Abstract

Since progressive addition lenses (PALs) are currently state-of-the-art in multifocal correction for presbyopia, it is important to study the methods for evaluating PALs. A nonoptical simulation method used to accurately characterize PALs during the design and optimization process is proposed in this paper. It involves the direct calculation of each surface of the lens according to the lens heights of front and rear surfaces. The validity of this simulation method for the evaluation of PALs is verified by the good agreement with Rotlex method. In particular, the simulation with a “correction action” included into the design process is potentially a useful method with advantages of time-saving, convenience, and accuracy. Based on the eye-plus-lens model, which is established through an accurate ray tracing calculation along the gaze direction, the method can find an excellent application in actually evaluating the wearer performance for optimal design of more comfortable, satisfactory, and personalized PALs.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Zhou, W. Wang, K. Yang, X. Chai, and Q. Ren, “Measurement and comparison of the optical performance of an ophthalmic lens based on a Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor in real viewing conditions,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6434–6441 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Yonte and J. Quiroga, “Ophthalmic lenses testing by Moiré deflectometry,” Proc. SPIE 15548, 233–239 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Arasa, J. Caum, and A. Cifuentes, “Progressive addition lense power map measurement using Ronchi test techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5144, 766–772 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Mazuet, “Progressive addition lenses and commercial instruments limitations,” Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 53 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 179–182.
  5. C. Y. Huang, “Measurement and comparison of progressive addition lenses by three techniques,” Master’s thesis (The Ohio State University, 2011).
  6. J. T. Winthrop, “Progressive power spectacle lenses,” U.S. patent5,123,725 P (23June1992).
  7. T. Steele, M. Loughlin, and D. Payne, “Progressive addition power lens,” U.S. patent6,776,486 B2 (17August2004).
  8. M. Xiangming and H. Jingzhi, Differential Geometry (People’s Education, 2008), pp. 66–132.
  9. H. Zhenglin, The Study on PAL (Military and Science Publication, 2004), pp. 28–36.
  10. P. Bertrand, “Wearer power measurement of progressive addition lenses,” Vision Science and Its Applications Proceedings, Vol. 1 of 1998 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), p. 188183.
  11. T. Raasch, L. Su, and A. Yi, “Whole-surface characterization of progressive addition lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 88, E217–E226 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

T. Raasch, L. Su, and A. Yi, “Whole-surface characterization of progressive addition lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 88, E217–E226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008

2003

J. Arasa, J. Caum, and A. Cifuentes, “Progressive addition lense power map measurement using Ronchi test techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5144, 766–772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1991

T. Yonte and J. Quiroga, “Ophthalmic lenses testing by Moiré deflectometry,” Proc. SPIE 15548, 233–239 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Arasa, J.

J. Arasa, J. Caum, and A. Cifuentes, “Progressive addition lense power map measurement using Ronchi test techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5144, 766–772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bertrand, P.

P. Bertrand, “Wearer power measurement of progressive addition lenses,” Vision Science and Its Applications Proceedings, Vol. 1 of 1998 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), p. 188183.

Caum, J.

J. Arasa, J. Caum, and A. Cifuentes, “Progressive addition lense power map measurement using Ronchi test techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5144, 766–772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chai, X.

Cifuentes, A.

J. Arasa, J. Caum, and A. Cifuentes, “Progressive addition lense power map measurement using Ronchi test techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5144, 766–772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. Y.

C. Y. Huang, “Measurement and comparison of progressive addition lenses by three techniques,” Master’s thesis (The Ohio State University, 2011).

Jingzhi, H.

M. Xiangming and H. Jingzhi, Differential Geometry (People’s Education, 2008), pp. 66–132.

Loughlin, M.

T. Steele, M. Loughlin, and D. Payne, “Progressive addition power lens,” U.S. patent6,776,486 B2 (17August2004).

Mazuet, D.

D. Mazuet, “Progressive addition lenses and commercial instruments limitations,” Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 53 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 179–182.

Payne, D.

T. Steele, M. Loughlin, and D. Payne, “Progressive addition power lens,” U.S. patent6,776,486 B2 (17August2004).

Quiroga, J.

T. Yonte and J. Quiroga, “Ophthalmic lenses testing by Moiré deflectometry,” Proc. SPIE 15548, 233–239 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Raasch, T.

T. Raasch, L. Su, and A. Yi, “Whole-surface characterization of progressive addition lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 88, E217–E226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Q.

Steele, T.

T. Steele, M. Loughlin, and D. Payne, “Progressive addition power lens,” U.S. patent6,776,486 B2 (17August2004).

Su, L.

T. Raasch, L. Su, and A. Yi, “Whole-surface characterization of progressive addition lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 88, E217–E226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

Winthrop, J. T.

J. T. Winthrop, “Progressive power spectacle lenses,” U.S. patent5,123,725 P (23June1992).

Xiangming, M.

M. Xiangming and H. Jingzhi, Differential Geometry (People’s Education, 2008), pp. 66–132.

Yang, K.

Yi, A.

T. Raasch, L. Su, and A. Yi, “Whole-surface characterization of progressive addition lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 88, E217–E226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yonte, T.

T. Yonte and J. Quiroga, “Ophthalmic lenses testing by Moiré deflectometry,” Proc. SPIE 15548, 233–239 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhenglin, H.

H. Zhenglin, The Study on PAL (Military and Science Publication, 2004), pp. 28–36.

Zhou, C.

Appl. Opt.

Optom. Vis. Sci.

T. Raasch, L. Su, and A. Yi, “Whole-surface characterization of progressive addition lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 88, E217–E226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

T. Yonte and J. Quiroga, “Ophthalmic lenses testing by Moiré deflectometry,” Proc. SPIE 15548, 233–239 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Arasa, J. Caum, and A. Cifuentes, “Progressive addition lense power map measurement using Ronchi test techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5144, 766–772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Mazuet, “Progressive addition lenses and commercial instruments limitations,” Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 53 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 179–182.

C. Y. Huang, “Measurement and comparison of progressive addition lenses by three techniques,” Master’s thesis (The Ohio State University, 2011).

J. T. Winthrop, “Progressive power spectacle lenses,” U.S. patent5,123,725 P (23June1992).

T. Steele, M. Loughlin, and D. Payne, “Progressive addition power lens,” U.S. patent6,776,486 B2 (17August2004).

M. Xiangming and H. Jingzhi, Differential Geometry (People’s Education, 2008), pp. 66–132.

H. Zhenglin, The Study on PAL (Military and Science Publication, 2004), pp. 28–36.

P. Bertrand, “Wearer power measurement of progressive addition lenses,” Vision Science and Its Applications Proceedings, Vol. 1 of 1998 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), p. 188183.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Lens height z(x,y) of the surface in Cartesian coordinate.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Construction of a PAL.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A, Power contour plots on a double surface PAL by simulation method. B, Astigmatism contour plots on a double surface PAL by simulation method.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A, Power contour plots on a double surface PAL measured by Rotlex method. B, Astigmatism contour plots on a double surface PAL measured by Rotlex method.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Scheme of the path of ray for a given direction of gaze.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

A, Wearer power contour plots on a double surface PAL. B, Wearer astigmatism contour plots on a double surface PAL.

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

krθ=2zrθ2[1+(zrθ)2]32,
zrθ=zxcosθ+zysinθ.
k(x,y,θ)=2zx2cos2θ+22zxysinθcosθ+2zy2sin2θ[1+(zxcosθ+zysinθ)2]32,
k(x,y,θ)=kf(x,y,θ)kr(x,y,θ).
δ(x,y)=|kmax(x,y)kmin(x,y)|
ast(x,y)=1000(n1)δ(x,y),
μ(x,y)=12(kmax(x,y)+kmin(x,y))
P(x,y)=1000(n1)μ(x,y),
zr(x,y)=z1r(x,y)+h.
xxrzr(xr,yr)x=yyrzr(xr,yr)y=zzr1.
ν=(zrx,zry,1),
xxpxrxp=yyr=zzpzrzp.
a1=(xrxp,yr,zrzp),
S=a10ν0
sinA=|S|.
a20ν0=sinAnS0,
{a2=a20tz=zf(x,y),
k(x,y,θ)=kf(x,fyf,θ)kr(xr,yr,θ).

Metrics