Abstract

On moonless nights, airglow is the primary source of natural ground illumination in the near infrared and shortwave infrared spectral bands. Therefore, night vision imagers operating in these spectral bands view targets that are diffusely illuminated. Aerosol scattering of diffuse airglow illumination causes atmospheric path radiance and that radiance causes increased imager noise. These phenomena and their quantification are described in this paper.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. H. Vollmerhausen and T. Maurer, “Night illumination in the visible, NIR and SWIR spectral bands,” Proc. SPIE 5076, 60–69 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. M. Biberman, “Natural sources of low-light-level illumination,” in Electro-Optical Imaging: System Performance and Modeling, L. M. Biberman, ed. (SPIE, 2000), Chap. 3.
  4. W. L. Wolfe and G. J. Zissis, eds., “Natural sources,” in The Infrared Handbook (The Infrared Information Analysis Center, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1993).
  5. R. Vollmerhausen, R. G. Driggers, and V. A. Hodgkin, “Night illumination in the near and short wave infrared spectral bands and the potential for silicon and indium–gallium–arsenide imagers to perform night targeting,” Opt. Eng. 52, 043202 (2013).
  6. J. W. Merriweather, “A review of the photochemistry of selected nightglow emissions from the mesopause,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 14629–14646 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. C. McDade, “The photochemistry of the MLT oxygen airglow emissions and the expected influences of tidal perturbations,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 787–794 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. J. Mulligan, M. E. Dyrland, F. Sigernes, and C. S. Doehr, “Inferring hydroxal layer peak heights from ground-based measurements of OH(6-2) band integrated emission rate at Longyearbyen (78° N, 16° E),” Ann. Geophys. 27, 4197–4205 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Nikoukar, G. R. Swenson, A. Z. Liu, and F. Kamalabadi, “On the variability of mesospheric OH emission profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Baker, B. K. Thurgood, W. K. Harrison, and M. G. Mlynczak, “Equatorial enhancement of the nighttime OH mesospheric infrared airglow,” Phys. Scr. 75, 615–619 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Waldman and J. Wooton, Electro-Optical System Performance Modeling (Artech House, 1993), p. 90.
  12. R. G. Driggers, P. Cox, and T. Edwards, Introduction to Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems (Artech House, 1999), p. 114.
  13. R. H. Vollmerhausen, D. A. Reago, and R. G. Driggers, Analysis and Evaluation of Sampled Imaging Systems (SPIE, 2010), Chap. 10.
  14. L. M. Biberman, J. Kristl, and J. Schoeder, “Atmospheric transmission,” in Electro-Optical Imaging: System Performance and Modeling, L. M. Biberman, ed. (SPIE, 2000), Chap. 10.
  15. S. G. O’Brien and R. C. Shirkey, “Determination of atmospheric path radiance: sky-to-ground ratio for wargamers,” (Army Research Lab., White Sands Missile Range, NM, 2004).
  16. W. L. Wolfe and G. J. Zissis, eds., “Atmospheric scattering,” in The Infrared Handbook (The Infrared Information Analysis Center, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1993), Chap. 4.
  17. L. W. Abreu and G. P. Anderson, The MODTRAN 2/3 and LOWTRAN 7 Model (ONTAR Corp., 1995).
  18. F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, and R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code LOWTRAN 6,” , Enviromental Research Paper No. 846 (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA, 1983).
  19. E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” , Environmental Research Paper No. 876 (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA, 1979), Chap. 3.
  20. D. K. Killinger, J. H. Churnside, and L. S. Rothman, “Atmospheric optics,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. L. C. MacDonald, V. Mahajan, and E. V. Stryland, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 2010), Vol. 5, Chap. 3.
  21. R. G. Driggers, V. A. Hodgkin, and R. Vollmerhausen, “What good is SWIR? Part I: passive day comparison of SWIR, NIR, and Vis,” Proc. SPIE 8706, 87060L (2013).
  22. X. Liu, B. A. Fowler, S. K. Onishi, P. Vu, D. D. Wen, H. Do, and S. Horn, “CCD/CMOS hybrid FPA for low light level imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5881, 58810C (2005).
  23. B. M. Onat, W. Huang, N. Masaun, M. Lange, M. H. Ettenberg, and C. Driesa, “Ultra low dark current InGaAs technology for focal lane arrays for low-light level visible-shortwave infrared imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420L (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. MacDougal, J. Geske, C. Wang, and D. Follman, “Short-wavelength infrared imaging using low dark current InGaAs detector arrays and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 50, 061011 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. A. Blessinger, M. Enriqueza, J. V. Groppea, K. Flynna, and T. M. Sudola, “Performance of focal plane arrays for the photon counting arrays (PCAR) program,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420K (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).
  27. G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).
  28. A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. G. Isaacs, W. C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, and S. Goldenberg, “Multiple scattering LOWTRAN and FASCODE models,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1272–1281 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. E. Hansen, “Exact and approximate solutions for multiple scattering by cloudy and hazy planetary atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 478–487 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  32. P. A. Jansson, Deconvolution of Images and Spectra (Academic, 1997), Chap. 4, p. 107.
  33. R. Vollmerhausen, “Design of finite impulse response deconvolution filters,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5814–5827 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN 4 Users Manual (Air Force Research Lab., Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Materials Command, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1999).
  35. D. Kryskowski and G. Suits, “Natural sources,” in The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook, J. S. Accetta and D. Shumaker, eds. (SPIE, 1993), Chap. 3.

2013

R. Vollmerhausen, R. G. Driggers, and V. A. Hodgkin, “Night illumination in the near and short wave infrared spectral bands and the potential for silicon and indium–gallium–arsenide imagers to perform night targeting,” Opt. Eng. 52, 043202 (2013).

R. G. Driggers, V. A. Hodgkin, and R. Vollmerhausen, “What good is SWIR? Part I: passive day comparison of SWIR, NIR, and Vis,” Proc. SPIE 8706, 87060L (2013).

2011

M. MacDougal, J. Geske, C. Wang, and D. Follman, “Short-wavelength infrared imaging using low dark current InGaAs detector arrays and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 50, 061011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

F. J. Mulligan, M. E. Dyrland, F. Sigernes, and C. S. Doehr, “Inferring hydroxal layer peak heights from ground-based measurements of OH(6-2) band integrated emission rate at Longyearbyen (78° N, 16° E),” Ann. Geophys. 27, 4197–4205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Nikoukar, G. R. Swenson, A. Z. Liu, and F. Kamalabadi, “On the variability of mesospheric OH emission profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Baker, B. K. Thurgood, W. K. Harrison, and M. G. Mlynczak, “Equatorial enhancement of the nighttime OH mesospheric infrared airglow,” Phys. Scr. 75, 615–619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Blessinger, M. Enriqueza, J. V. Groppea, K. Flynna, and T. M. Sudola, “Performance of focal plane arrays for the photon counting arrays (PCAR) program,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420K (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Onat, W. Huang, N. Masaun, M. Lange, M. H. Ettenberg, and C. Driesa, “Ultra low dark current InGaAs technology for focal lane arrays for low-light level visible-shortwave infrared imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420L (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, B. A. Fowler, S. K. Onishi, P. Vu, D. D. Wen, H. Do, and S. Horn, “CCD/CMOS hybrid FPA for low light level imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5881, 58810C (2005).

2003

R. H. Vollmerhausen and T. Maurer, “Night illumination in the visible, NIR and SWIR spectral bands,” Proc. SPIE 5076, 60–69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

1999

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

1998

I. C. McDade, “The photochemistry of the MLT oxygen airglow emissions and the expected influences of tidal perturbations,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 787–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. W. Merriweather, “A review of the photochemistry of selected nightglow emissions from the mesopause,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 14629–14646 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

1969

J. E. Hansen, “Exact and approximate solutions for multiple scattering by cloudy and hazy planetary atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 478–487 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, and R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code LOWTRAN 6,” , Enviromental Research Paper No. 846 (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA, 1983).

L. W. Abreu and G. P. Anderson, The MODTRAN 2/3 and LOWTRAN 7 Model (ONTAR Corp., 1995).

Acharya, P K.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Acharya, P. K.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN 4 Users Manual (Air Force Research Lab., Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Materials Command, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1999).

Adler-Golden, S. M.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN 4 Users Manual (Air Force Research Lab., Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Materials Command, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1999).

Anderson, G. P.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

L. W. Abreu and G. P. Anderson, The MODTRAN 2/3 and LOWTRAN 7 Model (ONTAR Corp., 1995).

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN 4 Users Manual (Air Force Research Lab., Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Materials Command, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1999).

Baker, D. J.

D. J. Baker, B. K. Thurgood, W. K. Harrison, and M. G. Mlynczak, “Equatorial enhancement of the nighttime OH mesospheric infrared airglow,” Phys. Scr. 75, 615–619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berk, A.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN 4 Users Manual (Air Force Research Lab., Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Materials Command, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1999).

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN 4 Users Manual (Air Force Research Lab., Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Materials Command, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1999).

Biberman, L. M.

L. M. Biberman, “Natural sources of low-light-level illumination,” in Electro-Optical Imaging: System Performance and Modeling, L. M. Biberman, ed. (SPIE, 2000), Chap. 3.

L. M. Biberman, J. Kristl, and J. Schoeder, “Atmospheric transmission,” in Electro-Optical Imaging: System Performance and Modeling, L. M. Biberman, ed. (SPIE, 2000), Chap. 10.

Blessinger, M. A.

M. A. Blessinger, M. Enriqueza, J. V. Groppea, K. Flynna, and T. M. Sudola, “Performance of focal plane arrays for the photon counting arrays (PCAR) program,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Borel, C. C.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowyer, S.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, and R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code LOWTRAN 6,” , Enviromental Research Paper No. 846 (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA, 1983).

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN 4 Users Manual (Air Force Research Lab., Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Materials Command, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1999).

Churnside, J. H.

D. K. Killinger, J. H. Churnside, and L. S. Rothman, “Atmospheric optics,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. L. C. MacDonald, V. Mahajan, and E. V. Stryland, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 2010), Vol. 5, Chap. 3.

Clough, S. A.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, and R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code LOWTRAN 6,” , Enviromental Research Paper No. 846 (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA, 1983).

Cooley, T. W.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cox, P.

R. G. Driggers, P. Cox, and T. Edwards, Introduction to Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems (Artech House, 1999), p. 114.

Do, H.

X. Liu, B. A. Fowler, S. K. Onishi, P. Vu, D. D. Wen, H. Do, and S. Horn, “CCD/CMOS hybrid FPA for low light level imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5881, 58810C (2005).

Doehr, C. S.

F. J. Mulligan, M. E. Dyrland, F. Sigernes, and C. S. Doehr, “Inferring hydroxal layer peak heights from ground-based measurements of OH(6-2) band integrated emission rate at Longyearbyen (78° N, 16° E),” Ann. Geophys. 27, 4197–4205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dothe, H.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

Driesa, C.

B. M. Onat, W. Huang, N. Masaun, M. Lange, M. H. Ettenberg, and C. Driesa, “Ultra low dark current InGaAs technology for focal lane arrays for low-light level visible-shortwave infrared imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Driggers, R. G.

R. G. Driggers, V. A. Hodgkin, and R. Vollmerhausen, “What good is SWIR? Part I: passive day comparison of SWIR, NIR, and Vis,” Proc. SPIE 8706, 87060L (2013).

R. Vollmerhausen, R. G. Driggers, and V. A. Hodgkin, “Night illumination in the near and short wave infrared spectral bands and the potential for silicon and indium–gallium–arsenide imagers to perform night targeting,” Opt. Eng. 52, 043202 (2013).

R. H. Vollmerhausen, D. A. Reago, and R. G. Driggers, Analysis and Evaluation of Sampled Imaging Systems (SPIE, 2010), Chap. 10.

R. G. Driggers, P. Cox, and T. Edwards, Introduction to Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems (Artech House, 1999), p. 114.

Dyrland, M. E.

F. J. Mulligan, M. E. Dyrland, F. Sigernes, and C. S. Doehr, “Inferring hydroxal layer peak heights from ground-based measurements of OH(6-2) band integrated emission rate at Longyearbyen (78° N, 16° E),” Ann. Geophys. 27, 4197–4205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, T.

R. G. Driggers, P. Cox, and T. Edwards, Introduction to Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems (Artech House, 1999), p. 114.

Enriqueza, M.

M. A. Blessinger, M. Enriqueza, J. V. Groppea, K. Flynna, and T. M. Sudola, “Performance of focal plane arrays for the photon counting arrays (PCAR) program,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ettenberg, M. H.

B. M. Onat, W. Huang, N. Masaun, M. Lange, M. H. Ettenberg, and C. Driesa, “Ultra low dark current InGaAs technology for focal lane arrays for low-light level visible-shortwave infrared imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Felde, G. W.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

Fenn, R. W.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, and R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code LOWTRAN 6,” , Enviromental Research Paper No. 846 (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA, 1983).

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” , Environmental Research Paper No. 876 (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA, 1979), Chap. 3.

Flynna, K.

M. A. Blessinger, M. Enriqueza, J. V. Groppea, K. Flynna, and T. M. Sudola, “Performance of focal plane arrays for the photon counting arrays (PCAR) program,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Follman, D.

M. MacDougal, J. Geske, C. Wang, and D. Follman, “Short-wavelength infrared imaging using low dark current InGaAs detector arrays and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 50, 061011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, B. A.

X. Liu, B. A. Fowler, S. K. Onishi, P. Vu, D. D. Wen, H. Do, and S. Horn, “CCD/CMOS hybrid FPA for low light level imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5881, 58810C (2005).

Fox, M.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gallery, W. O.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, and R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code LOWTRAN 6,” , Enviromental Research Paper No. 846 (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA, 1983).

Gardner, J. A.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

Geske, J.

M. MacDougal, J. Geske, C. Wang, and D. Follman, “Short-wavelength infrared imaging using low dark current InGaAs detector arrays and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 50, 061011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goldenberg, S.

Groppea, J. V.

M. A. Blessinger, M. Enriqueza, J. V. Groppea, K. Flynna, and T. M. Sudola, “Performance of focal plane arrays for the photon counting arrays (PCAR) program,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haikala, L. K.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hanner, M. S.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, “Exact and approximate solutions for multiple scattering by cloudy and hazy planetary atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 478–487 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, W. K.

D. J. Baker, B. K. Thurgood, W. K. Harrison, and M. G. Mlynczak, “Equatorial enhancement of the nighttime OH mesospheric infrared airglow,” Phys. Scr. 75, 615–619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, M. G.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hodgkin, V. A.

R. Vollmerhausen, R. G. Driggers, and V. A. Hodgkin, “Night illumination in the near and short wave infrared spectral bands and the potential for silicon and indium–gallium–arsenide imagers to perform night targeting,” Opt. Eng. 52, 043202 (2013).

R. G. Driggers, V. A. Hodgkin, and R. Vollmerhausen, “What good is SWIR? Part I: passive day comparison of SWIR, NIR, and Vis,” Proc. SPIE 8706, 87060L (2013).

Hoke, M. L.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

Horn, S.

X. Liu, B. A. Fowler, S. K. Onishi, P. Vu, D. D. Wen, H. Do, and S. Horn, “CCD/CMOS hybrid FPA for low light level imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5881, 58810C (2005).

Huang, W.

B. M. Onat, W. Huang, N. Masaun, M. Lange, M. H. Ettenberg, and C. Driesa, “Ultra low dark current InGaAs technology for focal lane arrays for low-light level visible-shortwave infrared imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Isaacs, R. G.

Jansson, P. A.

P. A. Jansson, Deconvolution of Images and Spectra (Academic, 1997), Chap. 4, p. 107.

Jeong, L. S.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

Kamalabadi, F.

R. Nikoukar, G. R. Swenson, A. Z. Liu, and F. Kamalabadi, “On the variability of mesospheric OH emission profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Killinger, D. K.

D. K. Killinger, J. H. Churnside, and L. S. Rothman, “Atmospheric optics,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. L. C. MacDonald, V. Mahajan, and E. V. Stryland, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 2010), Vol. 5, Chap. 3.

Kneizys, F. X.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, and R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code LOWTRAN 6,” , Enviromental Research Paper No. 846 (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA, 1983).

Kristl, J.

L. M. Biberman, J. Kristl, and J. Schoeder, “Atmospheric transmission,” in Electro-Optical Imaging: System Performance and Modeling, L. M. Biberman, ed. (SPIE, 2000), Chap. 10.

Kryskowski, D.

D. Kryskowski and G. Suits, “Natural sources,” in The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook, J. S. Accetta and D. Shumaker, eds. (SPIE, 1993), Chap. 3.

Lange, M.

B. M. Onat, W. Huang, N. Masaun, M. Lange, M. H. Ettenberg, and C. Driesa, “Ultra low dark current InGaAs technology for focal lane arrays for low-light level visible-shortwave infrared imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leinert, C.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levasseur-Regourd, A.-C.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. Z.

R. Nikoukar, G. R. Swenson, A. Z. Liu, and F. Kamalabadi, “On the variability of mesospheric OH emission profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, B. A. Fowler, S. K. Onishi, P. Vu, D. D. Wen, H. Do, and S. Horn, “CCD/CMOS hybrid FPA for low light level imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5881, 58810C (2005).

Lockwood, R. B.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lweis, P. E.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

MacDougal, M.

M. MacDougal, J. Geske, C. Wang, and D. Follman, “Short-wavelength infrared imaging using low dark current InGaAs detector arrays and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 50, 061011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mann, I.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Masaun, N.

B. M. Onat, W. Huang, N. Masaun, M. Lange, M. H. Ettenberg, and C. Driesa, “Ultra low dark current InGaAs technology for focal lane arrays for low-light level visible-shortwave infrared imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matthew, M. W.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN 4 Users Manual (Air Force Research Lab., Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Materials Command, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1999).

Mattila, K.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, T.

R. H. Vollmerhausen and T. Maurer, “Night illumination in the visible, NIR and SWIR spectral bands,” Proc. SPIE 5076, 60–69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McDade, I. C.

I. C. McDade, “The photochemistry of the MLT oxygen airglow emissions and the expected influences of tidal perturbations,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 787–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mello, J. B.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

Merriweather, J. W.

J. W. Merriweather, “A review of the photochemistry of selected nightglow emissions from the mesopause,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 14629–14646 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mlynczak, M. G.

D. J. Baker, B. K. Thurgood, W. K. Harrison, and M. G. Mlynczak, “Equatorial enhancement of the nighttime OH mesospheric infrared airglow,” Phys. Scr. 75, 615–619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mulligan, F. J.

F. J. Mulligan, M. E. Dyrland, F. Sigernes, and C. S. Doehr, “Inferring hydroxal layer peak heights from ground-based measurements of OH(6-2) band integrated emission rate at Longyearbyen (78° N, 16° E),” Ann. Geophys. 27, 4197–4205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Muratov, L.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nikoukar, R.

R. Nikoukar, G. R. Swenson, A. Z. Liu, and F. Kamalabadi, “On the variability of mesospheric OH emission profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, S. G.

S. G. O’Brien and R. C. Shirkey, “Determination of atmospheric path radiance: sky-to-ground ratio for wargamers,” (Army Research Lab., White Sands Missile Range, NM, 2004).

Onat, B. M.

B. M. Onat, W. Huang, N. Masaun, M. Lange, M. H. Ettenberg, and C. Driesa, “Ultra low dark current InGaAs technology for focal lane arrays for low-light level visible-shortwave infrared imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Onishi, S. K.

X. Liu, B. A. Fowler, S. K. Onishi, P. Vu, D. D. Wen, H. Do, and S. Horn, “CCD/CMOS hybrid FPA for low light level imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5881, 58810C (2005).

Pukall, B.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

Ratkowski, A. J.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

Reach, W. T.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reago, D. A.

R. H. Vollmerhausen, D. A. Reago, and R. G. Driggers, Analysis and Evaluation of Sampled Imaging Systems (SPIE, 2010), Chap. 10.

Richtsmeier, S. C.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

Rothman, L. S.

D. K. Killinger, J. H. Churnside, and L. S. Rothman, “Atmospheric optics,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. L. C. MacDonald, V. Mahajan, and E. V. Stryland, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 2010), Vol. 5, Chap. 3.

Schlosser, W.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schoeder, J.

L. M. Biberman, J. Kristl, and J. Schoeder, “Atmospheric transmission,” in Electro-Optical Imaging: System Performance and Modeling, L. M. Biberman, ed. (SPIE, 2000), Chap. 10.

Selby, J. E. A.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, and R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code LOWTRAN 6,” , Enviromental Research Paper No. 846 (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA, 1983).

Shettle, E. P.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN 4 Users Manual (Air Force Research Lab., Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Materials Command, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1999).

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” , Environmental Research Paper No. 876 (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA, 1979), Chap. 3.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, and R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code LOWTRAN 6,” , Enviromental Research Paper No. 846 (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA, 1983).

Shirkey, R. C.

S. G. O’Brien and R. C. Shirkey, “Determination of atmospheric path radiance: sky-to-ground ratio for wargamers,” (Army Research Lab., White Sands Missile Range, NM, 2004).

Sigernes, F.

F. J. Mulligan, M. E. Dyrland, F. Sigernes, and C. S. Doehr, “Inferring hydroxal layer peak heights from ground-based measurements of OH(6-2) band integrated emission rate at Longyearbyen (78° N, 16° E),” Ann. Geophys. 27, 4197–4205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Staude, H. J.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sudola, T. M.

M. A. Blessinger, M. Enriqueza, J. V. Groppea, K. Flynna, and T. M. Sudola, “Performance of focal plane arrays for the photon counting arrays (PCAR) program,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suits, G.

D. Kryskowski and G. Suits, “Natural sources,” in The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook, J. S. Accetta and D. Shumaker, eds. (SPIE, 1993), Chap. 3.

Swenson, G. R.

R. Nikoukar, G. R. Swenson, A. Z. Liu, and F. Kamalabadi, “On the variability of mesospheric OH emission profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thurgood, B. K.

D. J. Baker, B. K. Thurgood, W. K. Harrison, and M. G. Mlynczak, “Equatorial enhancement of the nighttime OH mesospheric infrared airglow,” Phys. Scr. 75, 615–619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toller, G. N.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vollmerhausen, R.

R. Vollmerhausen, R. G. Driggers, and V. A. Hodgkin, “Night illumination in the near and short wave infrared spectral bands and the potential for silicon and indium–gallium–arsenide imagers to perform night targeting,” Opt. Eng. 52, 043202 (2013).

R. G. Driggers, V. A. Hodgkin, and R. Vollmerhausen, “What good is SWIR? Part I: passive day comparison of SWIR, NIR, and Vis,” Proc. SPIE 8706, 87060L (2013).

R. Vollmerhausen, “Design of finite impulse response deconvolution filters,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5814–5827 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vollmerhausen, R. H.

R. H. Vollmerhausen and T. Maurer, “Night illumination in the visible, NIR and SWIR spectral bands,” Proc. SPIE 5076, 60–69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Vollmerhausen, D. A. Reago, and R. G. Driggers, Analysis and Evaluation of Sampled Imaging Systems (SPIE, 2010), Chap. 10.

Vu, P.

X. Liu, B. A. Fowler, S. K. Onishi, P. Vu, D. D. Wen, H. Do, and S. Horn, “CCD/CMOS hybrid FPA for low light level imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5881, 58810C (2005).

Waldman, G.

G. Waldman and J. Wooton, Electro-Optical System Performance Modeling (Artech House, 1993), p. 90.

Wang, C.

M. MacDougal, J. Geske, C. Wang, and D. Follman, “Short-wavelength infrared imaging using low dark current InGaAs detector arrays and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 50, 061011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. C.

Weiland, J. L.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wen, D. D.

X. Liu, B. A. Fowler, S. K. Onishi, P. Vu, D. D. Wen, H. Do, and S. Horn, “CCD/CMOS hybrid FPA for low light level imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5881, 58810C (2005).

Witt, A. N.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wooton, J.

G. Waldman and J. Wooton, Electro-Optical System Performance Modeling (Artech House, 1993), p. 90.

Worsham, R. D.

Adv. Space Res.

I. C. McDade, “The photochemistry of the MLT oxygen airglow emissions and the expected influences of tidal perturbations,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 787–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys.

F. J. Mulligan, M. E. Dyrland, F. Sigernes, and C. S. Doehr, “Inferring hydroxal layer peak heights from ground-based measurements of OH(6-2) band integrated emission rate at Longyearbyen (78° N, 16° E),” Ann. Geophys. 27, 4197–4205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser.

C. Leinert, S. Bowyer, L. K. Haikala, M. S. Hanner, M. G. Hauser, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Mann, K. Mattila, W. T. Reach, W. Schlosser, H. J. Staude, G. N. Toller, J. L. Weiland, and A. N. Witt, “The 1997 reference of diffuse night sky brightness,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 127, 1–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

J. E. Hansen, “Exact and approximate solutions for multiple scattering by cloudy and hazy planetary atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 478–487 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. W. Merriweather, “A review of the photochemistry of selected nightglow emissions from the mesopause,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 14629–14646 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Nikoukar, G. R. Swenson, A. Z. Liu, and F. Kamalabadi, “On the variability of mesospheric OH emission profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

R. Vollmerhausen, R. G. Driggers, and V. A. Hodgkin, “Night illumination in the near and short wave infrared spectral bands and the potential for silicon and indium–gallium–arsenide imagers to perform night targeting,” Opt. Eng. 52, 043202 (2013).

M. MacDougal, J. Geske, C. Wang, and D. Follman, “Short-wavelength infrared imaging using low dark current InGaAs detector arrays and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser illuminators,” Opt. Eng. 50, 061011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr.

D. J. Baker, B. K. Thurgood, W. K. Harrison, and M. G. Mlynczak, “Equatorial enhancement of the nighttime OH mesospheric infrared airglow,” Phys. Scr. 75, 615–619 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

R. G. Driggers, V. A. Hodgkin, and R. Vollmerhausen, “What good is SWIR? Part I: passive day comparison of SWIR, NIR, and Vis,” Proc. SPIE 8706, 87060L (2013).

X. Liu, B. A. Fowler, S. K. Onishi, P. Vu, D. D. Wen, H. Do, and S. Horn, “CCD/CMOS hybrid FPA for low light level imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5881, 58810C (2005).

B. M. Onat, W. Huang, N. Masaun, M. Lange, M. H. Ettenberg, and C. Driesa, “Ultra low dark current InGaAs technology for focal lane arrays for low-light level visible-shortwave infrared imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420L (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Vollmerhausen and T. Maurer, “Night illumination in the visible, NIR and SWIR spectral bands,” Proc. SPIE 5076, 60–69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Blessinger, M. Enriqueza, J. V. Groppea, K. Flynna, and T. M. Sudola, “Performance of focal plane arrays for the photon counting arrays (PCAR) program,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420K (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348–353 (1999).

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176–183 (2000).

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, T. W. Cooley, and J. A. Gardner, “MODTRAN5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options,” Proc. SPIE 5655, 88–95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lweis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. A. Jansson, Deconvolution of Images and Spectra (Academic, 1997), Chap. 4, p. 107.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, MODTRAN 4 Users Manual (Air Force Research Lab., Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Materials Command, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1999).

D. Kryskowski and G. Suits, “Natural sources,” in The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook, J. S. Accetta and D. Shumaker, eds. (SPIE, 1993), Chap. 3.

L. M. Biberman, “Natural sources of low-light-level illumination,” in Electro-Optical Imaging: System Performance and Modeling, L. M. Biberman, ed. (SPIE, 2000), Chap. 3.

W. L. Wolfe and G. J. Zissis, eds., “Natural sources,” in The Infrared Handbook (The Infrared Information Analysis Center, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1993).

G. Waldman and J. Wooton, Electro-Optical System Performance Modeling (Artech House, 1993), p. 90.

R. G. Driggers, P. Cox, and T. Edwards, Introduction to Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems (Artech House, 1999), p. 114.

R. H. Vollmerhausen, D. A. Reago, and R. G. Driggers, Analysis and Evaluation of Sampled Imaging Systems (SPIE, 2010), Chap. 10.

L. M. Biberman, J. Kristl, and J. Schoeder, “Atmospheric transmission,” in Electro-Optical Imaging: System Performance and Modeling, L. M. Biberman, ed. (SPIE, 2000), Chap. 10.

S. G. O’Brien and R. C. Shirkey, “Determination of atmospheric path radiance: sky-to-ground ratio for wargamers,” (Army Research Lab., White Sands Missile Range, NM, 2004).

W. L. Wolfe and G. J. Zissis, eds., “Atmospheric scattering,” in The Infrared Handbook (The Infrared Information Analysis Center, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1993), Chap. 4.

L. W. Abreu and G. P. Anderson, The MODTRAN 2/3 and LOWTRAN 7 Model (ONTAR Corp., 1995).

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, and R. W. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code LOWTRAN 6,” , Enviromental Research Paper No. 846 (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA, 1983).

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” , Environmental Research Paper No. 876 (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA, 1979), Chap. 3.

D. K. Killinger, J. H. Churnside, and L. S. Rothman, “Atmospheric optics,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, C. DeCusatis, J. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. L. C. MacDonald, V. Mahajan, and E. V. Stryland, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 2010), Vol. 5, Chap. 3.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (17)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Airglow spectral radiance at zenith.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Target-observer geometry.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reflectance versus wavelength for various types of vegetation (veg) and ground materials (gnd). Both reflectance and standard deviation (std) are shown.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Stgt and Spath for urban aerosol and 1 km range to target. The target lies in an open field.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Stgt and Spath for urban aerosol and 20 km range to target. The target lies in an open field.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Stgt and Spath for urban aerosol and 1 km range to target. The target lies in an enclosed area as close to structures as those structures are high.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Stgt and Spath for urban aerosol and 20 km range to target. The target lies in an enclosed area.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Stgt and Spath for rural aerosol and 1 km range to target. The target lies in an open area.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Stgt and Spath for rural aerosol and 20 km range to target. The target lies in an open area.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Stgt and Spath for rural aerosol and 1 km range to target. The target lies in an enclosed area.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Stgt and Spath for rural aerosol and 20 km range to target. The target lies in an enclosed area.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Path radiance versus range for urban and rural aerosols. Each curve represents a different aerosol and wavelength. The three wavelengths are 0.87, 1.05, and 1.55 μm.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

QE of EMCCD and InGaAs detector arrays.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Nratio for EMCCD and rural aerosol. Results are shown for F/1 and F/3 imagers viewing targets in the open and targets situated near buildings or trees (enclosed).

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Nratio for EMCCD camera and urban aerosol. Results are shown for F/1 and F/3 imagers viewing targets in the open and targets situated near buildings or trees (enclosed).

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Nratio for InGaAs imager and rural aerosol. Results are shown for F/1 and F/3 imagers viewing targets in the open and targets situated near buildings or trees (enclosed).

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Nratio for InGaAs imager and urban aerosol. Results are shown for F/1 and F/3 imagers viewing targets in the open and targets situated near buildings or trees (enclosed).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Aerosol αscat and Asymmetry g Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2. Parameters Used in Analyses

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L(λ,γ)/L(λ,0)=110.9733sin2(γ).
EAG(λ)=θ=0πΦ=0βL(λ,0)sin2(Φ)sin(θ)10.9733sin2(Φ)dΦdθ,
EGD=θ=0πϕ=0π/2GAG(λ)sin2(ϕ)sin(θ)dϕdθ
GAG(λ)=Rscnπθ=02πφ=0βL(λ,0)cos(Φ)sin(Φ)10.9733sin2(Φ)dΦdθ,
Stgt(λ,Rng)=ETGT(λ)πRscnTabs(λ,Rng),
ψ=cos1[sin(γ)sin(θ)].
F(λ,ψ)=14π1g2(λ)[1+g22g(λ)cos(ψ)]3/2.
JAG(λ)=αscat(λ)4πθ=02πγ=0ηL(λ,γ)10.9733sin2(γ)F(λ,ψ)dγdθ,
JGD(λ)=αscat(λ)4πθ=02πγ=0πGAG(λ)F(λ,ψ)dγdθ.
Spath(λ,Rng)=0Rng[JAG(λ)+JGD(λ)]Tabs(λ,r)Tscat(λ)dr.
Pscene=λminλmaxπSTGT(λ)τQE(λ)Apixtf4F#2ephot(λ)dλ,
Ppath=λminλmaxπSpath(λ)τQE(λ)Apixtf4F#2ephot(λ)dλ,
Nscene=Pscene+Pdark+PROIC2.
Ntotal=Ppath+Pscene+Pdark+PROIC2.
Nratio=NtotalNscene.

Metrics