Abstract

A well designed headlamp for a vehicle lighting system is very important as it provides drivers with safe and comfortable driving conditions at night or in dark places. With the advances of the semiconductor technology, the LED has become the fourth generation lighting source in the auto industry. In this study, we will propose a LED vehicle projector headlamp system. This headlamp system contains several LED headlamp modules, and every module of it includes four components: focused LEDs, asymmetric metal-based plates, freeform surfaces, and condenser lenses. By optimizing the number of LED headlamp modules, the proposed LED vehicle projector headlamp system has only five LED headlamp modules. It not only provides the low-beam cutoff without a shield, but also meets the requirements of the ECE R112 regulation. Finally, a prototype of the LED vehicle projector headlamp system was assembled and fabricated to create the correct light pattern.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Y. Tsai, C. C. Hsieh, and Y. H. Li, “Application of a novel focused microlens to light-emitting diode packaging,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 9, 033012 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

P. Brick and T. Schmid, “Automotive headlamp concepts with low-beam and high-beam out of a single LED,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 817008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Tsai and Y. C. Fang, “Optical design of adaptive automotive headlight system with digital micro mirror device,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 81700A (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. R. Zheng, and P. F. Gu, “Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 16, 12958–12966 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Götz and M. Kleinkes, “Headlamps for light based driver assistance,” Proc. SPIE 7003, 70032B (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting-diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Jiao and B. Wang, “High efficiency reflector optics for LED automotive forward lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6670, 66700M (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuhlenkötter and M. Sdahl, “Automated inspection system for headlamp reflectors,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 32, 500–504 (2007).

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

W. J. Cassarly and M. J. Hayford, “Illumination optimization: the revolution has begun,” Proc. SPIE 4832, 258–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benítez, P.

Brick, P.

P. Brick and T. Schmid, “Automotive headlamp concepts with low-beam and high-beam out of a single LED,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 817008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cassarly, W. J.

W. J. Cassarly and M. J. Hayford, “Illumination optimization: the revolution has begun,” Proc. SPIE 4832, 258–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cen, Y. C.

Chang, S. H.

Chaves, J.

Chen, F.

Chen, J. J.

J. J. Chen, K. L. Huang, and P. C. Kin, “Computer modeling of a fiber-and-light-emitting-diode-based vehicle headlamp,” Opt. Eng. 49, 073002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chen, K. L. Huang, P. C. Lin, and K. H. Cheng, “A fiber-and-LED based vehicle headlamp,” presented at the Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronic Exposition and Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper SaK57.

Chen, Y. L.

Cheng, K. H.

J. J. Chen, K. L. Huang, P. C. Lin, and K. H. Cheng, “A fiber-and-LED based vehicle headlamp,” presented at the Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronic Exposition and Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper SaK57.

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting-diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cvetkovic, A.

Dellnitz, M.

M. Dellnitz, S. Sertl, and T. Weber, “Automotive industry & manufacturing-computation of optical free-form surfaces,” in European Success Stories in Industrial Mathematics (Springer, 2011) pp. 67–84.

Ding, Y.

Dross, O.

Eichhorn, K.

C. Schmidt, F. J. Kalze, and K. Eichhorn, “Adaptive front-lighting system in LED technology-initial steps and the future,” presented at the SAE World Congress & Exhibition, Detroit, Michigan, 16April 2007 (SAE International, 2007), paper 2007-01-0873.

Fang, Y. C.

Feng, Z.

Götz, M.

M. Götz and M. Kleinkes, “Headlamps for light based driver assistance,” Proc. SPIE 7003, 70032B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, P. F.

Han, Y.

Hao, X.

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting-diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hayford, M. J.

W. J. Cassarly and M. J. Hayford, “Illumination optimization: the revolution has begun,” Proc. SPIE 4832, 258–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. C.

P. Y. Tsai, C. C. Hsieh, and Y. H. Li, “Application of a novel focused microlens to light-emitting diode packaging,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 9, 033012 (2010).

Hsueh, B. R.

Hu, S. H.

Huang, K. L.

J. J. Chen, K. L. Huang, and P. C. Kin, “Computer modeling of a fiber-and-light-emitting-diode-based vehicle headlamp,” Opt. Eng. 49, 073002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chen, K. L. Huang, P. C. Lin, and K. H. Cheng, “A fiber-and-LED based vehicle headlamp,” presented at the Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronic Exposition and Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper SaK57.

Huang, M. S.

Hung, C. C.

Jiao, J. H.

J. H. Jiao and B. Wang, “High efficiency reflector optics for LED automotive forward lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6670, 66700M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kalze, F. J.

C. Schmidt, F. J. Kalze, and K. Eichhorn, “Adaptive front-lighting system in LED technology-initial steps and the future,” presented at the SAE World Congress & Exhibition, Detroit, Michigan, 16April 2007 (SAE International, 2007), paper 2007-01-0873.

Kin, P. C.

J. J. Chen, K. L. Huang, and P. C. Kin, “Computer modeling of a fiber-and-light-emitting-diode-based vehicle headlamp,” Opt. Eng. 49, 073002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kleinkes, M.

M. Götz and M. Kleinkes, “Headlamps for light based driver assistance,” Proc. SPIE 7003, 70032B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting-diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlenkötter, B.

B. Kuhlenkötter and M. Sdahl, “Automated inspection system for headlamp reflectors,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 32, 500–504 (2007).

Lai, W. C.

Lee, Y. P.

Li, H.

Li, Y. H.

P. Y. Tsai, C. C. Hsieh, and Y. H. Li, “Application of a novel focused microlens to light-emitting diode packaging,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 9, 033012 (2010).

Lin, P. C.

J. J. Chen, K. L. Huang, P. C. Lin, and K. H. Cheng, “A fiber-and-LED based vehicle headlamp,” presented at the Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronic Exposition and Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper SaK57.

Liu, S.

Liu, X.

Liu, Z.

Luo, X.

Luo, Y.

Miñano, J. C.

Mohedano, R.

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting-diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting-diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Z.

Schmid, T.

P. Brick and T. Schmid, “Automotive headlamp concepts with low-beam and high-beam out of a single LED,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 817008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C.

C. Schmidt, F. J. Kalze, and K. Eichhorn, “Adaptive front-lighting system in LED technology-initial steps and the future,” presented at the SAE World Congress & Exhibition, Detroit, Michigan, 16April 2007 (SAE International, 2007), paper 2007-01-0873.

Sdahl, M.

B. Kuhlenkötter and M. Sdahl, “Automated inspection system for headlamp reflectors,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 32, 500–504 (2007).

Sertl, S.

M. Dellnitz, S. Sertl, and T. Weber, “Automotive industry & manufacturing-computation of optical free-form surfaces,” in European Success Stories in Industrial Mathematics (Springer, 2011) pp. 67–84.

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting-diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. M.

C. M. Tsai and Y. C. Fang, “Optical design of adaptive automotive headlight system with digital micro mirror device,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 81700A (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, P. Y.

P. Y. Tsai, C. C. Hsieh, and Y. H. Li, “Application of a novel focused microlens to light-emitting diode packaging,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 9, 033012 (2010).

Wang, B.

J. H. Jiao and B. Wang, “High efficiency reflector optics for LED automotive forward lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6670, 66700M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Wang, S. F.

Weber, T.

M. Dellnitz, S. Sertl, and T. Weber, “Automotive industry & manufacturing-computation of optical free-form surfaces,” in European Success Stories in Industrial Mathematics (Springer, 2011) pp. 67–84.

Wu, B. W.

Wu, D.

Wu, H. H.

Yu, G. Y.

Zheng, Z.

Zheng, Z. R.

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting-diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. (1)

B. Kuhlenkötter and M. Sdahl, “Automated inspection system for headlamp reflectors,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 32, 500–504 (2007).

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting-diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS (1)

P. Y. Tsai, C. C. Hsieh, and Y. H. Li, “Application of a novel focused microlens to light-emitting diode packaging,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 9, 033012 (2010).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. J. Chen, K. L. Huang, and P. C. Kin, “Computer modeling of a fiber-and-light-emitting-diode-based vehicle headlamp,” Opt. Eng. 49, 073002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Proc. SPIE (5)

W. J. Cassarly and M. J. Hayford, “Illumination optimization: the revolution has begun,” Proc. SPIE 4832, 258–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Tsai and Y. C. Fang, “Optical design of adaptive automotive headlight system with digital micro mirror device,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 81700A (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Brick and T. Schmid, “Automotive headlamp concepts with low-beam and high-beam out of a single LED,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 817008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Götz and M. Kleinkes, “Headlamps for light based driver assistance,” Proc. SPIE 7003, 70032B (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Jiao and B. Wang, “High efficiency reflector optics for LED automotive forward lighting,” Proc. SPIE 6670, 66700M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. Schmidt, F. J. Kalze, and K. Eichhorn, “Adaptive front-lighting system in LED technology-initial steps and the future,” presented at the SAE World Congress & Exhibition, Detroit, Michigan, 16April 2007 (SAE International, 2007), paper 2007-01-0873.

J. J. Chen, K. L. Huang, P. C. Lin, and K. H. Cheng, “A fiber-and-LED based vehicle headlamp,” presented at the Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronic Exposition and Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper SaK57.

M. Dellnitz, S. Sertl, and T. Weber, “Automotive industry & manufacturing-computation of optical free-form surfaces,” in European Success Stories in Industrial Mathematics (Springer, 2011) pp. 67–84.

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Luminance evolution [3].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical systems for LED light source [6].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Four components of the LED projector headlamp module.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Design process.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Application of creating a light focusing effect: (a) primary optic; (b) secondary optic [20].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Ray trace of LED light emitted from the light source [20].

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematic diagram for the elliptical trajectory of the P point.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Focused lights are reflected by elliptical freeform surface.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Lateral view of the condenser lens.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Light focusing situation through the condenser lens.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Ray trajectory of the projection LED headlamp.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Asymmetric metal-based plate.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Optimization process.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Illuminance of the LED: (a) conventional LED and (b) focused LED.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Illustration of the freeform surfaces and the condenser lens.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Analysis of the light superposition effect.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

LED vehicle projector headlamp system.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Prototype of this proposed LED vehicle projector headlamp system.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Sizes of the freeform surface and the asymmetric metal-based plate.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Practical light pattern created by the prototype.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Simulated Illuminance of the Conventional LED and Focused LED

Tables Icon

Table 2. Condenser Lens Optimization

Tables Icon

Table 3. Simulation Result of the Proposed LED Vehicle Headlamp System in Comparison with the Requirements of the ECE R112 (Class A) Regulation

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x2a2+y2b2=1,
z=cr21+1(1+k)c2r2+n=210c2nr2n,
ϕ(x)=i=1nwifi2(x),

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