Abstract

In this paper, by a combination of the self-imaging effect for Ronchi gratings and the standard slanted edge modulation transfer function (MTF) measurement method for CCD cameras, the MTF of the CCD array without optics is measured. For this purpose, a Ronchi-type grating is illuminated by an expanded He–Ne laser. A self-image of the grating appears without optics on the CCD array that is located on the Talbot distance. The lines of the self-image of the grating are used as a slanted edge array. This method has all the advantages of the slanted edge method, and also since the array of the edge is ready, the total area of the CCD can be tested. The measured MTF is related to the CCD array without optics.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Feltz and M. A. Karim, “Modulation transfer function of charge-coupled devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 717–722 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Song and Y. Sun, “Measurement of the modulation transfer function of charge-coupled devices using frequency variable sine grating patterns,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1200–1204 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. W. Coltman, “The specification of imaging properties by response to a sine wave input,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 468–471 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. D. Boreman, “Modulation transfer function measurement using three and four bar targets,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8050–8052 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Fang, “An approach for MTF measurement of discrete imaging system, electronic imaging, and multimedia technology,” Proc. SPIE 4925, 668–673 (2002).
  6. T. Choi and D. L. Helder, “Generic sensor modeling for modulation transfer function (MTF) estimation,” in Pecora 16 Global Priorities in Land Remote Sensing, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 23–27 October2005.
  7. A. Daniels and D. Boreman, “Transparency targets for modulation transfer function measurement in the visible and infrared region,” Opt. Eng. 34, 860–868 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Boreman and E. L. Dereniak, “Method for measuring modulation transfer function of charge-coupled devices using laser speckle,” Opt. Eng. 25, 250148 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. M. Pozo and A. Ferrero, “Improvements for determining the modulation transfer function of charge-coupled devices by the speckle method,” Opt. Express 14, 5928–5935 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Primot and M. Chambon, “Evaluation of the modulation transfer function of an infrared focal plane array using the Talbot effect,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 347–354 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Chen, X. Chen, and W. Shen, “A method for measuring modulation transfer function of CCD device in remote camera with grating pattern,” Proc. SPIE 6829, 68291B (2007).
  12. M. Estribeau and P. Magnan, “Fast MTF measurement of CMOS imagers using ISO 12233 slanted edge methodology,” Proc. SPIE 5251, 243–251 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. D. Burns, “Slanted edge MTF for digital camera and scanner analysis,” in IS&T 2000 PICS Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2011), pp. 135–138.
  14. D. Burns, “Application of Tatian’s method to slanted-edge MTF measurement,” Proc. SPIE 5668, 255–261 (2005).
  15. H. C. Rosu and J. P. Trevino, “Self-image effects in diffraction and dispersion,” Electromagn. Phenom. 6, 216–223 (2006).

2007 (1)

Y. Chen, X. Chen, and W. Shen, “A method for measuring modulation transfer function of CCD device in remote camera with grating pattern,” Proc. SPIE 6829, 68291B (2007).

2006 (2)

H. C. Rosu and J. P. Trevino, “Self-image effects in diffraction and dispersion,” Electromagn. Phenom. 6, 216–223 (2006).

A. M. Pozo and A. Ferrero, “Improvements for determining the modulation transfer function of charge-coupled devices by the speckle method,” Opt. Express 14, 5928–5935 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. Burns, “Application of Tatian’s method to slanted-edge MTF measurement,” Proc. SPIE 5668, 255–261 (2005).

2004 (1)

M. Estribeau and P. Magnan, “Fast MTF measurement of CMOS imagers using ISO 12233 slanted edge methodology,” Proc. SPIE 5251, 243–251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Z. Fang, “An approach for MTF measurement of discrete imaging system, electronic imaging, and multimedia technology,” Proc. SPIE 4925, 668–673 (2002).

1999 (1)

M. Song and Y. Sun, “Measurement of the modulation transfer function of charge-coupled devices using frequency variable sine grating patterns,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Primot and M. Chambon, “Evaluation of the modulation transfer function of an infrared focal plane array using the Talbot effect,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 347–354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. Daniels and D. Boreman, “Transparency targets for modulation transfer function measurement in the visible and infrared region,” Opt. Eng. 34, 860–868 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boreman, “Modulation transfer function measurement using three and four bar targets,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8050–8052 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

G. Boreman and E. L. Dereniak, “Method for measuring modulation transfer function of charge-coupled devices using laser speckle,” Opt. Eng. 25, 250148 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

Boreman, D.

A. Daniels and D. Boreman, “Transparency targets for modulation transfer function measurement in the visible and infrared region,” Opt. Eng. 34, 860–868 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G.

G. Boreman and E. L. Dereniak, “Method for measuring modulation transfer function of charge-coupled devices using laser speckle,” Opt. Eng. 25, 250148 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

Burns, D.

D. Burns, “Application of Tatian’s method to slanted-edge MTF measurement,” Proc. SPIE 5668, 255–261 (2005).

Burns, P. D.

P. D. Burns, “Slanted edge MTF for digital camera and scanner analysis,” in IS&T 2000 PICS Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2011), pp. 135–138.

Chambon, M.

J. Primot and M. Chambon, “Evaluation of the modulation transfer function of an infrared focal plane array using the Talbot effect,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 347–354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Y. Chen, X. Chen, and W. Shen, “A method for measuring modulation transfer function of CCD device in remote camera with grating pattern,” Proc. SPIE 6829, 68291B (2007).

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, X. Chen, and W. Shen, “A method for measuring modulation transfer function of CCD device in remote camera with grating pattern,” Proc. SPIE 6829, 68291B (2007).

Choi, T.

T. Choi and D. L. Helder, “Generic sensor modeling for modulation transfer function (MTF) estimation,” in Pecora 16 Global Priorities in Land Remote Sensing, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 23–27 October2005.

Coltman, J. W.

Daniels, A.

A. Daniels and D. Boreman, “Transparency targets for modulation transfer function measurement in the visible and infrared region,” Opt. Eng. 34, 860–868 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dereniak, E. L.

G. Boreman and E. L. Dereniak, “Method for measuring modulation transfer function of charge-coupled devices using laser speckle,” Opt. Eng. 25, 250148 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Estribeau, M.

M. Estribeau and P. Magnan, “Fast MTF measurement of CMOS imagers using ISO 12233 slanted edge methodology,” Proc. SPIE 5251, 243–251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z.

Z. Fang, “An approach for MTF measurement of discrete imaging system, electronic imaging, and multimedia technology,” Proc. SPIE 4925, 668–673 (2002).

Feltz, C.

Ferrero, A.

Helder, D. L.

T. Choi and D. L. Helder, “Generic sensor modeling for modulation transfer function (MTF) estimation,” in Pecora 16 Global Priorities in Land Remote Sensing, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 23–27 October2005.

Karim, M. A.

Magnan, P.

M. Estribeau and P. Magnan, “Fast MTF measurement of CMOS imagers using ISO 12233 slanted edge methodology,” Proc. SPIE 5251, 243–251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pozo, A. M.

Primot, J.

J. Primot and M. Chambon, “Evaluation of the modulation transfer function of an infrared focal plane array using the Talbot effect,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 347–354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rosu, H. C.

H. C. Rosu and J. P. Trevino, “Self-image effects in diffraction and dispersion,” Electromagn. Phenom. 6, 216–223 (2006).

Shen, W.

Y. Chen, X. Chen, and W. Shen, “A method for measuring modulation transfer function of CCD device in remote camera with grating pattern,” Proc. SPIE 6829, 68291B (2007).

Song, M.

M. Song and Y. Sun, “Measurement of the modulation transfer function of charge-coupled devices using frequency variable sine grating patterns,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

M. Song and Y. Sun, “Measurement of the modulation transfer function of charge-coupled devices using frequency variable sine grating patterns,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trevino, J. P.

H. C. Rosu and J. P. Trevino, “Self-image effects in diffraction and dispersion,” Electromagn. Phenom. 6, 216–223 (2006).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electromagn. Phenom. (1)

H. C. Rosu and J. P. Trevino, “Self-image effects in diffraction and dispersion,” Electromagn. Phenom. 6, 216–223 (2006).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. Primot and M. Chambon, “Evaluation of the modulation transfer function of an infrared focal plane array using the Talbot effect,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 347–354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Eng. (3)

A. Daniels and D. Boreman, “Transparency targets for modulation transfer function measurement in the visible and infrared region,” Opt. Eng. 34, 860–868 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Boreman and E. L. Dereniak, “Method for measuring modulation transfer function of charge-coupled devices using laser speckle,” Opt. Eng. 25, 250148 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Song and Y. Sun, “Measurement of the modulation transfer function of charge-coupled devices using frequency variable sine grating patterns,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (4)

D. Burns, “Application of Tatian’s method to slanted-edge MTF measurement,” Proc. SPIE 5668, 255–261 (2005).

Z. Fang, “An approach for MTF measurement of discrete imaging system, electronic imaging, and multimedia technology,” Proc. SPIE 4925, 668–673 (2002).

Y. Chen, X. Chen, and W. Shen, “A method for measuring modulation transfer function of CCD device in remote camera with grating pattern,” Proc. SPIE 6829, 68291B (2007).

M. Estribeau and P. Magnan, “Fast MTF measurement of CMOS imagers using ISO 12233 slanted edge methodology,” Proc. SPIE 5251, 243–251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. D. Burns, “Slanted edge MTF for digital camera and scanner analysis,” in IS&T 2000 PICS Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2011), pp. 135–138.

T. Choi and D. L. Helder, “Generic sensor modeling for modulation transfer function (MTF) estimation,” in Pecora 16 Global Priorities in Land Remote Sensing, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 23–27 October2005.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Orientation of a CCD array and slanted edge. The dark part of the CCD is the shadow of the slanted edge, and the bright part is due to the reached light to the CCD.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Construction of the oversampled (superresolution) ESF [12].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic measurement setup of the He–Ne laser. L1 and L2 are expanding lenses by f1 and f2 focal lengths, P is the pinhole. The CCD array is placed at Talbot distance ZT of the Ronchi grating G.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup. A Ronchi-type grating is illuminated by an expanded He–Ne laser. A self-image of the grating is appearing without optics on the CCD array that is located on the Talbot distance. (a) He–Ne laser, (b) beam expander, (c) Ronchi grating, and (d) CCD array.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Image of the Ronchi grating that is captured by the CCD array.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Edge detection by the Sobel algorithm in MATLAB.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Oversampled and fitted ESF curve.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

LSF curve is obtained by taking the derivative of the oversampled and fitted ESF.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison between the MTF by using the edge method and the combination of the self-imaging and slanted edge methods.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ZT=2d2λ.
Δx=ptan(α).
N=round(pΔx)=round(1tan(α)).

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