Pixel electrode structure for high transmittance in a multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display device,” J. Phys. D 45, 065103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, D. H. Song, J.-H. Lee, G. S. Lee, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Pixel electrode structure for high transmittance in a multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display device,” J. Phys. D 45, 065103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Choi, H. Jin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Lee, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Formation of dual threshold in a vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 170–173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Lee, H. Jin, J.-W. Kim, K.-H. Kim, B.-W. Park, T.-H. Yoon, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, and H. S. Kim, “Formation of liquid crystal multi-domains with different threshold voltages by varying the surface anchoring energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 054107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

S. H. Lee and M.-H. Lee, “Liquid crystal displays with high image quality and fast response time,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 39, S42–S48 (2001).

Lee, S. H.

M. H. Jo, H. J. Yun, I. W. Jang, I. H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Heo, “Electro-optic characteristics of the fringe in-plane switching liquid crystal device for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 40, 368–373 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Lu, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing the color shift of a multidomain vertical alignment liquid crystal display using dual threshold voltages,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee and M.-H. Lee, “Liquid crystal displays with high image quality and fast response time,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 39, S42–S48 (2001).

Lu, R.

R. Lu, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing the color shift of a multidomain vertical alignment liquid crystal display using dual threshold voltages,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

J. Ma, Y.-C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, “A multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display to improve the V–T property,” Displays 30, 185–189 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh-e, M.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohmura, K.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmura, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 29, 1077–1080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmura, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 29, 1077–1080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. W.

K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, D. H. Song, J.-H. Lee, G. S. Lee, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Pixel electrode structure for high transmittance in a multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display device,” J. Phys. D 45, 065103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.-W.

J.-H. Lee, H. Jin, J.-W. Kim, K.-H. Kim, B.-W. Park, T.-H. Yoon, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, and H. S. Kim, “Formation of liquid crystal multi-domains with different threshold voltages by varying the surface anchoring energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 054107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Prost, J.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford, 1993).

Rao, L.

Sasabayashi, T.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmura, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 29, 1077–1080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmura, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 29, 1077–1080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

J. Ma, Y.-C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, “A multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display to improve the V–T property,” Displays 30, 185–189 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H.

Shin, K.-C.

K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, D. H. Song, J.-H. Lee, G. S. Lee, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Pixel electrode structure for high transmittance in a multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display device,” J. Phys. D 45, 065103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Kim, D. H. Song, K.-H. Kim, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fringe-field switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals,” Proc. IMID 12, 202–203 (2012).

S.-W. Choi, H. Jin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Lee, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Formation of dual threshold in a vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 170–173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Lee, H. Jin, J.-W. Kim, K.-H. Kim, B.-W. Park, T.-H. Yoon, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, and H. S. Kim, “Formation of liquid crystal multi-domains with different threshold voltages by varying the surface anchoring energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 054107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. T.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 056507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, D. H.

J.-W. Kim, D. H. Song, K.-H. Kim, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fringe-field switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals,” Proc. IMID 12, 202–203 (2012).

K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, D. H. Song, J.-H. Lee, G. S. Lee, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Pixel electrode structure for high transmittance in a multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display device,” J. Phys. D 45, 065103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Souk, J. H.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 056507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

G. Yang and Y. Sun, “A high-transmittance vertical alignment liquid crystal display using a fringe and in-plane electrical field,” Liq. Cryst. 38, 469–473 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, A.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmura, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 29, 1077–1080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, H.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmura, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 29, 1077–1080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tu, C.-D.

Woo, H. S.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 056507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

D. Xu, L. Rao, C.-D. Tu, and S.-T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Display Technol. 9, 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Lu, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing the color shift of a multidomain vertical alignment liquid crystal display using dual threshold voltages,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, X. Zhu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “High transmittance in-plane switching liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 2, 114–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

Wu, T. X.

Xu, D.

Yang, D.-K.

D.-K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

Yang, G.

G. Yang and Y. Sun, “A high-transmittance vertical alignment liquid crystal display using a fringe and in-plane electrical field,” Liq. Cryst. 38, 469–473 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.-C.

J. Ma, Y.-C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, “A multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display to improve the V–T property,” Displays 30, 185–189 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.-H.

J.-H. Lee, H. Jin, J.-W. Kim, K.-H. Kim, B.-W. Park, T.-H. Yoon, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, and H. S. Kim, “Formation of liquid crystal multi-domains with different threshold voltages by varying the surface anchoring energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 054107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Choi, H. Jin, K.-H. Kim, J.-H. Lee, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Formation of dual threshold in a vertical alignment liquid crystal device,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16, 170–173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Kim, D. H. Song, K.-H. Kim, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fringe-field switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals,” Proc. IMID 12, 202–203 (2012).

K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, D. H. Song, J.-H. Lee, G. S. Lee, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Pixel electrode structure for high transmittance in a multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display device,” J. Phys. D 45, 065103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 056507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yun, H. J.

M. H. Jo, H. J. Yun, I. W. Jang, I. H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Heo, “Electro-optic characteristics of the fringe in-plane switching liquid crystal device for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 40, 368–373 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

J. Ma, Y.-C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, “A multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display to improve the V–T property,” Displays 30, 185–189 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Lu, S.-T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing the color shift of a multidomain vertical alignment liquid crystal display using dual threshold voltages,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Displays

J. Ma, Y.-C. Yang, Z. Zheng, J. Shi, and W. Cao, “A multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display to improve the V–T property,” Displays 30, 185–189 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J.-H. Lee, H. Jin, J.-W. Kim, K.-H. Kim, B.-W. Park, T.-H. Yoon, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, and H. S. Kim, “Formation of liquid crystal multi-domains with different threshold voltages by varying the surface anchoring energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 054107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol.

J. Korean Phys. Soc.

S. H. Lee and M.-H. Lee, “Liquid crystal displays with high image quality and fast response time,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 39, S42–S48 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Korea

J. Phys. D

K.-H. Kim, E.-Y. Jeon, B. W. Park, D. H. Song, J.-H. Lee, G. S. Lee, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Pixel electrode structure for high transmittance in a multi-domain vertical alignment liquid crystal display device,” J. Phys. D 45, 065103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 056507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst.

G. Yang and Y. Sun, “A high-transmittance vertical alignment liquid crystal display using a fringe and in-plane electrical field,” Liq. Cryst. 38, 469–473 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Jo, H. J. Yun, I. W. Jang, I. H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Heo, “Electro-optic characteristics of the fringe in-plane switching liquid crystal device for a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 40, 368–373 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IMID

J.-W. Kim, D. H. Song, K.-H. Kim, H. Kim, K.-C. Shin, H. S. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fringe-field switching of vertically-aligned negative liquid crystals,” Proc. IMID 12, 202–203 (2012).

SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.

S. S. Kim, “Super PVA sets new state-of-the-art for LCD-TV,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 35, 760–763 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kim, “The world’s largest (82 in.) TFT-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 36, 1842–1847 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmura, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 29, 1077–1080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

D.-K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford, 1993).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Electrode structures used to apply an in-plane electric field. (a) Single-layered and (b) double-layered electrodes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated transmittance distributions of vertically aligned LC cells driven by an in-plane electric field using (a) single-layered and (b) double-layered electrodes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmittances as functions of the applied voltage (a) calculated and (b) measured.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated electric field intensities at three different positions: A, B, and C; the in-plane components at (a) A, (b) B, and (c) C; the vertical components at (d) A, (e) B, and (f) C.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated brightness distributions in a vertically aligned eight-domain LC cell driven by an in-plane electric field using double-layered electrodes. (a) Top view of an eight-domain electrode structure. w=3μm and l=7μm for subpixel 1 and w=5μm and l=5μm for subpixel 2. Calculated images under applied voltages of (b) 0 V, (c) 9 V, (d) 11.5 V, (e) 15 V, and (f) 20 V.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calculated gamma curves of four-domain and eight-domain LC cells with a gamma correction factor of γ=2.2.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Viewing angle performance obtained with compensation films. (a) A conventional four-domain VA cell and (b) an eight-domain LC cell of the proposed mode.

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