Abstract

The temperature characteristics of the birefringence of side-hole fibers filled with liquids or metal are investigated, aiming at providing a basis for on/off temperature sensing. Short pieces of fiber are filled and the change in birefringence is registered using measurements in reflective mode of the transmitted power through a linear polarizer at 1550 nm. The rapid change in the birefringence behavior of the fiber at the temperature of the phase transition of the filler substance is shown, and from the measurement data the phase transition temperatures can be determined as well as an estimation of the birefringence change with temperature. The experimental results are supported by numerical simulations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (1)

A. Ukil, H. Braendle, and P. Krippner, “Distributed temperature sensing: review of technology and applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12, 885–892 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

A. B. Lobo-Riberio, N. F. Eira, J. M. Sousa, P. T. Guerreiro, and J. R. Salcedo, “Multipoint fiber-optic hot-spot sensing network integrated into high power transformer for continuous monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1264–1267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Jason, F. Sunnegårdh, N. Paulsson, J. Söderberg, J. Hellström, and H.-E. Nilsson, “Fiber-optic temperature monitoring in pulp production,” Trans. IWCS 1, 7–16 (2008).

2007 (2)

D. S. Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, Y.-G. Han, W.-T. Han, and Y. Chung, “The temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining side-hole fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 7962–7967 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Churaev, M. J. Setzer, O. A. Kiseleva, and V. D. Sobolev, “On the thermodynamic equilibrium between ice and electrolyte solutions in the conditions of confined geometry,” Colloids Surf. A 300, 327–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. J. Rogers, S. V. Shatalin, and S. E. Kanellopoulos, “Distributed measurement of fluid pressure via optical-fibre backscatter polarimetry,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 230–233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Nikles, B. H. Vogel, F. Briffod, S. Grosswig, F. Sauser, S. Luebbecke, A. Bals, and T. Pfeiffer, “Leakage detection using fiber optics distributed temperature monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 5384, 18–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

T. Hara, K. Terashima, H. Takashima, H. Suzuki, Y. Nakura, Y. Makino, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakamura, “Development of long range optical fiber sensors for composite submarine power cable maintenance,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 14, 23–30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure sensitivity of side-hole optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 857–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Tanaka, K. Yoshida, S. Kinugasa, and Y. Ohtsuka, “Birefringent side-hole fiber for use in strain sensor,” Opt. Rev. 4, A92–A95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Wójcik, P. Mergo, and B. Janoszczyk, “Analysis of sensitivity of side-hole optical fibers to pressure and temperature by finite elements method,” Proc. SPIE 3054, 84–93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. E. Lee and H. F. Taylor, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot temperature sensor using a low-coherence light source,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 129–134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, and J. N. Ross, “Distributed optical fibre Raman temperature sensor using a semiconductor light source and detector,” Electron. Lett. 21, 569–570 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, T.-J.

B. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, D. H. Son, T.-J. Ahn, S. E. Kim, and W.-T. Han, “Optical properties of the fiber-optic temperature sensor based on the side-hole fiber filled with indium,” Appl. Opt. 52, 666–673 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, D. H. Son, T.-J. Ahn, S. Kim, and W.-T. Han, “Highly sensitive temperature sensor based on the side-hole optical fiber filled with indium,” ECOC-2011 Technical Digest (OSA, 2011), We.10.P1.

Bals, A.

M. Nikles, B. H. Vogel, F. Briffod, S. Grosswig, F. Sauser, S. Luebbecke, A. Bals, and T. Pfeiffer, “Leakage detection using fiber optics distributed temperature monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 5384, 18–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berlemont, D.

Bibby, G. W.

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, and J. N. Ross, “Distributed optical fibre Raman temperature sensor using a semiconductor light source and detector,” Electron. Lett. 21, 569–570 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Braendle, H.

A. Ukil, H. Braendle, and P. Krippner, “Distributed temperature sensing: review of technology and applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12, 885–892 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Briffod, F.

M. Nikles, B. H. Vogel, F. Briffod, S. Grosswig, F. Sauser, S. Luebbecke, A. Bals, and T. Pfeiffer, “Leakage detection using fiber optics distributed temperature monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 5384, 18–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

Churaev, N. V.

N. V. Churaev, M. J. Setzer, O. A. Kiseleva, and V. D. Sobolev, “On the thermodynamic equilibrium between ice and electrolyte solutions in the conditions of confined geometry,” Colloids Surf. A 300, 327–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Claesson, Å.

Clowes, J. R.

J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure sensitivity of side-hole optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 857–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dabkiewicz, Ph.

Dakin, J. P.

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, and J. N. Ross, “Distributed optical fibre Raman temperature sensor using a semiconductor light source and detector,” Electron. Lett. 21, 569–570 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ebbing, D. D.

D. D. Ebbing and S. D. Gammon, General Chemistry, 9th ed. (Houghton Mifflin, 2009), pp. 500–501, 508.

Eira, N. F.

A. B. Lobo-Riberio, N. F. Eira, J. M. Sousa, P. T. Guerreiro, and J. R. Salcedo, “Multipoint fiber-optic hot-spot sensing network integrated into high power transformer for continuous monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1264–1267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fokine, M.

Gammon, S. D.

D. D. Ebbing and S. D. Gammon, General Chemistry, 9th ed. (Houghton Mifflin, 2009), pp. 500–501, 508.

Grosswig, S.

M. Nikles, B. H. Vogel, F. Briffod, S. Grosswig, F. Sauser, S. Luebbecke, A. Bals, and T. Pfeiffer, “Leakage detection using fiber optics distributed temperature monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 5384, 18–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guerreiro, P. T.

A. B. Lobo-Riberio, N. F. Eira, J. M. Sousa, P. T. Guerreiro, and J. R. Salcedo, “Multipoint fiber-optic hot-spot sensing network integrated into high power transformer for continuous monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1264–1267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, W.-T.

Han, Y.-G.

Hara, T.

T. Hara, K. Terashima, H. Takashima, H. Suzuki, Y. Nakura, Y. Makino, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakamura, “Development of long range optical fiber sensors for composite submarine power cable maintenance,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 14, 23–30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hellström, J.

J. Jason, F. Sunnegårdh, N. Paulsson, J. Söderberg, J. Hellström, and H.-E. Nilsson, “Fiber-optic temperature monitoring in pulp production,” Trans. IWCS 1, 7–16 (2008).

Horiguchi, T.

Jaaskelainen, M.

M. Jaaskelainen, “Advances in the use of optical fibers sensors for oil reservoir monitoring,” in 18th International Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2006), paper TuB1.

Janoszczyk, B.

J. Wójcik, P. Mergo, and B. Janoszczyk, “Analysis of sensitivity of side-hole optical fibers to pressure and temperature by finite elements method,” Proc. SPIE 3054, 84–93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jason, J.

J. Jason, F. Sunnegårdh, N. Paulsson, J. Söderberg, J. Hellström, and H.-E. Nilsson, “Fiber-optic temperature monitoring in pulp production,” Trans. IWCS 1, 7–16 (2008).

Kanellopoulos, S. E.

A. J. Rogers, S. V. Shatalin, and S. E. Kanellopoulos, “Distributed measurement of fluid pressure via optical-fibre backscatter polarimetry,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 230–233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

Kim, S.

B. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, D. H. Son, T.-J. Ahn, S. Kim, and W.-T. Han, “Highly sensitive temperature sensor based on the side-hole optical fiber filled with indium,” ECOC-2011 Technical Digest (OSA, 2011), We.10.P1.

Kim, S. E.

Kinugasa, S.

S. Tanaka, K. Yoshida, S. Kinugasa, and Y. Ohtsuka, “Birefringent side-hole fiber for use in strain sensor,” Opt. Rev. 4, A92–A95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kiseleva, O. A.

N. V. Churaev, M. J. Setzer, O. A. Kiseleva, and V. D. Sobolev, “On the thermodynamic equilibrium between ice and electrolyte solutions in the conditions of confined geometry,” Colloids Surf. A 300, 327–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kjellberg, L.

Knape, H.

Krippner, P.

A. Ukil, H. Braendle, and P. Krippner, “Distributed temperature sensing: review of technology and applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12, 885–892 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krummenacher, L.

Kurashima, T.

Lee, C. E.

C. E. Lee and H. F. Taylor, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot temperature sensor using a low-coherence light source,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 129–134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Lin, A.

Lobo-Riberio, A. B.

A. B. Lobo-Riberio, N. F. Eira, J. M. Sousa, P. T. Guerreiro, and J. R. Salcedo, “Multipoint fiber-optic hot-spot sensing network integrated into high power transformer for continuous monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1264–1267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luebbecke, S.

M. Nikles, B. H. Vogel, F. Briffod, S. Grosswig, F. Sauser, S. Luebbecke, A. Bals, and T. Pfeiffer, “Leakage detection using fiber optics distributed temperature monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 5384, 18–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Makino, Y.

T. Hara, K. Terashima, H. Takashima, H. Suzuki, Y. Nakura, Y. Makino, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakamura, “Development of long range optical fiber sensors for composite submarine power cable maintenance,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 14, 23–30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Malmström, M.

Margulis, W.

Mergo, P.

J. Wójcik, P. Mergo, and B. Janoszczyk, “Analysis of sensitivity of side-hole optical fibers to pressure and temperature by finite elements method,” Proc. SPIE 3054, 84–93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. S.

Moore, G. T.

C. Zeringue and G. T. Moore, “Model and simulation of a tunable birefringent fiber using capillaries filled with liquid ethanol for magnetic quasi-phase matching in-fiber isolator,” Adv. Optoelectron., 586986 (2010).

Nakamura, Y.

T. Hara, K. Terashima, H. Takashima, H. Suzuki, Y. Nakura, Y. Makino, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakamura, “Development of long range optical fiber sensors for composite submarine power cable maintenance,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 14, 23–30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakura, Y.

T. Hara, K. Terashima, H. Takashima, H. Suzuki, Y. Nakura, Y. Makino, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakamura, “Development of long range optical fiber sensors for composite submarine power cable maintenance,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 14, 23–30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nikles, M.

M. Nikles, B. H. Vogel, F. Briffod, S. Grosswig, F. Sauser, S. Luebbecke, A. Bals, and T. Pfeiffer, “Leakage detection using fiber optics distributed temperature monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 5384, 18–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, H.-E.

J. Jason, F. Sunnegårdh, N. Paulsson, J. Söderberg, J. Hellström, and H.-E. Nilsson, “Fiber-optic temperature monitoring in pulp production,” Trans. IWCS 1, 7–16 (2008).

Nilsson, L. E.

Ohtsuka, Y.

S. Tanaka, K. Yoshida, S. Kinugasa, and Y. Ohtsuka, “Birefringent side-hole fiber for use in strain sensor,” Opt. Rev. 4, A92–A95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paulsson, N.

J. Jason, F. Sunnegårdh, N. Paulsson, J. Söderberg, J. Hellström, and H.-E. Nilsson, “Fiber-optic temperature monitoring in pulp production,” Trans. IWCS 1, 7–16 (2008).

Pfeiffer, T.

M. Nikles, B. H. Vogel, F. Briffod, S. Grosswig, F. Sauser, S. Luebbecke, A. Bals, and T. Pfeiffer, “Leakage detection using fiber optics distributed temperature monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 5384, 18–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pratt, D. J.

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, and J. N. Ross, “Distributed optical fibre Raman temperature sensor using a semiconductor light source and detector,” Electron. Lett. 21, 569–570 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, A. J.

A. J. Rogers, S. V. Shatalin, and S. E. Kanellopoulos, “Distributed measurement of fluid pressure via optical-fibre backscatter polarimetry,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 230–233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ross, J. N.

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, G. W. Bibby, and J. N. Ross, “Distributed optical fibre Raman temperature sensor using a semiconductor light source and detector,” Electron. Lett. 21, 569–570 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rugeland, P.

Salcedo, J. R.

A. B. Lobo-Riberio, N. F. Eira, J. M. Sousa, P. T. Guerreiro, and J. R. Salcedo, “Multipoint fiber-optic hot-spot sensing network integrated into high power transformer for continuous monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1264–1267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sauser, F.

M. Nikles, B. H. Vogel, F. Briffod, S. Grosswig, F. Sauser, S. Luebbecke, A. Bals, and T. Pfeiffer, “Leakage detection using fiber optics distributed temperature monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 5384, 18–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, M. J.

N. V. Churaev, M. J. Setzer, O. A. Kiseleva, and V. D. Sobolev, “On the thermodynamic equilibrium between ice and electrolyte solutions in the conditions of confined geometry,” Colloids Surf. A 300, 327–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shatalin, S. V.

A. J. Rogers, S. V. Shatalin, and S. E. Kanellopoulos, “Distributed measurement of fluid pressure via optical-fibre backscatter polarimetry,” Proc. SPIE 5855, 230–233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sobolev, V. D.

N. V. Churaev, M. J. Setzer, O. A. Kiseleva, and V. D. Sobolev, “On the thermodynamic equilibrium between ice and electrolyte solutions in the conditions of confined geometry,” Colloids Surf. A 300, 327–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Söderberg, J.

J. Jason, F. Sunnegårdh, N. Paulsson, J. Söderberg, J. Hellström, and H.-E. Nilsson, “Fiber-optic temperature monitoring in pulp production,” Trans. IWCS 1, 7–16 (2008).

Son, D. H.

B. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, D. H. Son, T.-J. Ahn, S. E. Kim, and W.-T. Han, “Optical properties of the fiber-optic temperature sensor based on the side-hole fiber filled with indium,” Appl. Opt. 52, 666–673 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, D. H. Son, T.-J. Ahn, S. Kim, and W.-T. Han, “Highly sensitive temperature sensor based on the side-hole optical fiber filled with indium,” ECOC-2011 Technical Digest (OSA, 2011), We.10.P1.

Sousa, J. M.

A. B. Lobo-Riberio, N. F. Eira, J. M. Sousa, P. T. Guerreiro, and J. R. Salcedo, “Multipoint fiber-optic hot-spot sensing network integrated into high power transformer for continuous monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1264–1267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.

Sunnegårdh, F.

J. Jason, F. Sunnegårdh, N. Paulsson, J. Söderberg, J. Hellström, and H.-E. Nilsson, “Fiber-optic temperature monitoring in pulp production,” Trans. IWCS 1, 7–16 (2008).

Suzuki, H.

T. Hara, K. Terashima, H. Takashima, H. Suzuki, Y. Nakura, Y. Makino, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakamura, “Development of long range optical fiber sensors for composite submarine power cable maintenance,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 14, 23–30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Syngellakis, S.

J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure sensitivity of side-hole optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 857–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takashima, H.

T. Hara, K. Terashima, H. Takashima, H. Suzuki, Y. Nakura, Y. Makino, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakamura, “Development of long range optical fiber sensors for composite submarine power cable maintenance,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 14, 23–30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

S. Tanaka, K. Yoshida, S. Kinugasa, and Y. Ohtsuka, “Birefringent side-hole fiber for use in strain sensor,” Opt. Rev. 4, A92–A95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tarasenko, O.

Tateda, M.

Taylor, H. F.

C. E. Lee and H. F. Taylor, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot temperature sensor using a low-coherence light source,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 129–134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Terashima, K.

T. Hara, K. Terashima, H. Takashima, H. Suzuki, Y. Nakura, Y. Makino, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakamura, “Development of long range optical fiber sensors for composite submarine power cable maintenance,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 14, 23–30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

M. Wuilpart and M. Tur, “Polarization effects in optical fibres,” in Advanced Fiber Optics, L. Thevenaz, ed. (CRC Press, 2011).

Ukil, A.

A. Ukil, H. Braendle, and P. Krippner, “Distributed temperature sensing: review of technology and applications,” IEEE Sens. J. 12, 885–892 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

Vogel, B. H.

M. Nikles, B. H. Vogel, F. Briffod, S. Grosswig, F. Sauser, S. Luebbecke, A. Bals, and T. Pfeiffer, “Leakage detection using fiber optics distributed temperature monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 5384, 18–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wójcik, J.

J. Wójcik, P. Mergo, and B. Janoszczyk, “Analysis of sensitivity of side-hole optical fibers to pressure and temperature by finite elements method,” Proc. SPIE 3054, 84–93 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wuilpart, M.

M. Wuilpart and M. Tur, “Polarization effects in optical fibres,” in Advanced Fiber Optics, L. Thevenaz, ed. (CRC Press, 2011).

Xie, H. M.

Yamamoto, S.

T. Hara, K. Terashima, H. Takashima, H. Suzuki, Y. Nakura, Y. Makino, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakamura, “Development of long range optical fiber sensors for composite submarine power cable maintenance,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 14, 23–30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

S. Tanaka, K. Yoshida, S. Kinugasa, and Y. Ohtsuka, “Birefringent side-hole fiber for use in strain sensor,” Opt. Rev. 4, A92–A95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Zeringue, C.

C. Zeringue and G. T. Moore, “Model and simulation of a tunable birefringent fiber using capillaries filled with liquid ethanol for magnetic quasi-phase matching in-fiber isolator,” Adv. Optoelectron., 586986 (2010).

Zervas, M. N.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup for measurement of polarization change with temperature for filled side-hole fiber samples (FUT, fiber under test; PC, polarization controller; LP, linear polarizer; ADC, analog to digital converter).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross sections of unfilled fibers used in the study, from left to right fiber A, fiber B, and fiber C.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized detected power through the polarizer during cooling and subsequent heating for air-filled fiber samples (a) A0 and (b) B0.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Normalized detected power for sample A1, filled with water, during cooling and (b) during subsequent heating. (c) Normalized power Pnorm during cooling, zoomed to around the freezing point and (d) the calculated phase-shift rate dϕ/dT versus temperature from the freezing point and below.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulation results for sample A1, filled with water, during cooling and phase transition into ice, showing (a) the degree of birefringence nxny in the core, (b) the detected normalized power Pnorm of the optical signal, and (c) the nonabsolute degree of birefringence nxny across the sample A1 at a temperature of 40°C.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Normalized detected power during cooling and subsequent heating for sample B1 filled with water.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Normalized detected power during cooling and subsequent heating for (a), (b) sample A2 filled with a 0.76 M NaCl solution and (c), (d) sample A3 filled with a 1.7 M NaCl solution.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measurement result for sample C1, filled with 58Bi-42Sn alloy, showing melting process and cooling down process.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Simulation results for sample C1 filled with BiSn during heating up to below the melting point, showing (a) the degree of birefringence nxny in the core and (b) the normalized power Pnorm of the detected optical signal.

Tables (4)

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Table 1. Geometrical Properties of the Unfilled Fibers A, B, and C Used in the Study

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Table 2. Properties of Prepared Fiber Samples for Measurement of Polarization Change with Temperature

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Table 3. Additional Material Properties Used in Simulation

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Table 4. Experimental and Simulated Temperature and Birefringence Data for the Samples

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ=B·L,
LB=2πB.
B=Δβ=|βxβy|,
B=2πλ|nxny|=2πλΔn,
dϕdT=L·dBdT=2πLλ·ddT(Δn).
{nx=n0C1σxC2(σy+σz)ny=n0C1σyC2(σx+σz)nz=n0C1σzC2(σx+σy),
σ=σ0+D[εε0εth],

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