Abstract

We propose a calibration-free algorithm for retrieval of elemental concentrations using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. This is a simple and improved version of other ratio-based algorithms as it needs only one trial parameter to estimate all other concentrations. The present algorithm has been used to estimate the composition of a brass sample, and the results agree within 1% with electron probe microanalyzer measurements.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. K. Knight, N. L. Scherbarth, D. A. Cremers, and M. J. Ferris, “Characterization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to space exploration,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 331–340 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. R. Almirall, S. Umpierrez, W. Castro, I. Gornushkin, and J. Winefordner, “Forensic elemental analysis of materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Proc. SPIE 5778, 657–666 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. R. Doucet, G. Lithgow, R. Kosierb, P. Bouchard, and M. Sabsabi, “Determination of isotope ratios using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in ambient air at atmospheric pressure for nuclear forensics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 26, 536–541 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. S. Sathyam, A. Shearin, and S. A. Prahl, “Investigations of basic ablation phenomena during laser thrombolysis,” Proc. SPIE 2970, 19–27 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. A. Bol’shakov, J. H. Yoo, C. Liu, J. R. Plumer, and R. E. Russo, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in industrial and security applications,” Appl. Opt. 49, C132–C142 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 1287–1302 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, and V. Palleschi, “Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: state of the art,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 1–14 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Sallé, D. A. Cremers, S. Maurice, and R. C. Wiens, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for space exploration applications: influence of the ambient pressure on the calibration curves prepared from soil and clay samples,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 479–490 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Ciucci, M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, S. Rastelli, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “New procedure for quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 53, 960–964 (1999).
  10. J. M. Gomba, C. D’Angelo, D. Bertuccelli, and G. Bertuccelli, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser induced breakdown in aluminium-lithium alloy samples for quantitative determination of traces,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 695–705 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Sabsabi and P. Cielo, “Quantitative analysis of aluminum alloys by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and plasma characterization,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 499–507 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. J. Sansonetti, M. L. Salit, and J. Reader, “Wavelengths of spectral lines in mercury pencil lamps,” Appl. Opt. 35, 74–77 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. “Kurucz database,” http://www.pmp.uni-hannover.de.
  14. S. M. Abrarov, B. M. Quine, and R. K. Jagpal, “Rapidly convergent series for high-accuracy calculation of the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 372–375 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. W. P. McWhirter, “Spectral intensities,” in Plasma Diagnostic Techniques, R. H. Huddlestone and S. L. Leonard, eds. (Academic, 1965), pp. 201–264.
  16. G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. DellÁglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local thermodynamic equilibrium in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: beyond the McWhirter criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 86–95 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

F. R. Doucet, G. Lithgow, R. Kosierb, P. Bouchard, and M. Sabsabi, “Determination of isotope ratios using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in ambient air at atmospheric pressure for nuclear forensics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 26, 536–541 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

A. A. Bol’shakov, J. H. Yoo, C. Liu, J. R. Plumer, and R. E. Russo, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in industrial and security applications,” Appl. Opt. 49, C132–C142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, and V. Palleschi, “Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: state of the art,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 1–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Abrarov, B. M. Quine, and R. K. Jagpal, “Rapidly convergent series for high-accuracy calculation of the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 372–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. DellÁglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local thermodynamic equilibrium in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: beyond the McWhirter criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 1287–1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

B. Sallé, D. A. Cremers, S. Maurice, and R. C. Wiens, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for space exploration applications: influence of the ambient pressure on the calibration curves prepared from soil and clay samples,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 479–490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Almirall, S. Umpierrez, W. Castro, I. Gornushkin, and J. Winefordner, “Forensic elemental analysis of materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Proc. SPIE 5778, 657–666 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. M. Gomba, C. D’Angelo, D. Bertuccelli, and G. Bertuccelli, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser induced breakdown in aluminium-lithium alloy samples for quantitative determination of traces,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 695–705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

A. Ciucci, M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, S. Rastelli, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “New procedure for quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 53, 960–964 (1999).

1997 (1)

U. S. Sathyam, A. Shearin, and S. A. Prahl, “Investigations of basic ablation phenomena during laser thrombolysis,” Proc. SPIE 2970, 19–27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

Abrarov, S. M.

S. M. Abrarov, B. M. Quine, and R. K. Jagpal, “Rapidly convergent series for high-accuracy calculation of the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 372–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Almirall, J. R.

J. R. Almirall, S. Umpierrez, W. Castro, I. Gornushkin, and J. Winefordner, “Forensic elemental analysis of materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Proc. SPIE 5778, 657–666 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bertuccelli, D.

J. M. Gomba, C. D’Angelo, D. Bertuccelli, and G. Bertuccelli, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser induced breakdown in aluminium-lithium alloy samples for quantitative determination of traces,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 695–705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bertuccelli, G.

J. M. Gomba, C. D’Angelo, D. Bertuccelli, and G. Bertuccelli, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser induced breakdown in aluminium-lithium alloy samples for quantitative determination of traces,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 695–705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bol’shakov, A. A.

Bouchard, P.

F. R. Doucet, G. Lithgow, R. Kosierb, P. Bouchard, and M. Sabsabi, “Determination of isotope ratios using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in ambient air at atmospheric pressure for nuclear forensics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 26, 536–541 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Castro, W.

J. R. Almirall, S. Umpierrez, W. Castro, I. Gornushkin, and J. Winefordner, “Forensic elemental analysis of materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Proc. SPIE 5778, 657–666 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cielo, P.

Ciucci, A.

A. Ciucci, M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, S. Rastelli, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “New procedure for quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 53, 960–964 (1999).

Corsi, M.

A. Ciucci, M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, S. Rastelli, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “New procedure for quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 53, 960–964 (1999).

Cremers, D. A.

B. Sallé, D. A. Cremers, S. Maurice, and R. C. Wiens, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for space exploration applications: influence of the ambient pressure on the calibration curves prepared from soil and clay samples,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 479–490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Knight, N. L. Scherbarth, D. A. Cremers, and M. J. Ferris, “Characterization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to space exploration,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 331–340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cristoforetti, G.

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, and V. Palleschi, “Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: state of the art,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 1–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. DellÁglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local thermodynamic equilibrium in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: beyond the McWhirter criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 1287–1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D’Angelo, C.

J. M. Gomba, C. D’Angelo, D. Bertuccelli, and G. Bertuccelli, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser induced breakdown in aluminium-lithium alloy samples for quantitative determination of traces,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 695–705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Giacomo, A.

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. DellÁglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local thermodynamic equilibrium in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: beyond the McWhirter criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

DellÁglio, M.

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. DellÁglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local thermodynamic equilibrium in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: beyond the McWhirter criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Doucet, F. R.

F. R. Doucet, G. Lithgow, R. Kosierb, P. Bouchard, and M. Sabsabi, “Determination of isotope ratios using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in ambient air at atmospheric pressure for nuclear forensics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 26, 536–541 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferris, M. J.

Gomba, J. M.

J. M. Gomba, C. D’Angelo, D. Bertuccelli, and G. Bertuccelli, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser induced breakdown in aluminium-lithium alloy samples for quantitative determination of traces,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 695–705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gornushkin, I.

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 1287–1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Almirall, S. Umpierrez, W. Castro, I. Gornushkin, and J. Winefordner, “Forensic elemental analysis of materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Proc. SPIE 5778, 657–666 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jagpal, R. K.

S. M. Abrarov, B. M. Quine, and R. K. Jagpal, “Rapidly convergent series for high-accuracy calculation of the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 372–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knight, A. K.

Kosierb, R.

F. R. Doucet, G. Lithgow, R. Kosierb, P. Bouchard, and M. Sabsabi, “Determination of isotope ratios using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in ambient air at atmospheric pressure for nuclear forensics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 26, 536–541 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Legnaioli, S.

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, and V. Palleschi, “Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: state of the art,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 1–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. DellÁglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local thermodynamic equilibrium in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: beyond the McWhirter criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 1287–1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lithgow, G.

F. R. Doucet, G. Lithgow, R. Kosierb, P. Bouchard, and M. Sabsabi, “Determination of isotope ratios using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in ambient air at atmospheric pressure for nuclear forensics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 26, 536–541 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

Maurice, S.

B. Sallé, D. A. Cremers, S. Maurice, and R. C. Wiens, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for space exploration applications: influence of the ambient pressure on the calibration curves prepared from soil and clay samples,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 479–490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McWhirter, R. W. P.

R. W. P. McWhirter, “Spectral intensities,” in Plasma Diagnostic Techniques, R. H. Huddlestone and S. L. Leonard, eds. (Academic, 1965), pp. 201–264.

Mueller, M.

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 1287–1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Omenetto, N.

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. DellÁglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local thermodynamic equilibrium in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: beyond the McWhirter criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palleschi, V.

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. DellÁglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local thermodynamic equilibrium in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: beyond the McWhirter criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, and V. Palleschi, “Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: state of the art,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 1–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 1287–1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ciucci, M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, S. Rastelli, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “New procedure for quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 53, 960–964 (1999).

Panne, U.

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 1287–1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Plumer, J. R.

Prahl, S. A.

U. S. Sathyam, A. Shearin, and S. A. Prahl, “Investigations of basic ablation phenomena during laser thrombolysis,” Proc. SPIE 2970, 19–27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quine, B. M.

S. M. Abrarov, B. M. Quine, and R. K. Jagpal, “Rapidly convergent series for high-accuracy calculation of the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 372–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rastelli, S.

A. Ciucci, M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, S. Rastelli, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “New procedure for quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 53, 960–964 (1999).

Reader, J.

Russo, R. E.

Sabsabi, M.

F. R. Doucet, G. Lithgow, R. Kosierb, P. Bouchard, and M. Sabsabi, “Determination of isotope ratios using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in ambient air at atmospheric pressure for nuclear forensics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 26, 536–541 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Sabsabi and P. Cielo, “Quantitative analysis of aluminum alloys by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and plasma characterization,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 499–507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salit, M. L.

Sallé, B.

B. Sallé, D. A. Cremers, S. Maurice, and R. C. Wiens, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for space exploration applications: influence of the ambient pressure on the calibration curves prepared from soil and clay samples,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 479–490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salvetti, A.

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 1287–1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ciucci, M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, S. Rastelli, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “New procedure for quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 53, 960–964 (1999).

Sansonetti, C. J.

Sathyam, U. S.

U. S. Sathyam, A. Shearin, and S. A. Prahl, “Investigations of basic ablation phenomena during laser thrombolysis,” Proc. SPIE 2970, 19–27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scherbarth, N. L.

Shearin, A.

U. S. Sathyam, A. Shearin, and S. A. Prahl, “Investigations of basic ablation phenomena during laser thrombolysis,” Proc. SPIE 2970, 19–27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tognoni, E.

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, and V. Palleschi, “Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: state of the art,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 1–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. DellÁglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local thermodynamic equilibrium in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: beyond the McWhirter criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 1287–1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ciucci, M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, S. Rastelli, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “New procedure for quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 53, 960–964 (1999).

Umpierrez, S.

J. R. Almirall, S. Umpierrez, W. Castro, I. Gornushkin, and J. Winefordner, “Forensic elemental analysis of materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Proc. SPIE 5778, 657–666 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wiens, R. C.

B. Sallé, D. A. Cremers, S. Maurice, and R. C. Wiens, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for space exploration applications: influence of the ambient pressure on the calibration curves prepared from soil and clay samples,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 479–490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J.

J. R. Almirall, S. Umpierrez, W. Castro, I. Gornushkin, and J. Winefordner, “Forensic elemental analysis of materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Proc. SPIE 5778, 657–666 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, J. H.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (1)

F. R. Doucet, G. Lithgow, R. Kosierb, P. Bouchard, and M. Sabsabi, “Determination of isotope ratios using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in ambient air at atmospheric pressure for nuclear forensics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 26, 536–541 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

S. M. Abrarov, B. M. Quine, and R. K. Jagpal, “Rapidly convergent series for high-accuracy calculation of the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 372–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

U. S. Sathyam, A. Shearin, and S. A. Prahl, “Investigations of basic ablation phenomena during laser thrombolysis,” Proc. SPIE 2970, 19–27 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Almirall, S. Umpierrez, W. Castro, I. Gornushkin, and J. Winefordner, “Forensic elemental analysis of materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” Proc. SPIE 5778, 657–666 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta B (5)

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, M. Mueller, U. Panne, and I. Gornushkin, “A numerical study of expected accuracy and precision in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the assumption of ideal analytical plasma,” Spectrochim. Acta B 62, 1287–1302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Tognoni, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, and V. Palleschi, “Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: state of the art,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 1–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Sallé, D. A. Cremers, S. Maurice, and R. C. Wiens, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for space exploration applications: influence of the ambient pressure on the calibration curves prepared from soil and clay samples,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 479–490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. DellÁglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local thermodynamic equilibrium in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: beyond the McWhirter criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta B 65, 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gomba, C. D’Angelo, D. Bertuccelli, and G. Bertuccelli, “Spectroscopic characterization of laser induced breakdown in aluminium-lithium alloy samples for quantitative determination of traces,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 695–705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

“Kurucz database,” http://www.pmp.uni-hannover.de.

R. W. P. McWhirter, “Spectral intensities,” in Plasma Diagnostic Techniques, R. H. Huddlestone and S. L. Leonard, eds. (Academic, 1965), pp. 201–264.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experiment. The brass sample, mounted on a two-stage translator (not shown in the figure) was housed in a vacuum chamber, and laser sparks were produced by focusing laser on the sample.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Flowchart of the algorithm of the present work.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Part of the LIBS spectrum recorded for brass target.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Voigt profile fits to some neutral and ionic lines of Cu and Zn observed in the LIBS spectrum. Lorentzian and Doppler widths obtained in each case are shown alongside the profiles.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Boltzmann plot obtained using integrated line intensities of Cu I lines in the LIBS spectrum.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Spectral Parameters of the Set of Identified Lines in the LIBS Spectrum

Tables Icon

Table 2. Copper and Zinc Concentrations Measured Using Present Algorithm for LIBSa

Equations (4)

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y(Δλ)=i=04ai(xo)i×Npix+bi(x0)i,
y(log[m])=aλ2+bλ+c,
Nn=(I˜λλ2gkfik)exp(EkkBT)Un(T)F,
Nm,IINm,INe=ge(2πmekBT)3/2h3Um,IIUm,Iexp(χkBT),

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