Abstract

Phase shifting interferometry relies on sets of interferograms taken at multiple known phase offsets to deduce the instantaneous phase of a quasi-static fringe pattern. The traditional method for introducing these phase shifts has been either to step a mirror, and measure the fringe pattern at each step, or to scan a mirror, integrating the fringe pattern for discrete time intervals while the fringes “move” on the detector. A stepping mirror eliminates this fringe smear but has typically required a closed-loop controller to ensure that the optical path introduced is accurately known. Furthermore, implementing rapid stepping of a moderately sized optic can prove difficult if the fringe phase needs to be measured on a short time scale. We report results demonstrating very fast (>100Hz) and precise phase shifting using a piezomodulated mirror operated in open-loop without any position feedback. Our method exploits the use of a synthetic driving waveform that is optimized to match the complex frequency response of the modulator and its supported optic. For phase measurements in the near-infrared at 2.15 μm, and with a time between steps as small as 0.2 ms, we report errors below λ/100 in the desired position of our optic, i.e., an effective optical path difference error of λ/55. For applications in near-infrared stellar interferometry, this implies an enhancement in the fringe-tracking sensitivity of roughly 20% (in the photon-limited regime) over that which is conventionally realized using a swept mirror.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. J. Moore, R. McBride, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, “Closed-loop phase stepping in a calibrated fiber-optic fringe projector for shape measurement,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3348–3354 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Li, Y. Li, K. Yang, and M. Liu, “A linearity tunable DBR fiber laser based on closed-loop PZT,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 702–704 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X.-j. Duan, F.-j. Duan, and C.-r. Lv, “Phase stabilizing method based on PTAC for fiber-optic interference fringe projection profilometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 137–143 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Jung, J. Y. Shim, and D. Gweon, “New open-loop actuating method of piezoelectric actuators for removing hysteresis and creep,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3436–3440 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Ai and J. Wyant, “Effect of piezoelectric transducer nonlinearity on phase shift interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1112–1116 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. D. Monnier, “Optical interferometry in astronomy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789–857 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Haniff, “Ground-based optical interferometry: a practical primer,” New Astron. Rev. 51, 583–596 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Pedretti, W. A. Traub, J. D. Monnier, R. Millan-Gabet, N. P. Carleton, F. P. Schloerb, M. K. Brewer, J.-P. Berger, M. G. Lacasse, and S. Ragland, “Robust determination of optical path difference: fringe tracking at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5173–5179 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. Monnier, F. Baron, M. Anderson, S. Kraus, R. Millan-Gabet, E. Pedretti, X. Che, T. A. ten Brummelaar, and N. Calvet, “Tracking faint fringes with the CHARA-Michigan Phasetracker (CHAMP),” Proc. SPIE 8845, 88451I (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Cassaing, B. Fleury, C. Coudrain, P. Madec, E. di Folco, A. Glindemann, and S. A. Leveque, “Optimized fringe tracker for the VLTI/PRIMA instrument,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 152–163 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Sahlmann, S. Ménardi, M. Accardo, R. Abuter, S. Mottini, and F. Delplancke, “The PRIMA fringe sensor unit,” Astron. Astrophys. 507, 1739–1757 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. H. Berger, J. D. Monnier, R. Millan-Gabet, T. A. ten Brummelaar, P. Muirhead, E. Pedretti, and N. Thureau, “CHARA Michigan phase-tracker (CHAMP): design and fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683K (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J.-B. Le Bouquin, R. Abuter, P. Haguenauer, B. Bauvir, D. Popovic, and E. Pozna, “Post-processing the VLTI fringe-tracking data: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 493, 747–752 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Vasisht and A. J. Booth, “Performance and verification of the Keck Interferometer fringe detection and tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 824 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. M. Colavita, A. Booth, J. Garcia-Gathright, G. Vasisht, R. Johnson, and K. Summers, “Fringe measurement and control for the Keck Interferometer,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 795–807 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Bai, “Phase-shifts nπ/2 calibration method for phase-stepping interferometry,” Opt. Express 17, 16861–16868 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. G. Basden and D. F. Buscher, “Improvements for group delay fringe tracking,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357, 656–668 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Langoju, A. Patil, and P. Rastogi, “Phase-shifting interferometry in the presence of nonlinear phase steps, harmonics, and noise,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1058–1060 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. A. Jurgenson, F. G. Santoro, F. Baron, K. McCord, E. K. Block, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. S. Young, T. A. Coleman, and M. J. Creech-Eakman, “Fringe tracking at the MROI,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131C (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. M. Colavita, B. E. Hines, and M. Shao, “A high speed optical delay line for stellar interferometry,” in European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, J. M. Beckers and F. Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), Vol. 39, p. 1143.
  25. M. S. Fadali and A. Visioli, Digital Control Engineering (Academic, 2009).
  26. L. Pickelmann, Piezomechanik GmbH, Berg am Laim Str. 64, D-81673 Munich (personal communication, 2013).
  27. H. Thorsteinsson and D. F. Buscher, “A fast amplified fringe modulator and its waveform optimisation,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626837 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. M. Jorgensen, D. Mozurkewich, J. Murphy, M. Sapantaie, J. T. Armstrong, G. C. Gilbreath, R. Hindsley, T. A. Pauls, H. Schmitt, and D. J. Hutter, “Characterization of the NPOI fringe scanning stroke,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62684A (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Brummelaar, “Correlation measurement and group delay tracking in optical stellar interferometry with a noisy detector,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 285, 135–150 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. F. Buscher, “Getting the most out of COAST,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Cambridge, 1988).
  31. M. M. Colavita, “Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 111–117 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. I. L. Porro, W. A. Traub, and N. P. Carleton, “Effect of telescope alignment on a stellar interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6055–6067 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  33. N. Blind, O. Absil, J. L. Bouquin, J. Berger, and A. Chelli, “Optimized fringe sensors for the VLTI next generation instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 530, A121 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

G. Li, Y. Li, K. Yang, and M. Liu, “A linearity tunable DBR fiber laser based on closed-loop PZT,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 702–704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X.-j. Duan, F.-j. Duan, and C.-r. Lv, “Phase stabilizing method based on PTAC for fiber-optic interference fringe projection profilometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 137–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

J. D. Monnier, F. Baron, M. Anderson, S. Kraus, R. Millan-Gabet, E. Pedretti, X. Che, T. A. ten Brummelaar, and N. Calvet, “Tracking faint fringes with the CHARA-Michigan Phasetracker (CHAMP),” Proc. SPIE 8845, 88451I (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

N. Blind, O. Absil, J. L. Bouquin, J. Berger, and A. Chelli, “Optimized fringe sensors for the VLTI next generation instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 530, A121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

M. M. Colavita, A. Booth, J. Garcia-Gathright, G. Vasisht, R. Johnson, and K. Summers, “Fringe measurement and control for the Keck Interferometer,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 795–807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

F. Bai, “Phase-shifts nπ/2 calibration method for phase-stepping interferometry,” Opt. Express 17, 16861–16868 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Sahlmann, S. Ménardi, M. Accardo, R. Abuter, S. Mottini, and F. Delplancke, “The PRIMA fringe sensor unit,” Astron. Astrophys. 507, 1739–1757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Le Bouquin, R. Abuter, P. Haguenauer, B. Bauvir, D. Popovic, and E. Pozna, “Post-processing the VLTI fringe-tracking data: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 493, 747–752 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C. A. Jurgenson, F. G. Santoro, F. Baron, K. McCord, E. K. Block, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. S. Young, T. A. Coleman, and M. J. Creech-Eakman, “Fringe tracking at the MROI,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131C (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. Haniff, “Ground-based optical interferometry: a practical primer,” New Astron. Rev. 51, 583–596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

D. H. Berger, J. D. Monnier, R. Millan-Gabet, T. A. ten Brummelaar, P. Muirhead, E. Pedretti, and N. Thureau, “CHARA Michigan phase-tracker (CHAMP): design and fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683K (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Thorsteinsson and D. F. Buscher, “A fast amplified fringe modulator and its waveform optimisation,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Jorgensen, D. Mozurkewich, J. Murphy, M. Sapantaie, J. T. Armstrong, G. C. Gilbreath, R. Hindsley, T. A. Pauls, H. Schmitt, and D. J. Hutter, “Characterization of the NPOI fringe scanning stroke,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62684A (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Langoju, A. Patil, and P. Rastogi, “Phase-shifting interferometry in the presence of nonlinear phase steps, harmonics, and noise,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1058–1060 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. G. Basden and D. F. Buscher, “Improvements for group delay fringe tracking,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357, 656–668 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Pedretti, W. A. Traub, J. D. Monnier, R. Millan-Gabet, N. P. Carleton, F. P. Schloerb, M. K. Brewer, J.-P. Berger, M. G. Lacasse, and S. Ragland, “Robust determination of optical path difference: fringe tracking at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5173–5179 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. D. Monnier, “Optical interferometry in astronomy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789–857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Vasisht and A. J. Booth, “Performance and verification of the Keck Interferometer fringe detection and tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

H. Jung, J. Y. Shim, and D. Gweon, “New open-loop actuating method of piezoelectric actuators for removing hysteresis and creep,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3436–3440 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Cassaing, B. Fleury, C. Coudrain, P. Madec, E. di Folco, A. Glindemann, and S. A. Leveque, “Optimized fringe tracker for the VLTI/PRIMA instrument,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 152–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Colavita, “Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 111–117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. L. Porro, W. A. Traub, and N. P. Carleton, “Effect of telescope alignment on a stellar interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6055–6067 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Brummelaar, “Correlation measurement and group delay tracking in optical stellar interferometry with a noisy detector,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 285, 135–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Absil, O.

N. Blind, O. Absil, J. L. Bouquin, J. Berger, and A. Chelli, “Optimized fringe sensors for the VLTI next generation instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 530, A121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Abuter, R.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, R. Abuter, P. Haguenauer, B. Bauvir, D. Popovic, and E. Pozna, “Post-processing the VLTI fringe-tracking data: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 493, 747–752 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Sahlmann, S. Ménardi, M. Accardo, R. Abuter, S. Mottini, and F. Delplancke, “The PRIMA fringe sensor unit,” Astron. Astrophys. 507, 1739–1757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Accardo, M.

J. Sahlmann, S. Ménardi, M. Accardo, R. Abuter, S. Mottini, and F. Delplancke, “The PRIMA fringe sensor unit,” Astron. Astrophys. 507, 1739–1757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ai, C.

Aitken, C.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, C.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M.

J. D. Monnier, F. Baron, M. Anderson, S. Kraus, R. Millan-Gabet, E. Pedretti, X. Che, T. A. ten Brummelaar, and N. Calvet, “Tracking faint fringes with the CHARA-Michigan Phasetracker (CHAMP),” Proc. SPIE 8845, 88451I (2012).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. T.

A. M. Jorgensen, D. Mozurkewich, J. Murphy, M. Sapantaie, J. T. Armstrong, G. C. Gilbreath, R. Hindsley, T. A. Pauls, H. Schmitt, and D. J. Hutter, “Characterization of the NPOI fringe scanning stroke,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62684A (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bagnuolo, W. G.

T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bai, F.

Bakker, E.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baron, F.

J. D. Monnier, F. Baron, M. Anderson, S. Kraus, R. Millan-Gabet, E. Pedretti, X. Che, T. A. ten Brummelaar, and N. Calvet, “Tracking faint fringes with the CHARA-Michigan Phasetracker (CHAMP),” Proc. SPIE 8845, 88451I (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Jurgenson, F. G. Santoro, F. Baron, K. McCord, E. K. Block, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. S. Young, T. A. Coleman, and M. J. Creech-Eakman, “Fringe tracking at the MROI,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

Basden, A. G.

A. G. Basden and D. F. Buscher, “Improvements for group delay fringe tracking,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357, 656–668 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bauvir, B.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, R. Abuter, P. Haguenauer, B. Bauvir, D. Popovic, and E. Pozna, “Post-processing the VLTI fringe-tracking data: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 493, 747–752 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benson, J. A.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berger, D. H.

D. H. Berger, J. D. Monnier, R. Millan-Gabet, T. A. ten Brummelaar, P. Muirhead, E. Pedretti, and N. Thureau, “CHARA Michigan phase-tracker (CHAMP): design and fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683K (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J.

N. Blind, O. Absil, J. L. Bouquin, J. Berger, and A. Chelli, “Optimized fringe sensors for the VLTI next generation instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 530, A121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J.-P.

Blind, N.

N. Blind, O. Absil, J. L. Bouquin, J. Berger, and A. Chelli, “Optimized fringe sensors for the VLTI next generation instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 530, A121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Block, E. K.

C. A. Jurgenson, F. G. Santoro, F. Baron, K. McCord, E. K. Block, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. S. Young, T. A. Coleman, and M. J. Creech-Eakman, “Fringe tracking at the MROI,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boden, A. F.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Booth, A.

M. M. Colavita, A. Booth, J. Garcia-Gathright, G. Vasisht, R. Johnson, and K. Summers, “Fringe measurement and control for the Keck Interferometer,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 795–807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Booth, A. J.

G. Vasisht and A. J. Booth, “Performance and verification of the Keck Interferometer fringe detection and tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bouquin, J. L.

N. Blind, O. Absil, J. L. Bouquin, J. Berger, and A. Chelli, “Optimized fringe sensors for the VLTI next generation instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 530, A121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, P. F.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, M. K.

Brummelaar, T.

T. Brummelaar, “Correlation measurement and group delay tracking in optical stellar interferometry with a noisy detector,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 285, 135–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Buscher, D.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buscher, D. F.

C. A. Jurgenson, F. G. Santoro, F. Baron, K. McCord, E. K. Block, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. S. Young, T. A. Coleman, and M. J. Creech-Eakman, “Fringe tracking at the MROI,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131C (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Thorsteinsson and D. F. Buscher, “A fast amplified fringe modulator and its waveform optimisation,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Basden and D. F. Buscher, “Improvements for group delay fringe tracking,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357, 656–668 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Buscher, “Getting the most out of COAST,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Cambridge, 1988).

Cadman, R.

T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Calvet, N.

J. D. Monnier, F. Baron, M. Anderson, S. Kraus, R. Millan-Gabet, E. Pedretti, X. Che, T. A. ten Brummelaar, and N. Calvet, “Tracking faint fringes with the CHARA-Michigan Phasetracker (CHAMP),” Proc. SPIE 8845, 88451I (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carleton, N. P.

Cassaing, F.

F. Cassaing, B. Fleury, C. Coudrain, P. Madec, E. di Folco, A. Glindemann, and S. A. Leveque, “Optimized fringe tracker for the VLTI/PRIMA instrument,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 152–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Che, X.

J. D. Monnier, F. Baron, M. Anderson, S. Kraus, R. Millan-Gabet, E. Pedretti, X. Che, T. A. ten Brummelaar, and N. Calvet, “Tracking faint fringes with the CHARA-Michigan Phasetracker (CHAMP),” Proc. SPIE 8845, 88451I (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chelli, A.

N. Blind, O. Absil, J. L. Bouquin, J. Berger, and A. Chelli, “Optimized fringe sensors for the VLTI next generation instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 530, A121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. H.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Colavita, M. M.

M. M. Colavita, A. Booth, J. Garcia-Gathright, G. Vasisht, R. Johnson, and K. Summers, “Fringe measurement and control for the Keck Interferometer,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 795–807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Colavita, “Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 111–117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Colavita, B. E. Hines, and M. Shao, “A high speed optical delay line for stellar interferometry,” in European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, J. M. Beckers and F. Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), Vol. 39, p. 1143.

Coleman, T.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, T. A.

C. A. Jurgenson, F. G. Santoro, F. Baron, K. McCord, E. K. Block, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. S. Young, T. A. Coleman, and M. J. Creech-Eakman, “Fringe tracking at the MROI,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coudrain, C.

F. Cassaing, B. Fleury, C. Coudrain, P. Madec, E. di Folco, A. Glindemann, and S. A. Leveque, “Optimized fringe tracker for the VLTI/PRIMA instrument,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 152–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Creech-Eakman, M. J.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Jurgenson, F. G. Santoro, F. Baron, K. McCord, E. K. Block, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. S. Young, T. A. Coleman, and M. J. Creech-Eakman, “Fringe tracking at the MROI,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dahl, C.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Delplancke, F.

J. Sahlmann, S. Ménardi, M. Accardo, R. Abuter, S. Mottini, and F. Delplancke, “The PRIMA fringe sensor unit,” Astron. Astrophys. 507, 1739–1757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

di Folco, E.

F. Cassaing, B. Fleury, C. Coudrain, P. Madec, E. di Folco, A. Glindemann, and S. A. Leveque, “Optimized fringe tracker for the VLTI/PRIMA instrument,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 152–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Duan, F.-j.

X.-j. Duan, F.-j. Duan, and C.-r. Lv, “Phase stabilizing method based on PTAC for fiber-optic interference fringe projection profilometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 137–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.-j.

X.-j. Duan, F.-j. Duan, and C.-r. Lv, “Phase stabilizing method based on PTAC for fiber-optic interference fringe projection profilometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 137–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, P. J.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elias, N. M.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fadali, M. S.

M. S. Fadali and A. Visioli, Digital Control Engineering (Academic, 2009).

Farris, A.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, M.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fleury, B.

F. Cassaing, B. Fleury, C. Coudrain, P. Madec, E. di Folco, A. Glindemann, and S. A. Leveque, “Optimized fringe tracker for the VLTI/PRIMA instrument,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 152–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Gathright, J.

M. M. Colavita, A. Booth, J. Garcia-Gathright, G. Vasisht, R. Johnson, and K. Summers, “Fringe measurement and control for the Keck Interferometer,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 795–807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gilbreath, G. C.

A. M. Jorgensen, D. Mozurkewich, J. Murphy, M. Sapantaie, J. T. Armstrong, G. C. Gilbreath, R. Hindsley, T. A. Pauls, H. Schmitt, and D. J. Hutter, “Characterization of the NPOI fringe scanning stroke,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62684A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glindemann, A.

F. Cassaing, B. Fleury, C. Coudrain, P. Madec, E. di Folco, A. Glindemann, and S. A. Leveque, “Optimized fringe tracker for the VLTI/PRIMA instrument,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 152–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gubler, J.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gursel, Y.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gweon, D.

H. Jung, J. Y. Shim, and D. Gweon, “New open-loop actuating method of piezoelectric actuators for removing hysteresis and creep,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3436–3440 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ha, L.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haguenauer, P.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, R. Abuter, P. Haguenauer, B. Bauvir, D. Popovic, and E. Pozna, “Post-processing the VLTI fringe-tracking data: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 493, 747–752 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haniff, C.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Haniff, “Ground-based optical interferometry: a practical primer,” New Astron. Rev. 51, 583–596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haniff, C. A.

C. A. Jurgenson, F. G. Santoro, F. Baron, K. McCord, E. K. Block, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. S. Young, T. A. Coleman, and M. J. Creech-Eakman, “Fringe tracking at the MROI,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hartkopf, W. I.

T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hindsley, R.

A. M. Jorgensen, D. Mozurkewich, J. Murphy, M. Sapantaie, J. T. Armstrong, G. C. Gilbreath, R. Hindsley, T. A. Pauls, H. Schmitt, and D. J. Hutter, “Characterization of the NPOI fringe scanning stroke,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62684A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hines, B. E.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Colavita, B. E. Hines, and M. Shao, “A high speed optical delay line for stellar interferometry,” in European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, J. M. Beckers and F. Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), Vol. 39, p. 1143.

Hopper, C. H.

T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hummel, C. A.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hutter, D. J.

A. M. Jorgensen, D. Mozurkewich, J. Murphy, M. Sapantaie, J. T. Armstrong, G. C. Gilbreath, R. Hindsley, T. A. Pauls, H. Schmitt, and D. J. Hutter, “Characterization of the NPOI fringe scanning stroke,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62684A (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiminez, S.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R.

M. M. Colavita, A. Booth, J. Garcia-Gathright, G. Vasisht, R. Johnson, and K. Summers, “Fringe measurement and control for the Keck Interferometer,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 795–807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, K. J.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

Jorgensen, A. M.

A. M. Jorgensen, D. Mozurkewich, J. Murphy, M. Sapantaie, J. T. Armstrong, G. C. Gilbreath, R. Hindsley, T. A. Pauls, H. Schmitt, and D. J. Hutter, “Characterization of the NPOI fringe scanning stroke,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62684A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H.

H. Jung, J. Y. Shim, and D. Gweon, “New open-loop actuating method of piezoelectric actuators for removing hysteresis and creep,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3436–3440 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jurgenson, C.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jurgenson, C. A.

C. A. Jurgenson, F. G. Santoro, F. Baron, K. McCord, E. K. Block, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. S. Young, T. A. Coleman, and M. J. Creech-Eakman, “Fringe tracking at the MROI,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131C (2008).
[CrossRef]

King, R.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Klinglesmith, D.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koresko, C. D.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kraus, S.

J. D. Monnier, F. Baron, M. Anderson, S. Kraus, R. Millan-Gabet, E. Pedretti, X. Che, T. A. ten Brummelaar, and N. Calvet, “Tracking faint fringes with the CHARA-Michigan Phasetracker (CHAMP),” Proc. SPIE 8845, 88451I (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, S. R.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lacasse, M. G.

Lane, B. F.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Langoju, R.

Le Bouquin, J.-B.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, R. Abuter, P. Haguenauer, B. Bauvir, D. Popovic, and E. Pozna, “Post-processing the VLTI fringe-tracking data: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 493, 747–752 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leveque, S. A.

F. Cassaing, B. Fleury, C. Coudrain, P. Madec, E. di Folco, A. Glindemann, and S. A. Leveque, “Optimized fringe tracker for the VLTI/PRIMA instrument,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 152–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, Y. Li, K. Yang, and M. Liu, “A linearity tunable DBR fiber laser based on closed-loop PZT,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 702–704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

G. Li, Y. Li, K. Yang, and M. Liu, “A linearity tunable DBR fiber laser based on closed-loop PZT,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 702–704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ling, L.-C.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

G. Li, Y. Li, K. Yang, and M. Liu, “A linearity tunable DBR fiber laser based on closed-loop PZT,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 702–704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lv, C.-r.

X.-j. Duan, F.-j. Duan, and C.-r. Lv, “Phase stabilizing method based on PTAC for fiber-optic interference fringe projection profilometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 137–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Madec, P.

F. Cassaing, B. Fleury, C. Coudrain, P. Madec, E. di Folco, A. Glindemann, and S. A. Leveque, “Optimized fringe tracker for the VLTI/PRIMA instrument,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 152–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Malbet, F.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McAlister, H. A.

T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McBride, R.

McCord, K.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Jurgenson, F. G. Santoro, F. Baron, K. McCord, E. K. Block, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. S. Young, T. A. Coleman, and M. J. Creech-Eakman, “Fringe tracking at the MROI,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131C (2008).
[CrossRef]

McCracken, T.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ménardi, S.

J. Sahlmann, S. Ménardi, M. Accardo, R. Abuter, S. Mottini, and F. Delplancke, “The PRIMA fringe sensor unit,” Astron. Astrophys. 507, 1739–1757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Millan-Gabet, R.

J. D. Monnier, F. Baron, M. Anderson, S. Kraus, R. Millan-Gabet, E. Pedretti, X. Che, T. A. ten Brummelaar, and N. Calvet, “Tracking faint fringes with the CHARA-Michigan Phasetracker (CHAMP),” Proc. SPIE 8845, 88451I (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Berger, J. D. Monnier, R. Millan-Gabet, T. A. ten Brummelaar, P. Muirhead, E. Pedretti, and N. Thureau, “CHARA Michigan phase-tracker (CHAMP): design and fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683K (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Pedretti, W. A. Traub, J. D. Monnier, R. Millan-Gabet, N. P. Carleton, F. P. Schloerb, M. K. Brewer, J.-P. Berger, M. G. Lacasse, and S. Ragland, “Robust determination of optical path difference: fringe tracking at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5173–5179 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, D. W.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monnier, J. D.

J. D. Monnier, F. Baron, M. Anderson, S. Kraus, R. Millan-Gabet, E. Pedretti, X. Che, T. A. ten Brummelaar, and N. Calvet, “Tracking faint fringes with the CHARA-Michigan Phasetracker (CHAMP),” Proc. SPIE 8845, 88451I (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Berger, J. D. Monnier, R. Millan-Gabet, T. A. ten Brummelaar, P. Muirhead, E. Pedretti, and N. Thureau, “CHARA Michigan phase-tracker (CHAMP): design and fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683K (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Pedretti, W. A. Traub, J. D. Monnier, R. Millan-Gabet, N. P. Carleton, F. P. Schloerb, M. K. Brewer, J.-P. Berger, M. G. Lacasse, and S. Ragland, “Robust determination of optical path difference: fringe tracking at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5173–5179 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Monnier, “Optical interferometry in astronomy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789–857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moore, A. J.

Mottini, S.

J. Sahlmann, S. Ménardi, M. Accardo, R. Abuter, S. Mottini, and F. Delplancke, “The PRIMA fringe sensor unit,” Astron. Astrophys. 507, 1739–1757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mozurkewich, D.

A. M. Jorgensen, D. Mozurkewich, J. Murphy, M. Sapantaie, J. T. Armstrong, G. C. Gilbreath, R. Hindsley, T. A. Pauls, H. Schmitt, and D. J. Hutter, “Characterization of the NPOI fringe scanning stroke,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62684A (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muirhead, P.

D. H. Berger, J. D. Monnier, R. Millan-Gabet, T. A. ten Brummelaar, P. Muirhead, E. Pedretti, and N. Thureau, “CHARA Michigan phase-tracker (CHAMP): design and fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, J.

A. M. Jorgensen, D. Mozurkewich, J. Murphy, M. Sapantaie, J. T. Armstrong, G. C. Gilbreath, R. Hindsley, T. A. Pauls, H. Schmitt, and D. J. Hutter, “Characterization of the NPOI fringe scanning stroke,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62684A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nyland, K.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ogden, C. E.

T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, A.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, D. L.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pan, X. P.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Patil, A.

Pauls, T. A.

A. M. Jorgensen, D. Mozurkewich, J. Murphy, M. Sapantaie, J. T. Armstrong, G. C. Gilbreath, R. Hindsley, T. A. Pauls, H. Schmitt, and D. J. Hutter, “Characterization of the NPOI fringe scanning stroke,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62684A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Payne, I.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pedretti, E.

J. D. Monnier, F. Baron, M. Anderson, S. Kraus, R. Millan-Gabet, E. Pedretti, X. Che, T. A. ten Brummelaar, and N. Calvet, “Tracking faint fringes with the CHARA-Michigan Phasetracker (CHAMP),” Proc. SPIE 8845, 88451I (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Berger, J. D. Monnier, R. Millan-Gabet, T. A. ten Brummelaar, P. Muirhead, E. Pedretti, and N. Thureau, “CHARA Michigan phase-tracker (CHAMP): design and fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683K (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Pedretti, W. A. Traub, J. D. Monnier, R. Millan-Gabet, N. P. Carleton, F. P. Schloerb, M. K. Brewer, J.-P. Berger, M. G. Lacasse, and S. Ragland, “Robust determination of optical path difference: fringe tracking at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5173–5179 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pickelmann, L.

L. Pickelmann, Piezomechanik GmbH, Berg am Laim Str. 64, D-81673 Munich (personal communication, 2013).

Popovic, D.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, R. Abuter, P. Haguenauer, B. Bauvir, D. Popovic, and E. Pozna, “Post-processing the VLTI fringe-tracking data: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 493, 747–752 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Porro, I. L.

Pozna, E.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, R. Abuter, P. Haguenauer, B. Bauvir, D. Popovic, and E. Pozna, “Post-processing the VLTI fringe-tracking data: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 493, 747–752 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ragland, S.

Rastogi, P.

Richmond, M.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rickard, L. J.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, S. T.

T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Romero, M.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Romero, V.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sahlmann, J.

J. Sahlmann, S. Ménardi, M. Accardo, R. Abuter, S. Mottini, and F. Delplancke, “The PRIMA fringe sensor unit,” Astron. Astrophys. 507, 1739–1757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salcido, C.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sandoval, J.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santoro, F.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santoro, F. G.

C. A. Jurgenson, F. G. Santoro, F. Baron, K. McCord, E. K. Block, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. S. Young, T. A. Coleman, and M. J. Creech-Eakman, “Fringe tracking at the MROI,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sapantaie, M.

A. M. Jorgensen, D. Mozurkewich, J. Murphy, M. Sapantaie, J. T. Armstrong, G. C. Gilbreath, R. Hindsley, T. A. Pauls, H. Schmitt, and D. J. Hutter, “Characterization of the NPOI fringe scanning stroke,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62684A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schloerb, F. P.

Schmitt, H.

A. M. Jorgensen, D. Mozurkewich, J. Murphy, M. Sapantaie, J. T. Armstrong, G. C. Gilbreath, R. Hindsley, T. A. Pauls, H. Schmitt, and D. J. Hutter, “Characterization of the NPOI fringe scanning stroke,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62684A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seamons, J.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Selina, R.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seneta, E.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shao, M.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Colavita, B. E. Hines, and M. Shao, “A high speed optical delay line for stellar interferometry,” in European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, J. M. Beckers and F. Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), Vol. 39, p. 1143.

Shim, J. Y.

H. Jung, J. Y. Shim, and D. Gweon, “New open-loop actuating method of piezoelectric actuators for removing hysteresis and creep,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3436–3440 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shtromberg, A.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shure, M. A.

T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simon, R. S.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steenson, J.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sturmann, J.

T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sturmann, L.

T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Summers, K.

M. M. Colavita, A. Booth, J. Garcia-Gathright, G. Vasisht, R. Johnson, and K. Summers, “Fringe measurement and control for the Keck Interferometer,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 795–807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

ten Brummelaar, T. A.

J. D. Monnier, F. Baron, M. Anderson, S. Kraus, R. Millan-Gabet, E. Pedretti, X. Che, T. A. ten Brummelaar, and N. Calvet, “Tracking faint fringes with the CHARA-Michigan Phasetracker (CHAMP),” Proc. SPIE 8845, 88451I (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Berger, J. D. Monnier, R. Millan-Gabet, T. A. ten Brummelaar, P. Muirhead, E. Pedretti, and N. Thureau, “CHARA Michigan phase-tracker (CHAMP): design and fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683K (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thorsteinsson, H.

H. Thorsteinsson and D. F. Buscher, “A fast amplified fringe modulator and its waveform optimisation,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thureau, N.

D. H. Berger, J. D. Monnier, R. Millan-Gabet, T. A. ten Brummelaar, P. Muirhead, E. Pedretti, and N. Thureau, “CHARA Michigan phase-tracker (CHAMP): design and fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Torres, N.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W. A.

Turner, N. H.

T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Belle, G. T.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vasisht, G.

M. M. Colavita, A. Booth, J. Garcia-Gathright, G. Vasisht, R. Johnson, and K. Summers, “Fringe measurement and control for the Keck Interferometer,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 795–807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Vasisht and A. J. Booth, “Performance and verification of the Keck Interferometer fringe detection and tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Visioli, A.

M. S. Fadali and A. Visioli, Digital Control Engineering (Academic, 2009).

Wallace, J. K.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Westpfahl, D.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, N. M.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wyant, J.

Yang, K.

G. Li, Y. Li, K. Yang, and M. Liu, “A linearity tunable DBR fiber laser based on closed-loop PZT,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 702–704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. S.

C. A. Jurgenson, F. G. Santoro, F. Baron, K. McCord, E. K. Block, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. S. Young, T. A. Coleman, and M. J. Creech-Eakman, “Fringe tracking at the MROI,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. W.

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astron. Astrophys. (3)

N. Blind, O. Absil, J. L. Bouquin, J. Berger, and A. Chelli, “Optimized fringe sensors for the VLTI next generation instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 530, A121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Sahlmann, S. Ménardi, M. Accardo, R. Abuter, S. Mottini, and F. Delplancke, “The PRIMA fringe sensor unit,” Astron. Astrophys. 507, 1739–1757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Le Bouquin, R. Abuter, P. Haguenauer, B. Bauvir, D. Popovic, and E. Pozna, “Post-processing the VLTI fringe-tracking data: first measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 493, 747–752 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (3)

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. ten Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA Array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Colavita, J. K. Wallace, B. E. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. L. Palmer, X. P. Pan, M. Shao, J. W. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (2)

A. G. Basden and D. F. Buscher, “Improvements for group delay fringe tracking,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357, 656–668 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Brummelaar, “Correlation measurement and group delay tracking in optical stellar interferometry with a noisy detector,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 285, 135–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

New Astron. Rev. (1)

C. Haniff, “Ground-based optical interferometry: a practical primer,” New Astron. Rev. 51, 583–596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (2)

G. Li, Y. Li, K. Yang, and M. Liu, “A linearity tunable DBR fiber laser based on closed-loop PZT,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 702–704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X.-j. Duan, F.-j. Duan, and C.-r. Lv, “Phase stabilizing method based on PTAC for fiber-optic interference fringe projection profilometry,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 137–143 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (8)

H. Thorsteinsson and D. F. Buscher, “A fast amplified fringe modulator and its waveform optimisation,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Jorgensen, D. Mozurkewich, J. Murphy, M. Sapantaie, J. T. Armstrong, G. C. Gilbreath, R. Hindsley, T. A. Pauls, H. Schmitt, and D. J. Hutter, “Characterization of the NPOI fringe scanning stroke,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62684A (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Creech-Eakman, V. Romero, I. Payne, C. Haniff, D. Buscher, C. Aitken, C. Anderson, E. Bakker, T. Coleman, C. Dahl, A. Farris, S. Jiminez, C. Jurgenson, R. King, D. Klinglesmith, K. McCord, T. McCracken, K. Nyland, A. Olivares, M. Richmond, M. Romero, C. Salcido, J. Sandoval, F. Santoro, J. Seamons, R. Selina, A. Shtromberg, J. Steenson, N. Torres, D. Westpfahl, F. Baron, M. Fisher, E. Seneta, X. Sun, D. Wilson, and J. Young, “Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: advancing to first light and new science,” Proc. SPIE 7734, 773406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Jurgenson, F. G. Santoro, F. Baron, K. McCord, E. K. Block, D. F. Buscher, C. A. Haniff, J. S. Young, T. A. Coleman, and M. J. Creech-Eakman, “Fringe tracking at the MROI,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131C (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Berger, J. D. Monnier, R. Millan-Gabet, T. A. ten Brummelaar, P. Muirhead, E. Pedretti, and N. Thureau, “CHARA Michigan phase-tracker (CHAMP): design and fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62683K (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Monnier, F. Baron, M. Anderson, S. Kraus, R. Millan-Gabet, E. Pedretti, X. Che, T. A. ten Brummelaar, and N. Calvet, “Tracking faint fringes with the CHARA-Michigan Phasetracker (CHAMP),” Proc. SPIE 8845, 88451I (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Cassaing, B. Fleury, C. Coudrain, P. Madec, E. di Folco, A. Glindemann, and S. A. Leveque, “Optimized fringe tracker for the VLTI/PRIMA instrument,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 152–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Vasisht and A. J. Booth, “Performance and verification of the Keck Interferometer fringe detection and tracking system,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (2)

M. M. Colavita, A. Booth, J. Garcia-Gathright, G. Vasisht, R. Johnson, and K. Summers, “Fringe measurement and control for the Keck Interferometer,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122, 795–807 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Colavita, “Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 111–117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

J. D. Monnier, “Optical interferometry in astronomy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789–857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. Jung, J. Y. Shim, and D. Gweon, “New open-loop actuating method of piezoelectric actuators for removing hysteresis and creep,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3436–3440 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. M. Colavita, B. E. Hines, and M. Shao, “A high speed optical delay line for stellar interferometry,” in European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, J. M. Beckers and F. Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), Vol. 39, p. 1143.

M. S. Fadali and A. Visioli, Digital Control Engineering (Academic, 2009).

L. Pickelmann, Piezomechanik GmbH, Berg am Laim Str. 64, D-81673 Munich (personal communication, 2013).

D. F. Buscher, “Getting the most out of COAST,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Cambridge, 1988).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram depicting the envisioned step pyramid OPD modulation scheme at the MROI. Each position change corresponds to a π/2 phase shift in the fringe pattern, which requires an OPD step of Dmod. During Thold, the fringe detector integrates signal for a period Tint, and during this time the fringe detectors will have the ability to nondestructively sample their pixels multiple times on a timescale Tsample. These detector reads are discarded during the time Tstep during which time the modulator is stepped to the next measurement point. Thereafter the cycle repeats, in that during subsequent Thold s the detectors continue to integrate signal and are multiply read. To allow four interferograms to be recorded in 5 ms, Thold can at most be 1.25 ms, while Tstep should be as short as possible.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the hardware used to realize the OPD modulation scheme. The modulation waveform is generated by a personal-computer (PC)-based DAQ card. The waveform is amplified and power boosted using an inverting amplifier, then offset with a biased high-pass filter before driving the modulator (PZT). The modulator’s strain gauge (SG) signal is amplified then sampled by the DAQ card. The dashed box represents hardware specific to the modulator used. The remaining hardware is general to other modulation schemes and could be tailored for other setups.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Block diagrams for the two modes of modulator operation. (a) In the open-loop mode, the modulator is run with only a means to sense its motion via the strain gauge. No feedback is employed: the dashed arrow labeled “Motion Monitor” simply reflects the fact that the modulator motion can be logged for postexperiment analysis. (b) Block diagram for creating an optimized waveform. The strain gauge is sampled, and the driving waveform optimized in an iterative manner as described in the text.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Frequency response of the modulator, drive electronics, and optomechanics from 20 Hz to 10 kHz. The modulator used had a manufacturer-specified resonant frequency of 10 kHz. Up to approximately 3 kHz the response is smooth, while from 3 to 10 kHz there are multiple points of resonance and antiresonance. The phase is centered about π (dashed line in the lower panel), as the conditioning circuitry uses an inverting amplifier.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Mirror motion as inferred from strain gauge data for the triangle waveform at 100 Hz for the KS band. The strain gauge data is plotted over the target triangular wave with the difference between the waveforms shown in the lower panel. The difference plot has σ=0.9nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Step pyramid mirror motion at 133 Hz for the KS band as determined by strain gauge measurements. The strain gauge data are plotted together with the motion predicted on the basis of the truncated Fourier series. As before, the strain gauge data match the target motion very well, and so the lower panel more clearly shows the difference between the two curves (the error waveform). This has σ=1.1nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Top, external metrology data for the mirror motion plotted over the target 100 Hz triangular wave OPD modulation. The lower panel shows the difference between the two waveforms plotted in the upper panel and has σ=5.2nm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Top, metrology data for the mirror motion plotted over the desired 133 Hz step pyramid motion for the KS band. The lower panel shows the difference between the sampled metrology data and the target waveform and has σ=8.7nm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

RMS difference between the strain gauge and truncated series data for (top) the triangle wave and (bottom) the step pyramid modulation schemes over 16 h. The triangle wave shows an average RMS error of 2.0 nm and a 0.4 nm standard deviation. The step pyramid has an average 2.8 nm RMS error and a 0.9 nm standard deviation. No short- or long-term trends can be seen in the data, confirming good stability of the whole PZT–optic–mechanical system.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Residual OPD error for step pyramid modulation appropriate to the KS band (top) as measured by strain gauge measurements and (bottom) measurements with an external laser metrology system. The horizontal dashed lines represents a λ/50 wavefront error for the KS band, while the dashed portions of the OPD error correspond to those times during which the OPD is being stepped and the PSI data discarded. These times represent 10% of the entire modulation period. The OPD errors (excluding the dashed portions) have σ=23nm and 28 nm for the top and bottom panels, respectively, resulting in λ/93 and λ/77 wavefront errors for the KS waveband.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

OPD(t)=2x(t)cos(15°).
DN,1=TN+g(TNRN,0),
DN,k+1=DN,k+g(TNRN,k)(DN,kDN,k1RN,kRN,k1),
σconv=STDEV(tN(t)xN(t)),
Vredexp(σϕ22),
σϕ=2π(2σmodcos(15°))λ,

Metrics