Abstract

Athermal (AT) propagation directions in KGd(WO4)2 and KLu(WO4)2 crystals are found for two configurations (monolithic and laser cavity) at two wavelengths of 633 and 1064 nm. Four branches of solutions for AT directions exist for both configurations in KGd(WO4)2 and for the laser cavity configuration in KLu(WO4)2; for the monolithic configuration there are one or two branches for wavelengths of 633 and 1064 nm, respectively. Two of the branches for the laser cavity configuration pass in the vicinity of the crystal optical axis, where solutions are extremely sensitive to the direction of propagation. In some cases discrepancy in thermo-optic and thermal expansion parameters found by different authors may lead to the appearance (or disappearance) of AT directions.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lensing study and athermal directions in flashlamp-pumped KGd(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 881–886 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, V. V. Filippov, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic coefficients study in KGd(WO)2 and KY(WO)2 by a modified minimum deviation method,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2951–2957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Detailed characterization of thermal expansion tensor in monoclinic KRe ((WO4)2 where Re=Gd, Y, Lu, Yb.” Opt. Mater. 34, 23–26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic dispersion formulas for monoclinic double tungstates KRe(WO4)2 where Re=Gd, Y, Lu, Yb.” Opt. Mater. 33, 1688–1694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

2009 (1)

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: from bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. E. Hellström, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, J. Liu, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Efficient Yb:KGW lasers end-pumped by high-power diode bars,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 235–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

2001 (1)

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, J. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1997 (1)

I. V. Mochalov, “Laser and nonlinear properties of the potassium gadolinium tungstate laser crystal KGd(WO)2:Nd3+-(KGW:Nd)),” Opt. Eng. 36, 1660–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abdolvand, A.

Aggarwal, R. L.

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300 K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aguilo, M.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, J. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aguiló, M.

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ò. Silvestre, J. Grau, M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. T. Borowiec, and V. Petrov, “Thermal properties of monoclinic KLu(WO)2 as a promising solid state laser host,” Opt. Express 16, 5022–5034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Antipenkov, R.

D. Stučinskas, R. Antipenkov, and A. Varanavičius, “Thermal lensing in high-power diode-pumped Yb:KGW laser,” Lith. J. Phys. 50, 191–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aravazhi, S.

Aus der Au, J.

Basiev, T. T.

T. T. Basiev, “New crystals for Raman lasers,” Phys. Solid State 47, 1400–1405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biswal, S. P.

S. P. Biswal, S. O’Connor, and S. R. Bowman, “Thermo-optical parameters measured in ytterbium-doped potassium gadolinium tungstate” Appl. Opt. 44, 3093–3097 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Biswal, S. O’Connor, and S. R. Bowman, “Thermo-optical parameters measured in potassium-gadolinium-tungstate,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThT62.

Bjurshagen, S.

J. E. Hellström, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, J. Liu, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Efficient Yb:KGW lasers end-pumped by high-power diode bars,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 235–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borca, C. N.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: from bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Borowiec, M. T.

Bowman, S. R.

S. P. Biswal, S. O’Connor, and S. R. Bowman, “Thermo-optical parameters measured in ytterbium-doped potassium gadolinium tungstate” Appl. Opt. 44, 3093–3097 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Biswal, S. O’Connor, and S. R. Bowman, “Thermo-optical parameters measured in potassium-gadolinium-tungstate,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThT62.

Bruner, F.

Burakevich, V. N.

Burns, D.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. Savitski, S. Calvez, D. Burns, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lens study in diode pumped Ng- and Np-cut Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser crystals,” Opt. Express17, 23536–235432009.

Calvez, S.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. Savitski, S. Calvez, D. Burns, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lens study in diode pumped Ng- and Np-cut Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser crystals,” Opt. Express17, 23536–235432009.

Carvajal, J. J.

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Demidovich, A. A.

Diaz, F.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, J. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Díaz, F.

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ò. Silvestre, J. Grau, M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. T. Borowiec, and V. Petrov, “Thermal properties of monoclinic KLu(WO)2 as a promising solid state laser host,” Opt. Express 16, 5022–5034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G.

Fan, T. Y.

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300 K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, F. I.

F. I. Fedorov and V. V. Filippov, Reffection and Refraction of Light by Transparent Crystals (Nauka i tekhnika, 1976) [in Russian].

F. I. Fedorov, Optics of Anisotropic Media (Academy of Sciences BSSR, 1976) [in Russian].

Fiebig, C.

Filippov, V. V.

Gaponenko, M. S.

M. S. Gaponenko, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Onushchenko, “Passive mode locking of diode-pumped Tm:KYW laser with PbS quantum-dot-doped glass,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 286–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gardillou, F.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: from bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gavalda, J.

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, J. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Geskus, D.

Grabtchikov, A. S.

Grau, J.

Griebner, U.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: from bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hellström, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, J. Liu, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Efficient Yb:KGW lasers end-pumped by high-power diode bars,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 235–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Zhang, J. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Efficient continuous-wave and Q-switched operation of a diode-pumped Yb:KLu(WO4)2 laser with self-Raman conversion,” Opt. Lett. 302427–2429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harder, C.

Hellström, J. E.

J. E. Hellström, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, J. Liu, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Efficient Yb:KGW lasers end-pumped by high-power diode bars,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 235–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

Kiefer, W.

Kisel, V. E.

M. S. Gaponenko, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Onushchenko, “Passive mode locking of diode-pumped Tm:KYW laser with PbS quantum-dot-doped glass,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 286–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke, “Ytterbium solid-state lasers—the first decade,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1287–1296 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

P. A. Loiko, V. V. Filippov, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic coefficients study in KGd(WO)2 and KY(WO)2 by a modified minimum deviation method,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2951–2957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lensing study and athermal directions in flashlamp-pumped KGd(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 881–886 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic dispersion formulas for monoclinic double tungstates KRe(WO4)2 where Re=Gd, Y, Lu, Yb.” Opt. Mater. 33, 1688–1694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Detailed characterization of thermal expansion tensor in monoclinic KRe ((WO4)2 where Re=Gd, Y, Lu, Yb.” Opt. Mater. 34, 23–26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic coefficients and thermal lensing in Nd-doped Nd:KGd(WO)2 laser crystals,” Appl. Opt. 49, 6651–6659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Gaponenko, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Onushchenko, “Passive mode locking of diode-pumped Tm:KYW laser with PbS quantum-dot-doped glass,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 286–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Bruner, G. I. Spushler, J. Aus der Au, L. Krainer, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Paschotta, N. Lichtenstein, S. Weiss, C. Harder, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Abdolvand, N. V. Kuleshov, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser with 1.1 W average power,” Opt. Lett. 251119–1121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. Savitski, S. Calvez, D. Burns, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lens study in diode pumped Ng- and Np-cut Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser crystals,” Opt. Express17, 23536–235432009.

Lagatsky, A. A.

Lichtenstein, N.

Lisinetskii, V. A.

Liu, J.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hellström, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, J. Liu, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Efficient Yb:KGW lasers end-pumped by high-power diode bars,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 235–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Zhang, J. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Efficient continuous-wave and Q-switched operation of a diode-pumped Yb:KLu(WO4)2 laser with self-Raman conversion,” Opt. Lett. 302427–2429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Loiko, P. A.

P. A. Loiko, V. V. Filippov, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic coefficients study in KGd(WO)2 and KY(WO)2 by a modified minimum deviation method,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2951–2957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lensing study and athermal directions in flashlamp-pumped KGd(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 881–886 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic dispersion formulas for monoclinic double tungstates KRe(WO4)2 where Re=Gd, Y, Lu, Yb.” Opt. Mater. 33, 1688–1694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Detailed characterization of thermal expansion tensor in monoclinic KRe ((WO4)2 where Re=Gd, Y, Lu, Yb.” Opt. Mater. 34, 23–26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic coefficients and thermal lensing in Nd-doped Nd:KGd(WO)2 laser crystals,” Appl. Opt. 49, 6651–6659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. Savitski, S. Calvez, D. Burns, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lens study in diode pumped Ng- and Np-cut Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser crystals,” Opt. Express17, 23536–235432009.

Malyarevich, A. M.

M. S. Gaponenko, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Onushchenko, “Passive mode locking of diode-pumped Tm:KYW laser with PbS quantum-dot-doped glass,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 286–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Massons, J.

Ò. Silvestre, J. Grau, M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. T. Borowiec, and V. Petrov, “Thermal properties of monoclinic KLu(WO)2 as a promising solid state laser host,” Opt. Express 16, 5022–5034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, J. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mateos, X.

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mochalov, I. V.

I. V. Mochalov, “Laser and nonlinear properties of the potassium gadolinium tungstate laser crystal KGd(WO)2:Nd3+-(KGW:Nd)),” Opt. Eng. 36, 1660–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Clarendon, 1957).

O’Connor, S.

S. P. Biswal, S. O’Connor, and S. R. Bowman, “Thermo-optical parameters measured in ytterbium-doped potassium gadolinium tungstate” Appl. Opt. 44, 3093–3097 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Biswal, S. O’Connor, and S. R. Bowman, “Thermo-optical parameters measured in potassium-gadolinium-tungstate,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThT62.

Ochoa, J. R.

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300 K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oehler, A. E. H.

Onushchenko, A. A.

M. S. Gaponenko, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Onushchenko, “Passive mode locking of diode-pumped Tm:KYW laser with PbS quantum-dot-doped glass,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 286–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Orlovich, V. A.

Paschke, K.

Paschotta, R.

Pasiskevicius, V.

J. E. Hellström, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, J. Liu, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Efficient Yb:KGW lasers end-pumped by high-power diode bars,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 235–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pavlyuk, A. A.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lensing study and athermal directions in flashlamp-pumped KGd(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 881–886 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, V. V. Filippov, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic coefficients study in KGd(WO)2 and KY(WO)2 by a modified minimum deviation method,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2951–2957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Detailed characterization of thermal expansion tensor in monoclinic KRe ((WO4)2 where Re=Gd, Y, Lu, Yb.” Opt. Mater. 34, 23–26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic dispersion formulas for monoclinic double tungstates KRe(WO4)2 where Re=Gd, Y, Lu, Yb.” Opt. Mater. 33, 1688–1694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic coefficients and thermal lensing in Nd-doped Nd:KGd(WO)2 laser crystals,” Appl. Opt. 49, 6651–6659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. Savitski, S. Calvez, D. Burns, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lens study in diode pumped Ng- and Np-cut Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser crystals,” Opt. Express17, 23536–235432009.

Pekarek, S.

Petrov, V.

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ò. Silvestre, J. Grau, M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. T. Borowiec, and V. Petrov, “Thermal properties of monoclinic KLu(WO)2 as a promising solid state laser host,” Opt. Express 16, 5022–5034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: from bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hellström, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, J. Liu, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Efficient Yb:KGW lasers end-pumped by high-power diode bars,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 235–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Zhang, J. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Efficient continuous-wave and Q-switched operation of a diode-pumped Yb:KLu(WO4)2 laser with self-Raman conversion,” Opt. Lett. 302427–2429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “High-power, broadly tunable, and low-quantum-defect KG1−xLux(WO4)2:Yb3+ channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 26107–26112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: from bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pujol, M. C.

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ò. Silvestre, J. Grau, M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. T. Borowiec, and V. Petrov, “Thermal properties of monoclinic KLu(WO)2 as a promising solid state laser host,” Opt. Express 16, 5022–5034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, J. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rachkovskaya, G. E.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Detailed characterization of thermal expansion tensor in monoclinic KRe ((WO4)2 where Re=Gd, Y, Lu, Yb.” Opt. Mater. 34, 23–26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic dispersion formulas for monoclinic double tungstates KRe(WO4)2 where Re=Gd, Y, Lu, Yb.” Opt. Mater. 33, 1688–1694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D. J.

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300 K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rivier, S.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: from bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Romanyuk, Y. E.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: from bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Savitski, V.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. Savitski, S. Calvez, D. Burns, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lens study in diode pumped Ng- and Np-cut Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser crystals,” Opt. Express17, 23536–235432009.

Shaskolskaya, M. P.

Y. I. Sirotin and M. P. Shaskolskaya, Fundamentals of Crystallophysics (Nauka, 1979) [In Russian].

Silvestre, O.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silvestre, Ò.

Sirotin, Y. I.

Y. I. Sirotin and M. P. Shaskolskaya, Fundamentals of Crystallophysics (Nauka, 1979) [In Russian].

Solans, X.

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, J. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sole, R.

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, J. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sole, R. M.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spushler, G. I.

Stucinskas, D.

D. Stučinskas, R. Antipenkov, and A. Varanavičius, “Thermal lensing in high-power diode-pumped Yb:KGW laser,” Lith. J. Phys. 50, 191–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stumpf, M. C.

Sudmeyer, T.

Tan, J.

M. Zhou, X. Wang, and J. Tan, “Calculation and analysis of athermal directions of Yb:KGW laser crystal,” J. Appl. Opt. 29, 81–85 (2008).

Varanavicius, A.

D. Stučinskas, R. Antipenkov, and A. Varanavičius, “Thermal lensing in high-power diode-pumped Yb:KGW laser,” Lith. J. Phys. 50, 191–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vatnik, S.

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, X.

M. Zhou, X. Wang, and J. Tan, “Calculation and analysis of athermal directions of Yb:KGW laser crystal,” J. Appl. Opt. 29, 81–85 (2008).

Weiss, S.

Wörhoff, K.

Yumashev, K. V.

P. A. Loiko, V. V. Filippov, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic coefficients study in KGd(WO)2 and KY(WO)2 by a modified minimum deviation method,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2951–2957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lensing study and athermal directions in flashlamp-pumped KGd(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 881–886 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic dispersion formulas for monoclinic double tungstates KRe(WO4)2 where Re=Gd, Y, Lu, Yb.” Opt. Mater. 33, 1688–1694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Detailed characterization of thermal expansion tensor in monoclinic KRe ((WO4)2 where Re=Gd, Y, Lu, Yb.” Opt. Mater. 34, 23–26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic coefficients and thermal lensing in Nd-doped Nd:KGd(WO)2 laser crystals,” Appl. Opt. 49, 6651–6659 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Gaponenko, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Onushchenko, “Passive mode locking of diode-pumped Tm:KYW laser with PbS quantum-dot-doped glass,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 286–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. Savitski, S. Calvez, D. Burns, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lens study in diode pumped Ng- and Np-cut Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser crystals,” Opt. Express17, 23536–235432009.

Zaldo, C.

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, J. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J.

Zhou, M.

M. Zhou, X. Wang, and J. Tan, “Calculation and analysis of athermal directions of Yb:KGW laser crystal,” J. Appl. Opt. 29, 81–85 (2008).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

J. E. Hellström, S. Bjurshagen, V. Pasiskevicius, J. Liu, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Efficient Yb:KGW lasers end-pumped by high-power diode bars,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 235–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lensing study and athermal directions in flashlamp-pumped KGd(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 881–886 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

W. F. Krupke, “Ytterbium solid-state lasers—the first decade,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1287–1296 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: from bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 661–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (1)

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, J. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Opt. (1)

M. Zhou, X. Wang, and J. Tan, “Calculation and analysis of athermal directions of Yb:KGW laser crystal,” J. Appl. Opt. 29, 81–85 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300 K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

M. S. Gaponenko, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Onushchenko, “Passive mode locking of diode-pumped Tm:KYW laser with PbS quantum-dot-doped glass,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 286–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lith. J. Phys. (1)

D. Stučinskas, R. Antipenkov, and A. Varanavičius, “Thermal lensing in high-power diode-pumped Yb:KGW laser,” Lith. J. Phys. 50, 191–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

I. V. Mochalov, “Laser and nonlinear properties of the potassium gadolinium tungstate laser crystal KGd(WO)2:Nd3+-(KGW:Nd)),” Opt. Eng. 36, 1660–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (2)

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermo-optic dispersion formulas for monoclinic double tungstates KRe(WO4)2 where Re=Gd, Y, Lu, Yb.” Opt. Mater. 33, 1688–1694 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Detailed characterization of thermal expansion tensor in monoclinic KRe ((WO4)2 where Re=Gd, Y, Lu, Yb.” Opt. Mater. 34, 23–26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Solid State (1)

T. T. Basiev, “New crystals for Raman lasers,” Phys. Solid State 47, 1400–1405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. Savitski, S. Calvez, D. Burns, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lens study in diode pumped Ng- and Np-cut Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser crystals,” Opt. Express17, 23536–235432009.

S. P. Biswal, S. O’Connor, and S. R. Bowman, “Thermo-optical parameters measured in potassium-gadolinium-tungstate,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThT62.

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Clarendon, 1957).

Y. I. Sirotin and M. P. Shaskolskaya, Fundamentals of Crystallophysics (Nauka, 1979) [In Russian].

F. I. Fedorov, Optics of Anisotropic Media (Academy of Sciences BSSR, 1976) [in Russian].

F. I. Fedorov and V. V. Filippov, Reffection and Refraction of Light by Transparent Crystals (Nauka i tekhnika, 1976) [in Russian].

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

AT directions in the KGW (curves 1, 2, 3–3’, 4–4’) and KLuW (A–A’, B–B’) crystal for the monolithic configuration and the light wavelength of 1064 nm. Inset shows the orientation of the wave normal n in the system of the optical indicatrix principal axis.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AT directions in the KGW (curves 1, 2, 3–3’, 4–4’) and KLuW (A–A’) crystal for the monolithic configuration and the light wavelength of 633 nm. Results of calculation on basis of the expansion tensor and thermo-optical coefficients from [26] for KGW and from [18] for KLuW crystals are shown by dotted lines.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

AT directions in the KGW crystal for the laser cavity configuration and the light wavelength of 633 nm (solid line) and 1064 nm (dotted line). Orientation of the optical axes: θ=±42.61° (633 nm), nm θ=±37.33° (1064 nm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

AT directions in the KLuW crystal for the laser cavity configuration and the light wavelength of 633 nm. H+ and H correspond to two solutions for isonormal waves (4).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dependence of the function F+=(n+1)) nαn+n+/T on the angle θ for three values of ψ at wavelength of 633 nm for KLuW. Vertical dotted line marks the position of the optical axis (θ=41.81°, ψ=0°). Insert—dependence of the refractive index n+ on θ.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

AT directions in the KLuW crystal for the laser cavity configuration and the light wavelength of 1064 nm. Orientation of the optical axes: θ=±43.25°. H+ and H correspond to two solutions for isonormal waves (4).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Components of the Thermal Expansion Tensor αa

Tables Icon

Table 2. Thermo-Optic Coefficients of Principal Refractive Indices dn/dT (106K)a

Tables Icon

Table 3. AT Directions for Laser Cavity Configuration in Principal Planes for KLuW Crystal at 1064 nm

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

c1=kpup+kgug,c2=kpupkgug;
kp=εgεm(εmεp)(εgεp),kg=εpεm(εgεm)(εgεp).
1n±2=1εm+12(1εp1εg)([nc1][nc2]±[nc1]2[nc2]2).
H±=[nc1]2[nc2]±[nc2]2[nc1].
n=sinθcosψup+sinθsinψum+cosθug,[ncs]=kp(cosθumsinθsinψug)(1)skg(sinθsinψupsinθcosψum),s=1,2.
nαn=niαiknk=αp(sinθcosψ)2+αm(sinθsinψ)2+αgcos2θ+αmgsin2θsinψ.
nnαn+dndT=0.
(n1)nαn+dndT=0.
no2=εi,ne2=εlεkεlcos2φl+εkcos2φk,
cosψ=αm+Agαmαp,
tgθ=αmg±αmg2(αm+Ap)(αg+Ap)αm+Ap,
tg2ψ=(rmp2bpp+bmm)±(rmp2bpp+bmm)24rmp2bpmbmp2rmp2bmp,
bpp=αp+Ap,bmp=αm+Ap,bpm=αp+Am,bmm=αm+Am,rmp=nmnp.
tg2θ=(rgp2bpp+bgg)±(rgp2bpp+bgg)24rgp2bpgbgp2bpg,
[αg+αm+(αgαm)cos2θ+2αmgsin2θ][εg+εm+(εgεm)cos2θ]+εgAm+εmAg+(εgAmεmAg)cos2θ=0,

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