Abstract

An optical fiber sensor based on the combination of two spliced birefringent optical fiber sections is proposed in this paper. The sensor is built up in a Solc-filter-like configuration and a simple theoretical model based on Jones matrices is employed to predict experimental results. By choosing the suitable birefringent optical fibers (e.g., photonic crystal fibers, birefringent microfibers, elliptical core fibers, PANDA fibers, etc.), the sensor described herein allows for probing of two physical parameters (e.g., refractive index and temperature, hydrostatic pressure and temperature) or sensing the same parameter in two disconnected environments. In order to demonstrate the sensor performance, the system response was evaluated in a temperature-sensing measurement.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Udd and B. W. Spillman, Fiber Optic Sensors: An Introduction for Engineers and Scientists, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2011).
  2. S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period gratings sensors: characteristics and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg gratings technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263–1276 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. St. J. Russel, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729–4749 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Frazão, J. M. T. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. H. Chu and J. J. Zou, “Transverse strain sensing based on optical Solc filter,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 151–155 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Gerrard and J. M. Burch, Introduction to Matrix Methods in Optics, Dover Books on Physics (Wiley, 1975).
  8. J. Li, L.-P. Sun, S. Gao, Z. Quan, Y.-L. Chang, Y. Ran, L. Jin, and B.-O. Guan, “Ultrasensitive refractive-index sensors based on rectangular silica microfibers,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3593–3595 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Beltrán-Mejía, J. H. Osório, C. R. Biazoli, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “D-microfibers,” Submitted to Journal of Lightwave Technology.
  10. F. Zhang and J. W. Y. Lit, “Temperature and strain sensitivity measurements of high-birefringent polarization-maintaining fibers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2213–2218 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L.-Y. Shao, X. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2835–2839 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Kumar and A. Ghatak, Polarization of Light with Applications in Optical Fibers, Tutorial Texts in Optical Engineering (SPIE, 2011).

2011

2010

R. H. Chu and J. J. Zou, “Transverse strain sensing based on optical Solc filter,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 151–155 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

O. Frazão, J. M. T. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2003

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period gratings sensors: characteristics and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg gratings technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

Baptista, J. M. T.

O. Frazão, J. M. T. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beltrán-Mejía, F.

F. Beltrán-Mejía, J. H. Osório, C. R. Biazoli, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “D-microfibers,” Submitted to Journal of Lightwave Technology.

Biazoli, C. R.

F. Beltrán-Mejía, J. H. Osório, C. R. Biazoli, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “D-microfibers,” Submitted to Journal of Lightwave Technology.

Burch, J. M.

A. Gerrard and J. M. Burch, Introduction to Matrix Methods in Optics, Dover Books on Physics (Wiley, 1975).

Chang, Y.-L.

Chu, R. H.

R. H. Chu and J. J. Zou, “Transverse strain sensing based on optical Solc filter,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 151–155 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

F. Beltrán-Mejía, J. H. Osório, C. R. Biazoli, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “D-microfibers,” Submitted to Journal of Lightwave Technology.

Dong, X.

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, J. M. T. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H. Y.

Gao, S.

Gerrard, A.

A. Gerrard and J. M. Burch, Introduction to Matrix Methods in Optics, Dover Books on Physics (Wiley, 1975).

Ghatak, A.

A. Kumar and A. Ghatak, Polarization of Light with Applications in Optical Fibers, Tutorial Texts in Optical Engineering (SPIE, 2011).

Guan, B.-O.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg gratings technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period gratings sensors: characteristics and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L.

Khijwania, S. K.

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar and A. Ghatak, Polarization of Light with Applications in Optical Fibers, Tutorial Texts in Optical Engineering (SPIE, 2011).

Li, J.

Lit, J. W. Y.

Lu, C.

Meltz, G.

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg gratings technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Osório, J. H.

F. Beltrán-Mejía, J. H. Osório, C. R. Biazoli, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “D-microfibers,” Submitted to Journal of Lightwave Technology.

Quan, Z.

Ran, Y.

Russel, P. St. J.

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazão, J. M. T. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L.-Y.

Spillman, B. W.

E. Udd and B. W. Spillman, Fiber Optic Sensors: An Introduction for Engineers and Scientists, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2011).

Sun, L.-P.

Tam, H. Y.

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period gratings sensors: characteristics and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Udd, E.

E. Udd and B. W. Spillman, Fiber Optic Sensors: An Introduction for Engineers and Scientists, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2011).

Wai, P. K. A.

Zhang, F.

Zou, J. J.

R. H. Chu and J. J. Zou, “Transverse strain sensing based on optical Solc filter,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 151–155 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Lightwave Technol.

P. St. J. Russel, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729–4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg gratings technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period gratings sensors: characteristics and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol.

R. H. Chu and J. J. Zou, “Transverse strain sensing based on optical Solc filter,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 151–155 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sensors

O. Frazão, J. M. T. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. Udd and B. W. Spillman, Fiber Optic Sensors: An Introduction for Engineers and Scientists, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2011).

A. Gerrard and J. M. Burch, Introduction to Matrix Methods in Optics, Dover Books on Physics (Wiley, 1975).

F. Beltrán-Mejía, J. H. Osório, C. R. Biazoli, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “D-microfibers,” Submitted to Journal of Lightwave Technology.

A. Kumar and A. Ghatak, Polarization of Light with Applications in Optical Fibers, Tutorial Texts in Optical Engineering (SPIE, 2011).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram for the proposed sensor. SC, supercontinuum light; P1, first polarizer; α, angle of the first polarizer; P2, second polarizer; θ, angle of the second polarizer; L1, length of the first fiber; L2, length of the second fiber; G1, group birefringence of the first fiber; G2, group birefringence of the second fiber; φ, angle of the second fiber; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulation of the system schematized in Fig. 1 transmittance for the situations in which the first fiber, second fiber, and mixed responses were accessed. Angles for obtaining the proposed situations: first fiber response, α=π/4, θ=5π/6, and φ=π/3; second fiber response, α=0, θ=7π/12, and φ=π/3; mixed response, α=π/4, θ=7π/12, and φ=π/3. Parameters: L1=40cm; L2=80cm; G1=G2=1×104.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Simulation of the first fiber response as the birefringence of the first fiber is varied (Parameters: α=π/4, θ=5π/6, φ=π/3, L1=40cm, L2=80cm, G1=G2=1×104, ΔG=5×107). (b) Simulation of the second fiber response as the birefringence of the second fiber is varied (Parameters: α=0, θ=7π/12, φ=π/3, L1=40cm, L2=80cm, G1=G2=1×104, ΔG=5×107).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Simulation of the first fiber response as the birefringence of the second fiber is varied (Parameters: α=π/4, θ=5π/6, φ=π/3, L1=40cm, L2=80cm, G1=G2=1×104, ΔG=5×107). (b) Simulation of the second fiber response as the birefringence of the first fiber is varied (Parameters: α=0, θ=7π/12, φ=π/3, L1=40cm, L2=80cm, G1=G2=1×104, ΔG=5×107). Vertical dashed lines helps to observe that there is no wavelength shift.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Single fibers and mixed responses. Elliptical core fiber sections with different lengths were used: L1=18.1cm and L2=81.4cm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Cross-sensitivity verification experiment using e-core fibers. (a) First fiber response was observed while the second fiber was heated; L1=42cm and L2=102.5cm. (b) Second fiber response was observed while the first fiber was heated; L1=73.5cm and L2=16cm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematic diagram for the proposed sensor with a section of standard single-mode fiber placed between the birefringent fiber sections. SC, supercontinuum light; P1, first polarizer; α, angle of the first polarizer; P2, second polarizer; θ, angle of the second polarizer; L1, length of the first fiber; L2, length of the second fiber; G1, group birefringence of the first fiber; G2, group birefringence of the second fiber; φ, angle of the second fiber.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Single fiber responses for the situations in which a (a) straight and (b) curved standard single-mode fiber (113 cm long) was spliced between the birefringent fiber sections (e-core fibers); L1=18.1cm and L2=81.4cm. Typical curvature radius, 4 cm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Schematic diagram for analyzing sensitivity differences. The fiber is thought to be divided into three parts, each one with its mode propagation constants βx,i and βy,I and length Di. The central part is assumed to be heated.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Measured spectra for the first PANDA fiber section while being heated. Polarizer angles: P1=350°, P2=145°. (b) Measured spectra for the second PANDA fiber section while being heated. Polarizer angles: P1=5°, P2=90°. For both experiments, PANDA fiber lengths L1=31.2cm; L2=91.1cm; Length of SMF between PANDA fiber sections, 15.2 cm; Heated length, 10 cm. (c) Wavelength shift as a function of the temperature. Temperature sensitivities S1=first fiber sensitivity=0.74nm/°C and S2=second fiber sensitivity=0.25nm/°C.

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E⃗=(ExEy)=R1(θ)PHR(θ)R1(φ)F2(L2,G2,λ)R(φ)F1(L1,G1,λ)R1(α)PHR(α)(10),
R(δ)=(cosδsinδsinδcosδ),
PH=(1000),
Fj(Lj,Gj,λ)=(100ei(2πLjGjλ)),
E⃗=(ExEy)=(ξcosθcosαξcosαsinθ),
ξ=cos(θφ)(cosφcosα+e2πiL1G1λsinφsinα)e2πiL2G2λsin(θφ)(cosαsinφe2πiL1G1λcosφsinα).
T=10log10(E⃗+·E⃗)=10log10(ξ*ξcos2θ),
T(θ=φ+π2)=10log10[A(α,φ)B(α,φ)cos(2πL1G1λ)],
A(α,φ)=cos2αsin2φcos2φ+sin22α4,
B(α,φ)=sin2αsin2φ4.
T(α=0)=10log10[C(θ,φ)D(θ,φ)cos(2πL2G2λ)],
C(α,φ)=12+14cos2θ+14cos[2(θ2φ)],
D(α,φ)=12sin2φsin[2(θφ)].
G=λ2SL.
Φ=Σi=1i=3[βx,i(T,λ)βy,i(T,λ)]Di=(2m+1)π.
β(T,λ)=β(T0,λ)+βTdT+βλdλ.
S=(LheatL)λGBT,
S1S2=L2L1.

Metrics