Abstract

In this paper, we propose a dual-view integral imaging (DVII) three-dimensional (3D) display that presents different 3D images in the left and right viewing directions simultaneously. The DVII 3D display consists of a display panel and a microlens array, and its elemental image array (EIA) is composed of two sub-EIAs. The sub-EIAs captured for two different 3D scenes are responsible for two different 3D images in the left-view and right-view integral imaging 3D displays, respectively. A prototype of the DVII 3D display using a pinhole array is developed, and good results are obtained.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. U. Kean, D. J. Montgomery, G. Bourhill, and J. Mather, “Multiple view display,” U.S. patent7,154,653 B2 (26December2006).
  2. M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. De Zwart, D. K. G. De Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 847–855 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. T. Hsieh, J. N. Shu, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Huang, C. J. Tian, and C. H. Lin, “Dual-view liquid crystal display fabricated by patterned electrodes,” Opt. Express 20, 8641–8648 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. P. Cui, Y. Li, J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, and Q. H. Wang, “Time-multiplexed dual-view display using a blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 87–90 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. W. Min, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Analysis of an optical depth converter used in a three-dimensional integral imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4539–4549 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Wang and H. Hua, “Theoretical analysis for integral imaging performance based on microscanning of a microlens array,” Opt. Lett. 33, 449–451 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. G. Luo, C. C. Ji, F. N. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, and Q. H. Wang, “Crosstalk-free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol. 8, 634–638 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Kim, J. Hahn, and B. Lee, “The use of a negative index planoconcave lens array for wide-viewing angle integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 21865–21880 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Cho and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional photon counting integral imaging using moving array lens technique,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1487–1489 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Castro, Y. Frauel, and B. Javidi, “Integral imaging with large depth of field using an asymmetric phase mask,” Opt. Express 15, 10266–10273 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, L. Li, and D. H. Li, “An integral-imaging three-dimensional display with wide viewing angle,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19, 679–684 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Takashi, Y. Junki, K. Yoshihisa, K. Keita, and K. Takashi, “Ergonomic evaluation of visual discomfort with autostereoscopic displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Boston, 2012), pp. 129–132.
  13. Q. H. Wang, H. Deng, T. T. Jiao, D. H. Li, and F. N. Wang, “Imitating micro-lens array for integral imaging,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 512–514 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, and D. H. Li, “Method of generating orthoscopic elemental image array from sparse camera array,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 31–33 (2012).
  15. H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, D. H. Li, and F. N. Wang, “Realization of undistorted and orthoscopic integral imaging without black zone in real and virtual fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 255–258 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Wu, H. Deng, D. H. Li, and Q. H. Wang, “High-optical-efficiency integral imaging display based on gradient-aperture pinhole array,” Opt. Eng. 52, 054002 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

J. P. Cui, Y. Li, J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, and Q. H. Wang, “Time-multiplexed dual-view display using a blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 87–90 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Wu, H. Deng, D. H. Li, and Q. H. Wang, “High-optical-efficiency integral imaging display based on gradient-aperture pinhole array,” Opt. Eng. 52, 054002 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

C. G. Luo, C. C. Ji, F. N. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, and Q. H. Wang, “Crosstalk-free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol. 8, 634–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, and D. H. Li, “Method of generating orthoscopic elemental image array from sparse camera array,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 31–33 (2012).

C. T. Hsieh, J. N. Shu, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Huang, C. J. Tian, and C. H. Lin, “Dual-view liquid crystal display fabricated by patterned electrodes,” Opt. Express 20, 8641–8648 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Cho and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional photon counting integral imaging using moving array lens technique,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1487–1489 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, D. H. Li, and F. N. Wang, “Realization of undistorted and orthoscopic integral imaging without black zone in real and virtual fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 255–258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, L. Li, and D. H. Li, “An integral-imaging three-dimensional display with wide viewing angle,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19, 679–684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

Bourhill, G.

D. U. Kean, D. J. Montgomery, G. Bourhill, and J. Mather, “Multiple view display,” U.S. patent7,154,653 B2 (26December2006).

Castro, A.

Chen, H. T.

Cheng, H. C.

J. P. Cui, Y. Li, J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, and Q. H. Wang, “Time-multiplexed dual-view display using a blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 87–90 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.

Cui, J. P.

J. P. Cui, Y. Li, J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, and Q. H. Wang, “Time-multiplexed dual-view display using a blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 87–90 (2013).
[CrossRef]

De Boer, D. K. G.

M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. De Zwart, D. K. G. De Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 847–855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Zwart, S. T.

M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. De Zwart, D. K. G. De Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 847–855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deng, H.

F. Wu, H. Deng, D. H. Li, and Q. H. Wang, “High-optical-efficiency integral imaging display based on gradient-aperture pinhole array,” Opt. Eng. 52, 054002 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, and D. H. Li, “Method of generating orthoscopic elemental image array from sparse camera array,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 31–33 (2012).

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, L. Li, and D. H. Li, “An integral-imaging three-dimensional display with wide viewing angle,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19, 679–684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, D. H. Li, and F. N. Wang, “Realization of undistorted and orthoscopic integral imaging without black zone in real and virtual fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 255–258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Wang, H. Deng, T. T. Jiao, D. H. Li, and F. N. Wang, “Imitating micro-lens array for integral imaging,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 512–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frauel, Y.

Hahn, J.

Hong, J.

Hsieh, C. T.

Hua, H.

Huang, C. Y.

Javidi, B.

Ji, C. C.

C. G. Luo, C. C. Ji, F. N. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, and Q. H. Wang, “Crosstalk-free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol. 8, 634–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, T. T.

Junki, Y.

S. Takashi, Y. Junki, K. Yoshihisa, K. Keita, and K. Takashi, “Ergonomic evaluation of visual discomfort with autostereoscopic displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Boston, 2012), pp. 129–132.

Kean, D. U.

D. U. Kean, D. J. Montgomery, G. Bourhill, and J. Mather, “Multiple view display,” U.S. patent7,154,653 B2 (26December2006).

Keita, K.

S. Takashi, Y. Junki, K. Yoshihisa, K. Keita, and K. Takashi, “Ergonomic evaluation of visual discomfort with autostereoscopic displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Boston, 2012), pp. 129–132.

Kim, H.

Krijn, M. P. C. M.

M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. De Zwart, D. K. G. De Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 847–855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Li, D. H.

F. Wu, H. Deng, D. H. Li, and Q. H. Wang, “High-optical-efficiency integral imaging display based on gradient-aperture pinhole array,” Opt. Eng. 52, 054002 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, and D. H. Li, “Method of generating orthoscopic elemental image array from sparse camera array,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 31–33 (2012).

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, L. Li, and D. H. Li, “An integral-imaging three-dimensional display with wide viewing angle,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19, 679–684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, D. H. Li, and F. N. Wang, “Realization of undistorted and orthoscopic integral imaging without black zone in real and virtual fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 255–258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Wang, H. Deng, T. T. Jiao, D. H. Li, and F. N. Wang, “Imitating micro-lens array for integral imaging,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 512–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, L. Li, and D. H. Li, “An integral-imaging three-dimensional display with wide viewing angle,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19, 679–684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. P. Cui, Y. Li, J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, and Q. H. Wang, “Time-multiplexed dual-view display using a blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 87–90 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

Luo, C. G.

C. G. Luo, C. C. Ji, F. N. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, and Q. H. Wang, “Crosstalk-free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol. 8, 634–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mather, J.

D. U. Kean, D. J. Montgomery, G. Bourhill, and J. Mather, “Multiple view display,” U.S. patent7,154,653 B2 (26December2006).

Min, S. W.

Montgomery, D. J.

D. U. Kean, D. J. Montgomery, G. Bourhill, and J. Mather, “Multiple view display,” U.S. patent7,154,653 B2 (26December2006).

Shu, J. N.

Sluijter, M.

M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. De Zwart, D. K. G. De Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 847–855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takashi, K.

S. Takashi, Y. Junki, K. Yoshihisa, K. Keita, and K. Takashi, “Ergonomic evaluation of visual discomfort with autostereoscopic displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Boston, 2012), pp. 129–132.

Takashi, S.

S. Takashi, Y. Junki, K. Yoshihisa, K. Keita, and K. Takashi, “Ergonomic evaluation of visual discomfort with autostereoscopic displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Boston, 2012), pp. 129–132.

Tian, C. J.

Wang, F. N.

C. G. Luo, C. C. Ji, F. N. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, and Q. H. Wang, “Crosstalk-free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol. 8, 634–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, D. H. Li, and F. N. Wang, “Realization of undistorted and orthoscopic integral imaging without black zone in real and virtual fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 255–258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Wang, H. Deng, T. T. Jiao, D. H. Li, and F. N. Wang, “Imitating micro-lens array for integral imaging,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 512–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

F. Wu, H. Deng, D. H. Li, and Q. H. Wang, “High-optical-efficiency integral imaging display based on gradient-aperture pinhole array,” Opt. Eng. 52, 054002 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Cui, Y. Li, J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, and Q. H. Wang, “Time-multiplexed dual-view display using a blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 87–90 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Luo, C. C. Ji, F. N. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, and Q. H. Wang, “Crosstalk-free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol. 8, 634–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, and D. H. Li, “Method of generating orthoscopic elemental image array from sparse camera array,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 31–33 (2012).

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, L. Li, and D. H. Li, “An integral-imaging three-dimensional display with wide viewing angle,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19, 679–684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, D. H. Li, and F. N. Wang, “Realization of undistorted and orthoscopic integral imaging without black zone in real and virtual fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 255–258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Wang, H. Deng, T. T. Jiao, D. H. Li, and F. N. Wang, “Imitating micro-lens array for integral imaging,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 512–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wang, Y. Z.

C. G. Luo, C. C. Ji, F. N. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, and Q. H. Wang, “Crosstalk-free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol. 8, 634–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Willemsen, O. H.

M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. De Zwart, D. K. G. De Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 847–855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

F. Wu, H. Deng, D. H. Li, and Q. H. Wang, “High-optical-efficiency integral imaging display based on gradient-aperture pinhole array,” Opt. Eng. 52, 054002 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

J. P. Cui, Y. Li, J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, and Q. H. Wang, “Time-multiplexed dual-view display using a blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 87–90 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yoshihisa, K.

S. Takashi, Y. Junki, K. Yoshihisa, K. Keita, and K. Takashi, “Ergonomic evaluation of visual discomfort with autostereoscopic displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Boston, 2012), pp. 129–132.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chin. Opt. Lett. (2)

Q. H. Wang, H. Deng, T. T. Jiao, D. H. Li, and F. N. Wang, “Imitating micro-lens array for integral imaging,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 512–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, and D. H. Li, “Method of generating orthoscopic elemental image array from sparse camera array,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 31–33 (2012).

J. Disp. Technol. (3)

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, D. H. Li, and F. N. Wang, “Realization of undistorted and orthoscopic integral imaging without black zone in real and virtual fields,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 255–258 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Cui, Y. Li, J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, and Q. H. Wang, “Time-multiplexed dual-view display using a blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 87–90 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Luo, C. C. Ji, F. N. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, and Q. H. Wang, “Crosstalk-free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol. 8, 634–638 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (2)

H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, L. Li, and D. H. Li, “An integral-imaging three-dimensional display with wide viewing angle,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19, 679–684 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. De Zwart, D. K. G. De Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 847–855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Wu, H. Deng, D. H. Li, and Q. H. Wang, “High-optical-efficiency integral imaging display based on gradient-aperture pinhole array,” Opt. Eng. 52, 054002 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

D. U. Kean, D. J. Montgomery, G. Bourhill, and J. Mather, “Multiple view display,” U.S. patent7,154,653 B2 (26December2006).

S. Takashi, Y. Junki, K. Yoshihisa, K. Keita, and K. Takashi, “Ergonomic evaluation of visual discomfort with autostereoscopic displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Boston, 2012), pp. 129–132.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of the DVII 3D display. (a) Conventional EIs. (b) Modified EIs. (c) Modified EIs moved to left. (d) Modified EIs moved to right.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Structure of the DVII 3D display.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

EIA of the DVII 3D display.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

3D images viewed in the DVII 3D display. (a) 17.5° to the left. (b) 2.5° to the left. (c) 2.5° to the right. (d) 17.5° to the right.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of the Prototype of the DVII 3D Display

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

W=(L+f)p2L.
D=Lpf(M1)p.
D=WLf.
L=(2M1)f.
θ=arctan[Mp2(M1)f].

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