Abstract

The ability to detect nanoparticles in extremely dilute solutions in the presence of environmental noise is crucial for biosensing applications. In this paper we propose a scheme for detecting target nanoparticles through their scattering effects in a high-Q whispering gallery microcavity. The detection signal, defined as the total linewidth broadening of the two new split modes that appear upon nanoparticle adsorption, is highly sensitive and proportional to the nanoparticle concentration. Furthermore, this new method of detection eliminates the requirement for strict temperature control and is capable of distinguishing the signal from the biorecognitions (e.g., antibodies) initially attached to the resonator and that from the target nanoparticles (e.g., antigens).

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Blair and Y. Chen, “Resonant-enhanced evanescent-wave fluorescence biosensing with cylindrical optical cavities,” Appl. Opt. 40, 570–582 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. W. Boyd and J. E. Heebner, “Sensitive disk resonator photonic biosensor,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5742–5747 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Armani and K. J. Vahala, “Heavy water detection using ultra-high-Q microcavities,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1896–1898 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. M. White, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, “Liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1319–1321 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, and Q. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering-gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett. 28, 272–274 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, “Multiplexed DNA quantification by spectroscopic shift of two microsphere cavities,” Biophys. J. 85, 1974–1979 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 20701–20704 (2008).
  13. T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976–5979 (2011).
  14. J. D. Swaim, J. Knittel, and W. P. Bowen, “Detection limits in whispering gallery biosensors with plasmonic enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 243109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, “Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 243104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 043704(2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B.-B. Li, Q.-Y. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “On chip, high-sensitivity thermal sensor based on high-Q polydimethylsiloxane-coated microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251109 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. L. Gorodetsky, “Thermodynamical fluctuations in optical microspheres,” Proc. SPIE 4270, 147–153 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. R. Hiremath and V. N. Astratov, “Perturbations of whispering gallery modes by nanoparticles embedded in microcavities,” Opt. Express 16, 5421–5436 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. Teraoka and S. Arnold, “Resonance shifts of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes: degenerate perturbation theory and application to resonator sensors with axial symmetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1321–1329 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Deych and J. Rubin, “Rayleigh scattering of whispering gallery modes of microspheres due to a single dipole scatterer,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 061805(R) (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Li, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Z.-P. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Polarization-dependent detection of cylinder nanoparticles with mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203705 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Multiple-Rayleigh-scatterer-induced mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023803 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Wiersig, “Structure of whispering-gallery modes in optical microdisks perturbed by nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063828 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Shen and J.-T. Shen, “Nanoparticle sensing using whispering-gallery-mode resonators: plasmonic and Rayleigh scatterers,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 013801 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Shen, D.-R. Chen, and J.-T. Shen, “statistical theory of nanoparticle sensing using a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 063808 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. S. Weiss, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Splitting of high-Q Mie modes induced by light backscattering in silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1835–1837 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de Souza Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled coupling of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes by a single Rayleigh scatterer: a classical problem in a quantum optical light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. Koch, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 201111 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. N. He, D. R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, “Ultrasensitive detection of mode splitting in active optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053810 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. W. Kim, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Observation and characterization of mode splitting in microsphere resonators in aquatic environment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071111(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Controlled manipulation of mode splitting in an optical microcavity by two Rayleigh scatterers,” Opt. Express 18, 23535–23543 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  34. L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428–432 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  35. X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Feng, D.-Y. Qiu, J.-Y. Fan, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Mode-splitting-based optical label-free biosensing with a biorecognition-covered microcavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114702 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “Single virus and nanoparticle size spectrometry by whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express 19, 16195–16206 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  37. K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Mode coupling and cavity-quantum-dot interactions in a fiber-coupled microdisk cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 023814 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  38. H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale, and X. Fan, “Analysis of biomolecule detection with optofluidic ring resonator sensors,” Opt. Express 15, 9139–9146 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  39. S. Y. Tetin and T. L. Hazlett, “Optical spectroscopy in studies of antibody–hapten interactions,” Methods 20, 341–361 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  40. T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12, 4742–4750 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  41. D. B. Levitona and B. J. Frey, “Temperature-dependent absolute refractive index measurements of synthetic fused silica,” NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (2006).
  42. M. L. Gorodetsky and I. S. Grudinin, “Fundamental thermal fluctuations in microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 697–705 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  43. B. E. Little and J.-P. Laine, “Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 22, 4–6 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 043704(2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen and J.-T. Shen, “Nanoparticle sensing using whispering-gallery-mode resonators: plasmonic and Rayleigh scatterers,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 013801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen, D.-R. Chen, and J.-T. Shen, “statistical theory of nanoparticle sensing using a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 063808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Feng, D.-Y. Qiu, J.-Y. Fan, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Mode-splitting-based optical label-free biosensing with a biorecognition-covered microcavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (7)

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428–432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Multiple-Rayleigh-scatterer-induced mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wiersig, “Structure of whispering-gallery modes in optical microdisks perturbed by nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976–5979 (2011).

J. D. Swaim, J. Knittel, and W. P. Bowen, “Detection limits in whispering gallery biosensors with plasmonic enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 243109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, “Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “Single virus and nanoparticle size spectrometry by whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express 19, 16195–16206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Controlled manipulation of mode splitting in an optical microcavity by two Rayleigh scatterers,” Opt. Express 18, 23535–23543 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B.-B. Li, Q.-Y. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “On chip, high-sensitivity thermal sensor based on high-Q polydimethylsiloxane-coated microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Li, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Z.-P. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Polarization-dependent detection of cylinder nanoparticles with mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203705 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. N. He, D. R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, “Ultrasensitive detection of mode splitting in active optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Kim, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Observation and characterization of mode splitting in microsphere resonators in aquatic environment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071111(2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, and Q. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering-gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Deych and J. Rubin, “Rayleigh scattering of whispering gallery modes of microspheres due to a single dipole scatterer,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 061805(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Teraoka and S. Arnold, “Resonance shifts of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes: degenerate perturbation theory and application to resonator sensors with axial symmetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1321–1329 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

K. R. Hiremath and V. N. Astratov, “Perturbations of whispering gallery modes by nanoparticles embedded in microcavities,” Opt. Express 16, 5421–5436 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 20701–20704 (2008).

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de Souza Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled coupling of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes by a single Rayleigh scatterer: a classical problem in a quantum optical light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Mode coupling and cavity-quantum-dot interactions in a fiber-coupled microdisk cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 023814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale, and X. Fan, “Analysis of biomolecule detection with optofluidic ring resonator sensors,” Opt. Express 15, 9139–9146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, “Multiplexed DNA quantification by spectroscopic shift of two microsphere cavities,” Biophys. J. 85, 1974–1979 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett. 28, 272–274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

S. Y. Tetin and T. L. Hazlett, “Optical spectroscopy in studies of antibody–hapten interactions,” Methods 20, 341–361 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

Armani, A. M.

Arnold, S.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 043704(2012).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, “Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Teraoka and S. Arnold, “Resonance shifts of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes: degenerate perturbation theory and application to resonator sensors with axial symmetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1321–1329 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 20701–20704 (2008).

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, “Multiplexed DNA quantification by spectroscopic shift of two microsphere cavities,” Biophys. J. 85, 1974–1979 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett. 28, 272–274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Astratov, V. N.

Benson, O.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de Souza Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled coupling of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes by a single Rayleigh scatterer: a classical problem in a quantum optical light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blair, S.

Bowen, W. P.

J. D. Swaim, J. Knittel, and W. P. Bowen, “Detection limits in whispering gallery biosensors with plasmonic enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 243109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, “Multiplexed DNA quantification by spectroscopic shift of two microsphere cavities,” Biophys. J. 85, 1974–1979 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carmon, T.

Chen, D. R.

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. N. He, D. R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.-R.

Y. Shen, D.-R. Chen, and J.-T. Shen, “statistical theory of nanoparticle sensing using a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 063808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “Single virus and nanoparticle size spectrometry by whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express 19, 16195–16206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976–5979 (2011).

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y.-L.

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Multiple-Rayleigh-scatterer-induced mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dale, P. S.

Dantham, V. R.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 043704(2012).
[CrossRef]

de Souza Menezes, L.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de Souza Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled coupling of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes by a single Rayleigh scatterer: a classical problem in a quantum optical light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deych, L.

L. Deych and J. Rubin, “Rayleigh scattering of whispering gallery modes of microspheres due to a single dipole scatterer,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 061805(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C.-H.

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, and Q. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering-gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.-Y.

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Feng, D.-Y. Qiu, J.-Y. Fan, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Mode-splitting-based optical label-free biosensing with a biorecognition-covered microcavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

Feng, Y.

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Feng, D.-Y. Qiu, J.-Y. Fan, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Mode-splitting-based optical label-free biosensing with a biorecognition-covered microcavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976–5979 (2011).

Fraser, S. E.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976–5979 (2011).

Frey, B. J.

D. B. Levitona and B. J. Frey, “Temperature-dependent absolute refractive index measurements of synthetic fused silica,” NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (2006).

Gong, Q.

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Feng, D.-Y. Qiu, J.-Y. Fan, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Mode-splitting-based optical label-free biosensing with a biorecognition-covered microcavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Multiple-Rayleigh-scatterer-induced mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B.-B. Li, Q.-Y. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “On chip, high-sensitivity thermal sensor based on high-Q polydimethylsiloxane-coated microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Li, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Z.-P. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Polarization-dependent detection of cylinder nanoparticles with mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203705 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, and Q. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering-gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

M. L. Gorodetsky and I. S. Grudinin, “Fundamental thermal fluctuations in microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 697–705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky, “Thermodynamical fluctuations in optical microspheres,” Proc. SPIE 4270, 147–153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, S.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de Souza Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled coupling of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes by a single Rayleigh scatterer: a classical problem in a quantum optical light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, I. S.

Han, Z.-F.

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, and Q. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering-gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

Haroche, S.

Hazlett, T. L.

S. Y. Tetin and T. L. Hazlett, “Optical spectroscopy in studies of antibody–hapten interactions,” Methods 20, 341–361 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428–432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “Single virus and nanoparticle size spectrometry by whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express 19, 16195–16206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Kim, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Observation and characterization of mode splitting in microsphere resonators in aquatic environment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071111(2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Controlled manipulation of mode splitting in an optical microcavity by two Rayleigh scatterers,” Opt. Express 18, 23535–23543 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, “Ultrasensitive detection of mode splitting in active optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, L. N.

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. N. He, D. R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heebner, J. E.

Herchak, S.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976–5979 (2011).

Hiremath, K. R.

Holler, S.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 043704(2012).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, “Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett. 28, 272–274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.-F.

B.-B. Li, Q.-Y. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “On chip, high-sensitivity thermal sensor based on high-Q polydimethylsiloxane-coated microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keng, D.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 20701–20704 (2008).

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khoshsima, M.

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett. 28, 272–274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-H.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976–5979 (2011).

Kim, W.

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428–432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Kim, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Observation and characterization of mode splitting in microsphere resonators in aquatic environment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071111(2010).
[CrossRef]

Knittel, J.

J. D. Swaim, J. Knittel, and W. P. Bowen, “Detection limits in whispering gallery biosensors with plasmonic enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 243109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koch, B.

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kolchenko, V.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 043704(2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.-P.

Lee, H.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976–5979 (2011).

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

Levitona, D. B.

D. B. Levitona and B. J. Frey, “Temperature-dependent absolute refractive index measurements of synthetic fused silica,” NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (2006).

Li, B.-B.

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Multiple-Rayleigh-scatterer-induced mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B.-B. Li, Q.-Y. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “On chip, high-sensitivity thermal sensor based on high-Q polydimethylsiloxane-coated microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, and Q. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering-gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Li, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Z.-P. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Polarization-dependent detection of cylinder nanoparticles with mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203705 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. N. He, D. R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Feng, D.-Y. Qiu, J.-Y. Fan, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Mode-splitting-based optical label-free biosensing with a biorecognition-covered microcavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Multiple-Rayleigh-scatterer-induced mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B.-B. Li, Q.-Y. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “On chip, high-sensitivity thermal sensor based on high-Q polydimethylsiloxane-coated microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Li, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Z.-P. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Polarization-dependent detection of cylinder nanoparticles with mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203705 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, and Q. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering-gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, “Multiplexed DNA quantification by spectroscopic shift of two microsphere cavities,” Biophys. J. 85, 1974–1979 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

Liu, Y.-C.

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Multiple-Rayleigh-scatterer-induced mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Li, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Z.-P. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Polarization-dependent detection of cylinder nanoparticles with mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203705 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.-P.

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Li, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Z.-P. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Polarization-dependent detection of cylinder nanoparticles with mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203705 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976–5979 (2011).

Mazzei, A.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de Souza Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled coupling of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes by a single Rayleigh scatterer: a classical problem in a quantum optical light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noto, M.

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oveys, H.

Özdemir, S. K.

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “Single virus and nanoparticle size spectrometry by whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express 19, 16195–16206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428–432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. N. He, D. R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Kim, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Observation and characterization of mode splitting in microsphere resonators in aquatic environment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071111(2010).
[CrossRef]

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, “Ultrasensitive detection of mode splitting in active optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Controlled manipulation of mode splitting in an optical microcavity by two Rayleigh scatterers,” Opt. Express 18, 23535–23543 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Mode coupling and cavity-quantum-dot interactions in a fiber-coupled microdisk cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 023814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, D.-Y.

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Feng, D.-Y. Qiu, J.-Y. Fan, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Mode-splitting-based optical label-free biosensing with a biorecognition-covered microcavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J.-M.

Rajmangal, R.

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, “Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, J.

L. Deych and J. Rubin, “Rayleigh scattering of whispering gallery modes of microspheres due to a single dipole scatterer,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 061805(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de Souza Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled coupling of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes by a single Rayleigh scatterer: a classical problem in a quantum optical light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Weiss, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Splitting of high-Q Mie modes induced by light backscattering in silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1835–1837 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.-T.

Y. Shen, D.-R. Chen, and J.-T. Shen, “statistical theory of nanoparticle sensing using a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 063808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen and J.-T. Shen, “Nanoparticle sensing using whispering-gallery-mode resonators: plasmonic and Rayleigh scatterers,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 013801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen and J.-T. Shen, “Nanoparticle sensing using whispering-gallery-mode resonators: plasmonic and Rayleigh scatterers,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 013801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen, D.-R. Chen, and J.-T. Shen, “statistical theory of nanoparticle sensing using a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 063808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, “Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, T.

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Mode coupling and cavity-quantum-dot interactions in a fiber-coupled microdisk cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 023814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale, and X. Fan, “Analysis of biomolecule detection with optofluidic ring resonator sensors,” Opt. Express 15, 9139–9146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Swaim, J. D.

J. D. Swaim, J. Knittel, and W. P. Bowen, “Detection limits in whispering gallery biosensors with plasmonic enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 243109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

I. Teraoka and S. Arnold, “Resonance shifts of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes: degenerate perturbation theory and application to resonator sensors with axial symmetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1321–1329 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, “Multiplexed DNA quantification by spectroscopic shift of two microsphere cavities,” Biophys. J. 85, 1974–1979 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett. 28, 272–274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tetin, S. Y.

S. Y. Tetin and T. L. Hazlett, “Optical spectroscopy in studies of antibody–hapten interactions,” Methods 20, 341–361 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976–5979 (2011).

Vahala, K. J.

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 20701–20704 (2008).

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett. 28, 272–274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, “Multiplexed DNA quantification by spectroscopic shift of two microsphere cavities,” Biophys. J. 85, 1974–1979 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wan, Z.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 043704(2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.-Y.

B.-B. Li, Q.-Y. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “On chip, high-sensitivity thermal sensor based on high-Q polydimethylsiloxane-coated microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, D. S.

White, I. M.

Wiersig, J.

J. Wiersig, “Structure of whispering-gallery modes in optical microdisks perturbed by nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, L.

B.-B. Li, Q.-Y. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “On chip, high-sensitivity thermal sensor based on high-Q polydimethylsiloxane-coated microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y.-F.

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Feng, D.-Y. Qiu, J.-Y. Fan, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Mode-splitting-based optical label-free biosensing with a biorecognition-covered microcavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Multiple-Rayleigh-scatterer-induced mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. N. He, D. R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B.-B. Li, Q.-Y. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “On chip, high-sensitivity thermal sensor based on high-Q polydimethylsiloxane-coated microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Li, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Z.-P. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Polarization-dependent detection of cylinder nanoparticles with mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203705 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, and Q. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering-gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428–432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “Single virus and nanoparticle size spectrometry by whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express 19, 16195–16206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. N. He, D. R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Kim, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Observation and characterization of mode splitting in microsphere resonators in aquatic environment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071111(2010).
[CrossRef]

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, “Ultrasensitive detection of mode splitting in active optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Controlled manipulation of mode splitting in an optical microcavity by two Rayleigh scatterers,” Opt. Express 18, 23535–23543 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12, 4742–4750 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yi, X.

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Feng, D.-Y. Qiu, J.-Y. Fan, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Mode-splitting-based optical label-free biosensing with a biorecognition-covered microcavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Multiple-Rayleigh-scatterer-induced mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Li, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Z.-P. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Polarization-dependent detection of cylinder nanoparticles with mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203705 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yi, Y.

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.-Y.

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale, and X. Fan, “Analysis of biomolecule detection with optofluidic ring resonator sensors,” Opt. Express 15, 9139–9146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “Single virus and nanoparticle size spectrometry by whispering-gallery-mode microcavities,” Opt. Express 19, 16195–16206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428–432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. N. He, D. R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Controlled manipulation of mode splitting in an optical microcavity by two Rayleigh scatterers,” Opt. Express 18, 23535–23543 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, “Ultrasensitive detection of mode splitting in active optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Znameroski, S.

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zou, C.-L.

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, and Q. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering-gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zumofen, G.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de Souza Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled coupling of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes by a single Rayleigh scatterer: a classical problem in a quantum optical light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Swaim, J. Knittel, and W. P. Bowen, “Detection limits in whispering gallery biosensors with plasmonic enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 243109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, “Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 043704(2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-B. Li, Q.-Y. Wang, Y.-F. Xiao, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Li, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “On chip, high-sensitivity thermal sensor based on high-Q polydimethylsiloxane-coated microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Li, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Z.-P. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Polarization-dependent detection of cylinder nanoparticles with mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203705 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J.-Y. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Kim, S. K. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Observation and characterization of mode splitting in microsphere resonators in aquatic environment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071111(2010).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, “Multiplexed DNA quantification by spectroscopic shift of two microsphere cavities,” Biophys. J. 85, 1974–1979 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y. Feng, D.-Y. Qiu, J.-Y. Fan, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Mode-splitting-based optical label-free biosensing with a biorecognition-covered microcavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Methods (1)

S. Y. Tetin and T. L. Hazlett, “Optical spectroscopy in studies of antibody–hapten interactions,” Methods 20, 341–361 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 428–432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Zhu, S. K. Özdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. N. He, D. R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (7)

L. He, S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, and L. Yang, “Ultrasensitive detection of mode splitting in active optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, Y.-F. Xiao, Y.-C. Liu, B.-B. Li, Y.-L. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Multiple-Rayleigh-scatterer-induced mode splitting in a high-Q whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wiersig, “Structure of whispering-gallery modes in optical microdisks perturbed by nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen and J.-T. Shen, “Nanoparticle sensing using whispering-gallery-mode resonators: plasmonic and Rayleigh scatterers,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 013801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen, D.-R. Chen, and J.-T. Shen, “statistical theory of nanoparticle sensing using a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 063808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Mode coupling and cavity-quantum-dot interactions in a fiber-coupled microdisk cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 023814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Deych and J. Rubin, “Rayleigh scattering of whispering gallery modes of microspheres due to a single dipole scatterer,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 061805(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Y.-F. Xiao, C.-L. Zou, B.-B. Li, Y. Li, C.-H. Dong, Z.-F. Han, and Q. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering-gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de Souza Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled coupling of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes by a single Rayleigh scatterer: a classical problem in a quantum optical light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 20701–20704 (2008).

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5976–5979 (2011).

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. L. Gorodetsky, “Thermodynamical fluctuations in optical microspheres,” Proc. SPIE 4270, 147–153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. B. Levitona and B. J. Frey, “Temperature-dependent absolute refractive index measurements of synthetic fused silica,” NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustrations of (a) a fiber taper coupled with a bare microtoroid, (b) a microtoroid covered with the biorecognition molecules, and (c) a microtoroid covered with the biorecognition and the target molecules binding to the biorecognitions. (d)–(f) Corresponding transmission spectra of (a)–(c).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Numerical frequency splittings with (red dotted curve) and without (black solid curve) precovered biorecognitions. (b) Relative deviation of the two splittings in (a). Here the biorecognition IgGs and the spherical targets with 20 nm radius are randomly deposited on the cavity surface. The refractive indices of the cavity, surrounding solution, precovered biorecognitions, and tested targets are chosen as 1.45, 1.33, 1.5, and 1.5, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Average value of the total linewidth broadening versus the number of target molecules with a radius of 50 nm (black solid line), 40 nm (red dashed line), and 30 nm (blue dotted line). (b) Relative standard deviation versus the number of target molecules. Note that the deviations for the three different sizes share the same curve.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Average value of the total linewidth broadening and (b) the relative standard deviation versus the concentration of target molecules with different size r=30nm (blue dotted curve), 40 nm (red dashed curve), and 50 nm (black solid curve). Here we set Kd=10nM.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Relative deviation of total linewidth broadening versus temperature change, including the deviation induced by the variation of target particle polarizability (magenta dotted–dashed line), cavity mode parameters (red dashed line), intrinsic cavity mode linewidth (blue dotted line), and their combined effects (black solid line). (Inset) Comparison of relative deviation of total frequency shift (red dashed curve) and total linewidth broadening (black solid curve) versus temperature change. Here we consider 2000 adsorbed nanoparticle targets [corresponding to the lower detection limit determined in Fig. 3(b)], with n=1.45, dn/dT=8.55×106K1, and r=50nm.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ(Γ++Γ)=2n=1NtΓn=αt2ω043πν3Vmn=1Ntf2(θn),
ζ=CC+Kd,

Metrics