Abstract

Saturable absorption of polymer film composites with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multilayer graphene (GR) were studied by Z- and P-scan methods with femtosecond probing pulses at a wavelength of 1.06 μm. As a matrix for the composite film, a polymer carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was used. For these composites, the dependence of transmittance on peak intensity of a probe pulse was shown. The values of saturation intensities for the GR-CMC and SWNT-CMC composites were determined by the different methods. The intensities at which optical damage of the composites occurs were estimated.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

2011 (3)

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer grapheme,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Yee, J.-H. Kim, M. H. Jung, B. H. Hong, and K.-J. Kong, “Ultrafast modulation of optical transitions in monolayer and multilayer graphene,” Carbon 49, 4781 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Xu, X.-L. Li, Y.-Z. Wu, X.-P. Hao, J.-L. He, and K.-J. Yang, “Graphene saturable absorber mirror for ultrafast pulse solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1948 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, D. W. Shin, V. G. Makotchenko, A. S. Nazarov, V. E. Fedorov, J. H. Yoo, S. M. Yu, J.-Y. Choi, J. M. Kim, and J.-B. Yoo, “The superior dispersion of easily soluble graphite,” Small 6, 58–62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Xing, H. Guo, X. Zhang, T. C. Sum, and C. H. A. Huan, “The Physics of ultrafast saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 18, 4564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Small 6, 195–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Khudyakov, A. S. Lobach, E. D. Obraztsova, and V. A. Nadtochenko, “Nonlinear optical absorption of nanocomposite films made from polymers and single-walled carbon nanotubes: The effect of nanotube type and polymeric matrix,” High Energy Chem. 43, 312–317 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. L. Bleloch, K. S. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. R. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Styers-Barnett, S. P. Ellison, B. P. Mehl, B. C. Westlake, R. L. House, C. Park, K. E. Wise, and J. M. Papanikolas, “Exciton dynamics and biexciton formation in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4507–4516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, G. Steinmeyer, J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Passive mode locking of Yb:KLuW using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 729–731 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. Rotermund, “Mode-locked self-starting Cr:forsterite laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K. H. Fong, K. Kikuchi, C. S. Goh, S. Y. Set, R. Grange, M. Haiml, A. Schlatter, and U. Keller, “Solid-state Er:Yb:glass laser mode-locked by using single-wall carbon nanotube thin film,” Opt. Lett. 32, 38–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Garnov, S. A. Solokhin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, P. A. Obraztsov, A. I. Chernov, V. V. Bukin, A. A. Sirotkin, Y. D. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Passive mode-locking with carbon nanotube saturable absorber in Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:Y0.9Gd0.1VO4 lasers operating at 1.34 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 648–651 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

V. A. Nadtochenko, A. S. Lobach, F. E. Gostev, O. M. Sarkisov, D. O. Shcherbinin, S. A. Kovalenko, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitations and electron–electron interactions in single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Dokl. Phys. 50, 12–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2002 (2)

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Kataura, Y. Kamazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Achiba, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kamazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 87, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.

Aguilo, M.

Ajayan, P. M.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bae, M.-K.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bangert, U.

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. L. Bleloch, K. S. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. R. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baughman, R. H.

O. J. Korovyanko, C.-X. Sheng, Z. V. Vardeny, A. B. Dalton, and R. H. Baughman, “Ultrafast spectroscopy of excitons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017403(2004).
[CrossRef]

Bleloch, A. L.

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. L. Bleloch, K. S. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. R. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Briddon, P. R.

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. L. Bleloch, K. S. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. R. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bukin, V. V.

S. V. Garnov, S. A. Solokhin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, P. A. Obraztsov, A. I. Chernov, V. V. Bukin, A. A. Sirotkin, Y. D. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Passive mode-locking with carbon nanotube saturable absorber in Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:Y0.9Gd0.1VO4 lasers operating at 1.34 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 648–651 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Casiraghi, C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer grapheme,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W. H.

Chernov, A. I.

S. V. Garnov, S. A. Solokhin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, P. A. Obraztsov, A. I. Chernov, V. V. Bukin, A. A. Sirotkin, Y. D. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Passive mode-locking with carbon nanotube saturable absorber in Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:Y0.9Gd0.1VO4 lasers operating at 1.34 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 648–651 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, W. B.

Choi, J.-Y.

J. H. Lee, D. W. Shin, V. G. Makotchenko, A. S. Nazarov, V. E. Fedorov, J. H. Yoo, S. M. Yu, J.-Y. Choi, J. M. Kim, and J.-B. Yoo, “The superior dispersion of easily soluble graphite,” Small 6, 58–62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. Y.

Dalton, A. B.

O. J. Korovyanko, C.-X. Sheng, Z. V. Vardeny, A. B. Dalton, and R. H. Baughman, “Ultrafast spectroscopy of excitons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017403(2004).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, F.

Eberlein, T.

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. L. Bleloch, K. S. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. R. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ellison, S. P.

D. J. Styers-Barnett, S. P. Ellison, B. P. Mehl, B. C. Westlake, R. L. House, C. Park, K. E. Wise, and J. M. Papanikolas, “Exciton dynamics and biexciton formation in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4507–4516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ernsting, N. P.

V. A. Nadtochenko, A. S. Lobach, F. E. Gostev, O. M. Sarkisov, D. O. Shcherbinin, S. A. Kovalenko, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitations and electron–electron interactions in single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Dokl. Phys. 50, 12–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, V. E.

J. H. Lee, D. W. Shin, V. G. Makotchenko, A. S. Nazarov, V. E. Fedorov, J. H. Yoo, S. M. Yu, J.-Y. Choi, J. M. Kim, and J.-B. Yoo, “The superior dispersion of easily soluble graphite,” Small 6, 58–62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer grapheme,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fong, K. H.

Garnov, S. V.

S. V. Garnov, S. A. Solokhin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, P. A. Obraztsov, A. I. Chernov, V. V. Bukin, A. A. Sirotkin, Y. D. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Passive mode-locking with carbon nanotube saturable absorber in Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:Y0.9Gd0.1VO4 lasers operating at 1.34 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 648–651 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gass, M.

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. L. Bleloch, K. S. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. R. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A.

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. L. Bleloch, K. S. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. R. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A. K.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goh, C. S.

Gostev, F. E.

V. A. Nadtochenko, A. S. Lobach, F. E. Gostev, O. M. Sarkisov, D. O. Shcherbinin, S. A. Kovalenko, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitations and electron–electron interactions in single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Dokl. Phys. 50, 12–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grange, R.

Griebner, U.

Guo, H.

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haiml, M.

Han, W.-S.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hao, X.-P.

Hao, Y.

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Small 6, 195–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, J.-L.

Hong, B. H.

K.-J. Yee, J.-H. Kim, M. H. Jung, B. H. Hong, and K.-J. Kong, “Ultrafast modulation of optical transitions in monolayer and multilayer graphene,” Carbon 49, 4781 (2011).
[CrossRef]

House, R. L.

D. J. Styers-Barnett, S. P. Ellison, B. P. Mehl, B. C. Westlake, R. L. House, C. Park, K. E. Wise, and J. M. Papanikolas, “Exciton dynamics and biexciton formation in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4507–4516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huan, C. H. A.

Huang, H.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer grapheme,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P. L.

Huang, S. H.

Inoue, Y.

Jablonski, M.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1581–1583 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 87, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.

Jang, S.-Y.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer grapheme,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. L. Bleloch, K. S. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. R. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, M. H.

K.-J. Yee, J.-H. Kim, M. H. Jung, B. H. Hong, and K.-J. Kong, “Ultrafast modulation of optical transitions in monolayer and multilayer graphene,” Carbon 49, 4781 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kamazawa, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kamazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kataura, H.

H. Kataura, Y. Kamazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 87, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.

Kelleher, E. J. R.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

Khudyakov, D. V.

D. V. Khudyakov, A. S. Lobach, E. D. Obraztsova, and V. A. Nadtochenko, “Nonlinear optical absorption of nanocomposite films made from polymers and single-walled carbon nanotubes: The effect of nanotube type and polymeric matrix,” High Energy Chem. 43, 312–317 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

K. H. Fong, K. Kikuchi, C. S. Goh, S. Y. Set, R. Grange, M. Haiml, A. Schlatter, and U. Keller, “Solid-state Er:Yb:glass laser mode-locked by using single-wall carbon nanotube thin film,” Opt. Lett. 32, 38–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 87, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.

Kim, J. M.

J. H. Lee, D. W. Shin, V. G. Makotchenko, A. S. Nazarov, V. E. Fedorov, J. H. Yoo, S. M. Yu, J.-Y. Choi, J. M. Kim, and J.-B. Yoo, “The superior dispersion of easily soluble graphite,” Small 6, 58–62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-H.

K.-J. Yee, J.-H. Kim, M. H. Jung, B. H. Hong, and K.-J. Kong, “Ultrafast modulation of optical transitions in monolayer and multilayer graphene,” Carbon 49, 4781 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kong, K.-J.

K.-J. Yee, J.-H. Kim, M. H. Jung, B. H. Hong, and K.-J. Kong, “Ultrafast modulation of optical transitions in monolayer and multilayer graphene,” Carbon 49, 4781 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koo, C. K.

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Small 6, 195–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Korovyanko, O. J.

O. J. Korovyanko, C.-X. Sheng, Z. V. Vardeny, A. B. Dalton, and R. H. Baughman, “Ultrafast spectroscopy of excitons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017403(2004).
[CrossRef]

Kovalenko, S. A.

V. A. Nadtochenko, A. S. Lobach, F. E. Gostev, O. M. Sarkisov, D. O. Shcherbinin, S. A. Kovalenko, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitations and electron–electron interactions in single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Dokl. Phys. 50, 12–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. H.

Kutovoi, S. A.

S. V. Garnov, S. A. Solokhin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, P. A. Obraztsov, A. I. Chernov, V. V. Bukin, A. A. Sirotkin, Y. D. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Passive mode-locking with carbon nanotube saturable absorber in Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:Y0.9Gd0.1VO4 lasers operating at 1.34 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 648–651 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lazzeri, M.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-C.

C.-C. Lee, J. M. Miller, and T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 129 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, D. W. Shin, V. G. Makotchenko, A. S. Nazarov, V. E. Fedorov, J. H. Yoo, S. M. Yu, J.-Y. Choi, J. M. Kim, and J.-B. Yoo, “The superior dispersion of easily soluble graphite,” Small 6, 58–62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Li, L. J.

Li, X.-L.

Lin, G. R.

Lin, S. C.

Lobach, A. S.

D. V. Khudyakov, A. S. Lobach, E. D. Obraztsova, and V. A. Nadtochenko, “Nonlinear optical absorption of nanocomposite films made from polymers and single-walled carbon nanotubes: The effect of nanotube type and polymeric matrix,” High Energy Chem. 43, 312–317 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Garnov, S. A. Solokhin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, P. A. Obraztsov, A. I. Chernov, V. V. Bukin, A. A. Sirotkin, Y. D. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Passive mode-locking with carbon nanotube saturable absorber in Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:Y0.9Gd0.1VO4 lasers operating at 1.34 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 648–651 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Nadtochenko, A. S. Lobach, F. E. Gostev, O. M. Sarkisov, D. O. Shcherbinin, S. A. Kovalenko, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitations and electron–electron interactions in single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Dokl. Phys. 50, 12–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Makotchenko, V. G.

J. H. Lee, D. W. Shin, V. G. Makotchenko, A. S. Nazarov, V. E. Fedorov, J. H. Yoo, S. M. Yu, J.-Y. Choi, J. M. Kim, and J.-B. Yoo, “The superior dispersion of easily soluble graphite,” Small 6, 58–62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maniwa, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kamazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, S.

Mateos, X.

Mauri, F.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mehl, B. P.

D. J. Styers-Barnett, S. P. Ellison, B. P. Mehl, B. C. Westlake, R. L. House, C. Park, K. E. Wise, and J. M. Papanikolas, “Exciton dynamics and biexciton formation in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4507–4516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. M.

C.-C. Lee, J. M. Miller, and T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 129 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

Nadtochenko, V. A.

D. V. Khudyakov, A. S. Lobach, E. D. Obraztsova, and V. A. Nadtochenko, “Nonlinear optical absorption of nanocomposite films made from polymers and single-walled carbon nanotubes: The effect of nanotube type and polymeric matrix,” High Energy Chem. 43, 312–317 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Nadtochenko, A. S. Lobach, F. E. Gostev, O. M. Sarkisov, D. O. Shcherbinin, S. A. Kovalenko, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitations and electron–electron interactions in single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Dokl. Phys. 50, 12–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nair, R. R.

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. L. Bleloch, K. S. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. R. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nazarov, A. S.

J. H. Lee, D. W. Shin, V. G. Makotchenko, A. S. Nazarov, V. E. Fedorov, J. H. Yoo, S. M. Yu, J.-Y. Choi, J. M. Kim, and J.-B. Yoo, “The superior dispersion of easily soluble graphite,” Small 6, 58–62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Z.

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Small 6, 195–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, K. S.

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. L. Bleloch, K. S. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. R. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Obraztsov, P. A.

S. V. Garnov, S. A. Solokhin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, P. A. Obraztsov, A. I. Chernov, V. V. Bukin, A. A. Sirotkin, Y. D. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Passive mode-locking with carbon nanotube saturable absorber in Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:Y0.9Gd0.1VO4 lasers operating at 1.34 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 648–651 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Obraztsova, E. D.

D. V. Khudyakov, A. S. Lobach, E. D. Obraztsova, and V. A. Nadtochenko, “Nonlinear optical absorption of nanocomposite films made from polymers and single-walled carbon nanotubes: The effect of nanotube type and polymeric matrix,” High Energy Chem. 43, 312–317 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Garnov, S. A. Solokhin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, P. A. Obraztsov, A. I. Chernov, V. V. Bukin, A. A. Sirotkin, Y. D. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Passive mode-locking with carbon nanotube saturable absorber in Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:Y0.9Gd0.1VO4 lasers operating at 1.34 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 648–651 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kamazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Papanikolas, J. M.

D. J. Styers-Barnett, S. P. Ellison, B. P. Mehl, B. C. Westlake, R. L. House, C. Park, K. E. Wise, and J. M. Papanikolas, “Exciton dynamics and biexciton formation in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4507–4516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, C.

D. J. Styers-Barnett, S. P. Ellison, B. P. Mehl, B. C. Westlake, R. L. House, C. Park, K. E. Wise, and J. M. Papanikolas, “Exciton dynamics and biexciton formation in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4507–4516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

Piscanec, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Popov, S. V.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pujol, M. C.

Raravikar, N. R.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rivier, S.

Rotermund, F.

Roth, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rozhin, A.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 87, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.

Rozhin, A. G.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 87, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.

Sarkisov, O. M.

V. A. Nadtochenko, A. S. Lobach, F. E. Gostev, O. M. Sarkisov, D. O. Shcherbinin, S. A. Kovalenko, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitations and electron–electron interactions in single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Dokl. Phys. 50, 12–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scardaci, V.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schadler, L. S.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

C.-C. Lee, J. M. Miller, and T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 129 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schlatter, A.

Schmidt, A.

Set, S. Y.

K. H. Fong, K. Kikuchi, C. S. Goh, S. Y. Set, R. Grange, M. Haiml, A. Schlatter, and U. Keller, “Solid-state Er:Yb:glass laser mode-locked by using single-wall carbon nanotube thin film,” Opt. Lett. 32, 38–40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1581–1583 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 87, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.

Shcherbakov, I. A.

S. V. Garnov, S. A. Solokhin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, P. A. Obraztsov, A. I. Chernov, V. V. Bukin, A. A. Sirotkin, Y. D. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Passive mode-locking with carbon nanotube saturable absorber in Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:Y0.9Gd0.1VO4 lasers operating at 1.34 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 648–651 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbinin, D. O.

V. A. Nadtochenko, A. S. Lobach, F. E. Gostev, O. M. Sarkisov, D. O. Shcherbinin, S. A. Kovalenko, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitations and electron–electron interactions in single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Dokl. Phys. 50, 12–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z.

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Small 6, 195–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, C.-X.

O. J. Korovyanko, C.-X. Sheng, Z. V. Vardeny, A. B. Dalton, and R. H. Baughman, “Ultrafast spectroscopy of excitons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017403(2004).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D. W.

J. H. Lee, D. W. Shin, V. G. Makotchenko, A. S. Nazarov, V. E. Fedorov, J. H. Yoo, S. M. Yu, J.-Y. Choi, J. M. Kim, and J.-B. Yoo, “The superior dispersion of easily soluble graphite,” Small 6, 58–62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sirotkin, A. A.

S. V. Garnov, S. A. Solokhin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, P. A. Obraztsov, A. I. Chernov, V. V. Bukin, A. A. Sirotkin, Y. D. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Passive mode-locking with carbon nanotube saturable absorber in Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:Y0.9Gd0.1VO4 lasers operating at 1.34 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 648–651 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solokhin, S. A.

S. V. Garnov, S. A. Solokhin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, P. A. Obraztsov, A. I. Chernov, V. V. Bukin, A. A. Sirotkin, Y. D. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Passive mode-locking with carbon nanotube saturable absorber in Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:Y0.9Gd0.1VO4 lasers operating at 1.34 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 648–651 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-W.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

Styers-Barnett, D. J.

D. J. Styers-Barnett, S. P. Ellison, B. P. Mehl, B. C. Westlake, R. L. House, C. Park, K. E. Wise, and J. M. Papanikolas, “Exciton dynamics and biexciton formation in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4507–4516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Su, C. Y.

Sum, T. C.

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

H. Kataura, Y. Kamazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 87, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.

Taylor, J. R.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thong, J. T. L.

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Small 6, 195–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tokumoto, M.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 87, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Travers, J. C.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Umezu, I.

H. Kataura, Y. Kamazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

O. J. Korovyanko, C.-X. Sheng, Z. V. Vardeny, A. B. Dalton, and R. H. Baughman, “Ultrafast spectroscopy of excitons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017403(2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Small 6, 195–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer grapheme,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Small 6, 195–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Small 6, 195–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Small 6, 195–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wee, A. T. S.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer grapheme,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Westlake, B. C.

D. J. Styers-Barnett, S. P. Ellison, B. P. Mehl, B. C. Westlake, R. L. House, C. Park, K. E. Wise, and J. M. Papanikolas, “Exciton dynamics and biexciton formation in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4507–4516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wise, K. E.

D. J. Styers-Barnett, S. P. Ellison, B. P. Mehl, B. C. Westlake, R. L. House, C. Park, K. E. Wise, and J. M. Papanikolas, “Exciton dynamics and biexciton formation in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4507–4516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-Z.

Xing, G.

Xu, J.-L.

Yaguchi, H.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1581–1583 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 87, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.

Yamashita, S.

Yang, H.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer grapheme,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.-J.

Yee, K.-J.

K.-J. Yee, J.-H. Kim, M. H. Jung, B. H. Hong, and K.-J. Kong, “Ultrafast modulation of optical transitions in monolayer and multilayer graphene,” Carbon 49, 4781 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. Y.

Yim, J. H.

Yoo, J. H.

J. H. Lee, D. W. Shin, V. G. Makotchenko, A. S. Nazarov, V. E. Fedorov, J. H. Yoo, S. M. Yu, J.-Y. Choi, J. M. Kim, and J.-B. Yoo, “The superior dispersion of easily soluble graphite,” Small 6, 58–62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, J.-B.

J. H. Lee, D. W. Shin, V. G. Makotchenko, A. S. Nazarov, V. E. Fedorov, J. H. Yoo, S. M. Yu, J.-Y. Choi, J. M. Kim, and J.-B. Yoo, “The superior dispersion of easily soluble graphite,” Small 6, 58–62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. M.

J. H. Lee, D. W. Shin, V. G. Makotchenko, A. S. Nazarov, V. E. Fedorov, J. H. Yoo, S. M. Yu, J.-Y. Choi, J. M. Kim, and J.-B. Yoo, “The superior dispersion of easily soluble graphite,” Small 6, 58–62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zagumennyi, Y. D.

S. V. Garnov, S. A. Solokhin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, P. A. Obraztsov, A. I. Chernov, V. V. Bukin, A. A. Sirotkin, Y. D. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Passive mode-locking with carbon nanotube saturable absorber in Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:Y0.9Gd0.1VO4 lasers operating at 1.34 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 648–651 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zavartsev, Y. D.

S. V. Garnov, S. A. Solokhin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, P. A. Obraztsov, A. I. Chernov, V. V. Bukin, A. A. Sirotkin, Y. D. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Passive mode-locking with carbon nanotube saturable absorber in Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:Y0.9Gd0.1VO4 lasers operating at 1.34 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 648–651 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, X.-C.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.-P.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C.-C. Lee, J. M. Miller, and T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 129 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 mm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carbon (1)

K.-J. Yee, J.-H. Kim, M. H. Jung, B. H. Hong, and K.-J. Kong, “Ultrafast modulation of optical transitions in monolayer and multilayer graphene,” Carbon 49, 4781 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dokl. Phys. (1)

V. A. Nadtochenko, A. S. Lobach, F. E. Gostev, O. M. Sarkisov, D. O. Shcherbinin, S. A. Kovalenko, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond dynamics of excitations and electron–electron interactions in single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Dokl. Phys. 50, 12–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

High Energy Chem. (1)

D. V. Khudyakov, A. S. Lobach, E. D. Obraztsova, and V. A. Nadtochenko, “Nonlinear optical absorption of nanocomposite films made from polymers and single-walled carbon nanotubes: The effect of nanotube type and polymeric matrix,” High Energy Chem. 43, 312–317 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

D. J. Styers-Barnett, S. P. Ellison, B. P. Mehl, B. C. Westlake, R. L. House, C. Park, K. E. Wise, and J. M. Papanikolas, “Exciton dynamics and biexciton formation in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4507–4516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

S. V. Garnov, S. A. Solokhin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, P. A. Obraztsov, A. I. Chernov, V. V. Bukin, A. A. Sirotkin, Y. D. Zagumennyi, Y. D. Zavartsev, S. A. Kutovoi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Passive mode-locking with carbon nanotube saturable absorber in Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:Y0.9Gd0.1VO4 lasers operating at 1.34 μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 648–651 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer grapheme,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. Eberlein, U. Bangert, R. R. Nair, R. Jones, M. Gass, A. L. Bleloch, K. S. Novoselov, A. Geim, and P. R. Briddon, “Plasmon spectroscopy of free-standing graphene films,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 233406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. J. Korovyanko, C.-X. Sheng, Z. V. Vardeny, A. B. Dalton, and R. H. Baughman, “Ultrafast spectroscopy of excitons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017403(2004).
[CrossRef]

Small (2)

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Small 6, 195–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, D. W. Shin, V. G. Makotchenko, A. S. Nazarov, V. E. Fedorov, J. H. Yoo, S. M. Yu, J.-Y. Choi, J. M. Kim, and J.-B. Yoo, “The superior dispersion of easily soluble graphite,” Small 6, 58–62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

H. Kataura, Y. Kamazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103, 2555–2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 87, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical absorption spectrum of SWNT-CMC film composite (solid curve), pure CMC film (dashed curve).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical absorption spectrum of GR-CMC film composite (solid curve), pure CMC film (dash curve).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM image of SWNT-CMC film surface.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM image of GR-CMC film surface.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Raman spectrum of GR-CMC film composite. 2D-band region.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental setup for P- and Z-scan. G, Glan polarizer; F, neutral filter; L1, L2, lenses; Sp, sample film; D1, D2, photodiodes; Mv, moving stage.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Z-scan curves of SWNT-CMC film composite measured at different pulse energies. (1) 0.6 nJ. (2) 0.8 nJ. (3) 1.2 nJ.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Transmittance T(I) of SWNT-CMC film composite as a function of peak intensity and best approximation by using Eq. (2).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Transmittance T(I) of GR-CMC film composite as a function of peak intensity and best approximation by using Eq. (2).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Data for GR-CMC and SWNT-CMC Composites Measured by Z- and P-Scan

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IEAπr02·τ,
T(I)TNSΔT1+I/IS,A,

Metrics