Abstract

The spectral irradiance calibration of tungsten strip and spiral filament lamps applying synchrotron radiation revealed that the spectral irradiance in the wavelength range from 280 to 400 nm can be well approximated by blackbody radiation according to Planck’s law. Consequently, the spectral irradiance of the filament lamp can then be described by an effective irradiance temperature, which would be beneficial for practical measurements. Including the emissivity of tungsten into the approximation, the model can be expanded to visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. The effective irradiance temperature dependence of the lamp current was investigated and appeared to be close to linear.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, and B. Wende, “A beam line for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range 40–400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Hollandt, U. Becker, W. Paustian, M. Richter, and G. Ulm, “New developments in the radiance calibration of deuterium lamps in the UV and VUV spectral range at the PTB,” Metrologia 37, 563–566 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at BESSY II,” Metrologia 40, S107–S110 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Sperfeld, K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, and J. Metzdorf, “Characterization and use of deuterium lamps as transfer standards of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 40, S111–S114, (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Möller, P. Sperfeld, B. Nawo, K. Hube, and J. Metzdorf, “Realization of the spectral irradiance scale in the air–ultraviolet using thermal radiators,” Metrologia 35, 261–265 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, T. Kübarsepp, P. Kärhä, E. Ikonen, and L. Liedquist, “Detector-stabilized FEL lamps as transfer standards in an international comparison of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 37, 441–444 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Ojanen, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, “Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340–850 nm wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 49, 880–886 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. N. Latyev, V. Y. Chekhovskoi, and E. N. Shestakov, “Tungsten as standard material for monochromatic emissivity,” High Temp. High Press. 4, 679–686 (1972).
  9. J. C. de Vos, “A new determination of the emissivity of tungsten ribbon,” Physica 20, 690–714 (1954).
    [CrossRef]

2010

2003

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at BESSY II,” Metrologia 40, S107–S110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Sperfeld, K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, and J. Metzdorf, “Characterization and use of deuterium lamps as transfer standards of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 40, S111–S114, (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Hollandt, U. Becker, W. Paustian, M. Richter, and G. Ulm, “New developments in the radiance calibration of deuterium lamps in the UV and VUV spectral range at the PTB,” Metrologia 37, 563–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, T. Kübarsepp, P. Kärhä, E. Ikonen, and L. Liedquist, “Detector-stabilized FEL lamps as transfer standards in an international comparison of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 37, 441–444 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

W. Möller, P. Sperfeld, B. Nawo, K. Hube, and J. Metzdorf, “Realization of the spectral irradiance scale in the air–ultraviolet using thermal radiators,” Metrologia 35, 261–265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, and B. Wende, “A beam line for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range 40–400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1972

L. N. Latyev, V. Y. Chekhovskoi, and E. N. Shestakov, “Tungsten as standard material for monochromatic emissivity,” High Temp. High Press. 4, 679–686 (1972).

1954

J. C. de Vos, “A new determination of the emissivity of tungsten ribbon,” Physica 20, 690–714 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Becker, U.

J. Hollandt, U. Becker, W. Paustian, M. Richter, and G. Ulm, “New developments in the radiance calibration of deuterium lamps in the UV and VUV spectral range at the PTB,” Metrologia 37, 563–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chekhovskoi, V. Y.

L. N. Latyev, V. Y. Chekhovskoi, and E. N. Shestakov, “Tungsten as standard material for monochromatic emissivity,” High Temp. High Press. 4, 679–686 (1972).

de Vos, J. C.

J. C. de Vos, “A new determination of the emissivity of tungsten ribbon,” Physica 20, 690–714 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Hollandt, J.

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at BESSY II,” Metrologia 40, S107–S110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Hollandt, U. Becker, W. Paustian, M. Richter, and G. Ulm, “New developments in the radiance calibration of deuterium lamps in the UV and VUV spectral range at the PTB,” Metrologia 37, 563–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, and B. Wende, “A beam line for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range 40–400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hube, K.

W. Möller, P. Sperfeld, B. Nawo, K. Hube, and J. Metzdorf, “Realization of the spectral irradiance scale in the air–ultraviolet using thermal radiators,” Metrologia 35, 261–265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ikonen, E.

M. Ojanen, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, “Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340–850 nm wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 49, 880–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, T. Kübarsepp, P. Kärhä, E. Ikonen, and L. Liedquist, “Detector-stabilized FEL lamps as transfer standards in an international comparison of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 37, 441–444 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jans, W.

J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, and B. Wende, “A beam line for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range 40–400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kärhä, P.

M. Ojanen, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, “Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340–850 nm wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 49, 880–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, T. Kübarsepp, P. Kärhä, E. Ikonen, and L. Liedquist, “Detector-stabilized FEL lamps as transfer standards in an international comparison of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 37, 441–444 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kroth, U.

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at BESSY II,” Metrologia 40, S107–S110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kübarsepp, T.

K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, T. Kübarsepp, P. Kärhä, E. Ikonen, and L. Liedquist, “Detector-stabilized FEL lamps as transfer standards in an international comparison of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 37, 441–444 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kühne, M.

J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, and B. Wende, “A beam line for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range 40–400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Latyev, L. N.

L. N. Latyev, V. Y. Chekhovskoi, and E. N. Shestakov, “Tungsten as standard material for monochromatic emissivity,” High Temp. High Press. 4, 679–686 (1972).

Liedquist, L.

K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, T. Kübarsepp, P. Kärhä, E. Ikonen, and L. Liedquist, “Detector-stabilized FEL lamps as transfer standards in an international comparison of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 37, 441–444 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lindenlauf, F.

J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, and B. Wende, “A beam line for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range 40–400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Metzdorf, J.

P. Sperfeld, K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, and J. Metzdorf, “Characterization and use of deuterium lamps as transfer standards of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 40, S111–S114, (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, T. Kübarsepp, P. Kärhä, E. Ikonen, and L. Liedquist, “Detector-stabilized FEL lamps as transfer standards in an international comparison of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 37, 441–444 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Möller, P. Sperfeld, B. Nawo, K. Hube, and J. Metzdorf, “Realization of the spectral irradiance scale in the air–ultraviolet using thermal radiators,” Metrologia 35, 261–265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Möller, W.

W. Möller, P. Sperfeld, B. Nawo, K. Hube, and J. Metzdorf, “Realization of the spectral irradiance scale in the air–ultraviolet using thermal radiators,” Metrologia 35, 261–265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nawo, B.

P. Sperfeld, K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, and J. Metzdorf, “Characterization and use of deuterium lamps as transfer standards of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 40, S111–S114, (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Möller, P. Sperfeld, B. Nawo, K. Hube, and J. Metzdorf, “Realization of the spectral irradiance scale in the air–ultraviolet using thermal radiators,” Metrologia 35, 261–265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ojanen, M.

Paustian, W.

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at BESSY II,” Metrologia 40, S107–S110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Hollandt, U. Becker, W. Paustian, M. Richter, and G. Ulm, “New developments in the radiance calibration of deuterium lamps in the UV and VUV spectral range at the PTB,” Metrologia 37, 563–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Raatz, K.-H.

P. Sperfeld, K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, and J. Metzdorf, “Characterization and use of deuterium lamps as transfer standards of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 40, S111–S114, (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, T. Kübarsepp, P. Kärhä, E. Ikonen, and L. Liedquist, “Detector-stabilized FEL lamps as transfer standards in an international comparison of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 37, 441–444 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rabus, H.

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at BESSY II,” Metrologia 40, S107–S110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richter, M.

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at BESSY II,” Metrologia 40, S107–S110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Hollandt, U. Becker, W. Paustian, M. Richter, and G. Ulm, “New developments in the radiance calibration of deuterium lamps in the UV and VUV spectral range at the PTB,” Metrologia 37, 563–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shestakov, E. N.

L. N. Latyev, V. Y. Chekhovskoi, and E. N. Shestakov, “Tungsten as standard material for monochromatic emissivity,” High Temp. High Press. 4, 679–686 (1972).

Sperfeld, P.

P. Sperfeld, K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, and J. Metzdorf, “Characterization and use of deuterium lamps as transfer standards of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 40, S111–S114, (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, T. Kübarsepp, P. Kärhä, E. Ikonen, and L. Liedquist, “Detector-stabilized FEL lamps as transfer standards in an international comparison of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 37, 441–444 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Möller, P. Sperfeld, B. Nawo, K. Hube, and J. Metzdorf, “Realization of the spectral irradiance scale in the air–ultraviolet using thermal radiators,” Metrologia 35, 261–265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stock, K. D.

P. Sperfeld, K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, and J. Metzdorf, “Characterization and use of deuterium lamps as transfer standards of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 40, S111–S114, (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, T. Kübarsepp, P. Kärhä, E. Ikonen, and L. Liedquist, “Detector-stabilized FEL lamps as transfer standards in an international comparison of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 37, 441–444 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thornagel, R.

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at BESSY II,” Metrologia 40, S107–S110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ulm, G.

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at BESSY II,” Metrologia 40, S107–S110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Hollandt, U. Becker, W. Paustian, M. Richter, and G. Ulm, “New developments in the radiance calibration of deuterium lamps in the UV and VUV spectral range at the PTB,” Metrologia 37, 563–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wende, B.

J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, and B. Wende, “A beam line for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range 40–400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

High Temp. High Press.

L. N. Latyev, V. Y. Chekhovskoi, and E. N. Shestakov, “Tungsten as standard material for monochromatic emissivity,” High Temp. High Press. 4, 679–686 (1972).

Metrologia

J. Hollandt, U. Becker, W. Paustian, M. Richter, and G. Ulm, “New developments in the radiance calibration of deuterium lamps in the UV and VUV spectral range at the PTB,” Metrologia 37, 563–566 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, “Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at BESSY II,” Metrologia 40, S107–S110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Sperfeld, K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, and J. Metzdorf, “Characterization and use of deuterium lamps as transfer standards of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 40, S111–S114, (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Möller, P. Sperfeld, B. Nawo, K. Hube, and J. Metzdorf, “Realization of the spectral irradiance scale in the air–ultraviolet using thermal radiators,” Metrologia 35, 261–265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, T. Kübarsepp, P. Kärhä, E. Ikonen, and L. Liedquist, “Detector-stabilized FEL lamps as transfer standards in an international comparison of spectral irradiance,” Metrologia 37, 441–444 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Physica

J. C. de Vos, “A new determination of the emissivity of tungsten ribbon,” Physica 20, 690–714 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, and B. Wende, “A beam line for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range 40–400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectral irradiance of tungsten lamps can be well described by Planck’s law: (a) tungsten strip lamp and (b) tungsten spiral filament lamp (solid line: approximation, points: experimental data).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Approximation result for the relative irradiance in the wavelength range from 280 to 800 nm applying the model with the tungsten emissivity included according to Eq. (17). The small inset shows the deviation from the results applying the model not including the tungsten emissivity according to Eq. (3).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Signal dependence for different wavelength: blue line (diamonds)—300 nm (left axis); red line (triangles)—247 nm (right axis).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic diagram for measuring the dependence of the effective irradiance temperature on the current.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Results of the determination of the effective irradiance temperature by relative irradiance provided that the temperature for a single value of current is known. The temperature was calculated for two wavelengths: 300 nm (blue triangles) and 247 nm (red circles).

Equations (24)

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Eij=E0(λ0λi)5exp[c2TS(1λi1λ0)]+υij,
ERi(T)=E0(λ0λi)5exp[c2T(1λi1λ0)],
Φ(T)=i=1,j=1N,Mi[EijERi(T)]2TS=argminTΦ(T).
i=1,j=1N,Mi[EijERi(TS)]ERi(TS)(1λ01λi)=0.
δTS=|TS(EiE0)|S(EiE0)TS=|E0Eiln[EiE0(λiλ0)5]|S(EiE0)|TSλ0λic2(λ0λi)|δ(EiE0),
EΣ(λ,T1,,TN)=h=1Hε(λ,Th)HEp(λ,Th)=ε(λ,TS)c1λ5exp(c2λTS),
h=1H1Hexp(c2(TSTh)λTSTh)=1.
h=1H1H{1c2(TSTh)λTSTh+12(c2(TSTh)λTSTh)2}=1h=1HTSTh=H+λTS2c2h=1H(c2(TSTh)λTSTh)2TS=HhH1Th+λTS2c2hH(c2(TSTh)λTSTh)hH1Th=TS(1)+TS(2)(λ,TS).
HλTS2c2h=1H(c2(TSTh)λTSTh)2.
HHc2α22λminTmin(1α)2>λTS2c2h=1H(c2(TSTh)λTSTh)2.
α1α2λminTminc2.
α2λminTminc21+2λminTminc2.
TS=HhH1Th.
TS=LL/2L/21T(x)dx,
T(x)={Ta+xa(TCTa),0xaTc,a<x(a+c)Tc+xacb(TbTC),a+c<xa+c+b.
TS=L0L1T(x)dx=L0L[1T(x)1TC]dx+LTCTC1+1TCL0L[TCT(x)]dx=TC1+aΔa2LTC+bΔb2LTCTC[1aΔa+bΔb2LTC],
Eij=E0εiε0(λ0λi)5exp[c2TS(1λi1λ0)]+υij,
Epi(T)=c1λi5exp(c2λiT)Ep0(T)=c1λ05exp(c2λ0T),
i=1,j=1N,Mi[Eijεiε0EpiEp0]{(EpiTεi+εiTEpi)ε0Ep0(Ep0Tε0+ε0TEp0)εiEpi(ε0E0)2}=0.
i=1,j=1N,Mi[Eijεiε0EpiEp0]{εiε0EpiTEp0εiε0Ep0TEpi(ε0Ep0)2}=0.
δTS=(TS(EiE0))2S2(EiE0)TS2+(TS(εiε0))2S2(εiε0)TS2|TSλ0λic2(λ0λi)|δ2(EiE0)+δ2(εiε0).
yiy0=exp[c2λ(1T01Ti)],i=1,N¯,
Ti=[1T0λc2lnyiy0]1.
T=T0+a1(II0)++an(II0)n.

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