Abstract

Using a data set of 1333 samples, we assess the spectral absorption relationships of different wave bands for phytoplankton (ph) and particles. We find that a nonlinear model (second-order quadratic equations) delivers good performance in describing their spectral characteristics. Based on these spectral relationships, we develop a method for partitioning the total absorption coefficient into the contributions attributable to phytoplankton [aph(λ)], colored dissolved organic material [CDOM; aCDOM(λ)], and nonalgal particles [NAP; aNAP(λ)]. This method is validated using a data set that contains 550 simultaneous measurements of phytoplankton, CDOM, and NAP from the NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Dataset. We find that our method is highly efficient and robust, with significant accuracy: the relative root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are 25.96%, 38.30%, and 19.96% for aph(443), aCDOM(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. The performance is still satisfactory when the method is applied to water samples from the northern South China Sea as a regional case. The computed and measured absorption coefficients (167 samples) agree well with the RMSEs, i.e., 18.50%, 32.82%, and 10.21% for aph(443), aCDOM(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. Finally, the partitioning method is applied directly to an independent data set (1160 samples) derived from the Bermuda Bio-Optics Project that contains relatively low absorption values, and we also obtain good inversion accuracy [RMSEs of 32.37%, 32.57%, and 11.52% for aph(443), aCDOM(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively]. Our results indicate that this partitioning method delivers satisfactory performance for the retrieval of aph, aCDOM, and aNAP. Therefore, this may be a useful tool for extracting absorption coefficients from in situ measurements or remotely sensed ocean-color data.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. M. Duarte, S. Agustí, M. P. Satta, and D. Vaqué, “Partitioning particulate light absorption: a budget for a Mediterranean bay,” Limnol. Oceanog. 43, 236–244 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 1994), pp. 46–109.
  3. A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Oubelkheir, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, and M. Babin, “Partitioning total spectral absorption in phytoplankton and colored detrital material contributions,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 384–395 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Carder, S. Hawes, K. Baker, and R. Smith, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Nelson, D. Siegel, and A. Michaels, “Seasonal dynamics of colored dissolved material in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part I 45, 931–957 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. A. Kiefer and J. B. SooHoo, “Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California,” Limnol. Oceanog. 27, 492–499 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient for aquatic particulates using the quantitative filter technique,” Proc. SPIE 1302, 137–148 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.
  11. C. S. Yentsch, “Measurement of visible light absorption by particulate matter in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanog. 7, 207–217 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Bricaud and D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanog. 35, 562–582 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).
  14. M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, and S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanog. 31, 557–566 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, “An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 40, 1358–1368 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. M. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, “Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 237–253 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. S. Cleveland and M. J. Perry, “A model for partitioning particulate absorption into phytoplanktonic and detrital components,” Deep Sea Res. Part I 41, 197–221 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. L. Gallegos and P. J. Neale, “Partitioning spectral absorption in case 2 waters: discrimination of dissolved and particulate components,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4220–4233 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Wang, W. Cao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Partitioning particulate absorption coefficient into contributions of phytoplankton and nonalgal particles: a case study in the northern South China Sea,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 78, 513–520 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. S. Roesler, “Theoretical and experimental approaches to improve the accuracy of particulate absorption coefficients derived from the quantitative filter technique,” Limnol. Oceanog. 43, 1649–1660 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Bowers and C. Binding, “The optical properties of mineral suspended particles: a review and synthesis,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67, 219–230 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 843–859 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. R. Conn, N. I. M. Gould, and P. Toint, “A globally convergent augmented Lagrangian algorithm for optimization with general constraints and simple bounds,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 28, 545–572 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. R. Conn, N. Gould, and P. L. Toint, “A globally convergent Lagrangian barrier algorithm for optimization with general inequality constraints and simple bounds,” Math. Comput. 66, 261–288 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

G. Wang, W. Cao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Partitioning particulate absorption coefficient into contributions of phytoplankton and nonalgal particles: a case study in the northern South China Sea,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 78, 513–520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Oubelkheir, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, and M. Babin, “Partitioning total spectral absorption in phytoplankton and colored detrital material contributions,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 384–395 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. M. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, “Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 237–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Bowers and C. Binding, “The optical properties of mineral suspended particles: a review and synthesis,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67, 219–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1998 (4)

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Duarte, S. Agustí, M. P. Satta, and D. Vaqué, “Partitioning particulate light absorption: a budget for a Mediterranean bay,” Limnol. Oceanog. 43, 236–244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Nelson, D. Siegel, and A. Michaels, “Seasonal dynamics of colored dissolved material in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part I 45, 931–957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, “Theoretical and experimental approaches to improve the accuracy of particulate absorption coefficients derived from the quantitative filter technique,” Limnol. Oceanog. 43, 1649–1660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. R. Conn, N. Gould, and P. L. Toint, “A globally convergent Lagrangian barrier algorithm for optimization with general inequality constraints and simple bounds,” Math. Comput. 66, 261–288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, “An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 40, 1358–1368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. S. Cleveland and M. J. Perry, “A model for partitioning particulate absorption into phytoplanktonic and detrital components,” Deep Sea Res. Part I 41, 197–221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

K. Carder, S. Hawes, K. Baker, and R. Smith, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Conn, N. I. M. Gould, and P. Toint, “A globally convergent augmented Lagrangian algorithm for optimization with general constraints and simple bounds,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 28, 545–572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient for aquatic particulates using the quantitative filter technique,” Proc. SPIE 1302, 137–148 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud and D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanog. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, and S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanog. 31, 557–566 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

1982 (1)

D. A. Kiefer and J. B. SooHoo, “Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California,” Limnol. Oceanog. 27, 492–499 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

C. S. Yentsch, “Measurement of visible light absorption by particulate matter in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanog. 7, 207–217 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Agustí, S.

C. M. Duarte, S. Agustí, M. P. Satta, and D. Vaqué, “Partitioning particulate light absorption: a budget for a Mediterranean bay,” Limnol. Oceanog. 43, 236–244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

K. Oubelkheir, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, and M. Babin, “Partitioning total spectral absorption in phytoplankton and colored detrital material contributions,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 384–395 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K.

K. Carder, S. Hawes, K. Baker, and R. Smith, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Binding, C.

D. Bowers and C. Binding, “The optical properties of mineral suspended particles: a review and synthesis,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67, 219–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, D.

D. Bowers and C. Binding, “The optical properties of mineral suspended particles: a review and synthesis,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67, 219–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

K. Oubelkheir, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, and M. Babin, “Partitioning total spectral absorption in phytoplankton and colored detrital material contributions,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 384–395 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, “Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 237–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud and D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanog. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Cao, W.

G. Wang, W. Cao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Partitioning particulate absorption coefficient into contributions of phytoplankton and nonalgal particles: a case study in the northern South China Sea,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 78, 513–520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K.

K. Carder, S. Hawes, K. Baker, and R. Smith, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Carder, K. L.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ciotti, A. M.

A. M. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, “Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 237–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

K. Oubelkheir, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, and M. Babin, “Partitioning total spectral absorption in phytoplankton and colored detrital material contributions,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 384–395 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cleveland, J.

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Cleveland, J. S.

J. S. Cleveland and M. J. Perry, “A model for partitioning particulate absorption into phytoplanktonic and detrital components,” Deep Sea Res. Part I 41, 197–221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Conn, A. R.

A. R. Conn, N. Gould, and P. L. Toint, “A globally convergent Lagrangian barrier algorithm for optimization with general inequality constraints and simple bounds,” Math. Comput. 66, 261–288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Conn, N. I. M. Gould, and P. Toint, “A globally convergent augmented Lagrangian algorithm for optimization with general constraints and simple bounds,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 28, 545–572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Duarte, C. M.

C. M. Duarte, S. Agustí, M. P. Satta, and D. Vaqué, “Partitioning particulate light absorption: a budget for a Mediterranean bay,” Limnol. Oceanog. 43, 236–244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fell, F.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, G.

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Ferrari, G. M.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, “An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 40, 1358–1368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fournier-Sicre, V.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gallegos, C. L.

Gould, N.

A. R. Conn, N. Gould, and P. L. Toint, “A globally convergent Lagrangian barrier algorithm for optimization with general inequality constraints and simple bounds,” Math. Comput. 66, 261–288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gould, N. I. M.

A. R. Conn, N. I. M. Gould, and P. Toint, “A globally convergent augmented Lagrangian algorithm for optimization with general constraints and simple bounds,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 28, 545–572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gould, R.

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Gray, D.

Hawes, S.

K. Carder, S. Hawes, K. Baker, and R. Smith, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hoepffner, N.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, S.

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, and S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanog. 31, 557–566 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Kahru, M.

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Kiefer, D. A.

D. A. Kiefer and J. B. SooHoo, “Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California,” Limnol. Oceanog. 27, 492–499 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 1994), pp. 46–109.

Kishino, M.

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, and S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanog. 31, 557–566 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Maske, H.

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Michaels, A.

N. Nelson, D. Siegel, and A. Michaels, “Seasonal dynamics of colored dissolved material in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part I 45, 931–957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient for aquatic particulates using the quantitative filter technique,” Proc. SPIE 1302, 137–148 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Moisan, T.

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Moore, L.

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Morel, A.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neale, P. J.

Nelson, N.

N. Nelson, D. Siegel, and A. Michaels, “Seasonal dynamics of colored dissolved material in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part I 45, 931–957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Obolensky, G.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okami, N.

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, and S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanog. 31, 557–566 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Oubelkheir, K.

K. Oubelkheir, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, and M. Babin, “Partitioning total spectral absorption in phytoplankton and colored detrital material contributions,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 384–395 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. J.

J. S. Cleveland and M. J. Perry, “A model for partitioning particulate absorption into phytoplanktonic and detrital components,” Deep Sea Res. Part I 41, 197–221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phinney, D.

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Reynolds, R.

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, “Theoretical and experimental approaches to improve the accuracy of particulate absorption coefficients derived from the quantitative filter technique,” Limnol. Oceanog. 43, 1649–1660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Satta, M. P.

C. M. Duarte, S. Agustí, M. P. Satta, and D. Vaqué, “Partitioning particulate light absorption: a budget for a Mediterranean bay,” Limnol. Oceanog. 43, 236–244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D.

N. Nelson, D. Siegel, and A. Michaels, “Seasonal dynamics of colored dissolved material in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part I 45, 931–957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

K. Carder, S. Hawes, K. Baker, and R. Smith, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

SooHoo, J. B.

D. A. Kiefer and J. B. SooHoo, “Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California,” Limnol. Oceanog. 27, 492–499 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sosik, H.

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Stramski, D.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud and D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanog. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Takahashi, M.

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, and S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanog. 31, 557–566 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Tassan, S.

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, “An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 40, 1358–1368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Toint, P.

A. R. Conn, N. I. M. Gould, and P. Toint, “A globally convergent augmented Lagrangian algorithm for optimization with general constraints and simple bounds,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 28, 545–572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Toint, P. L.

A. R. Conn, N. Gould, and P. L. Toint, “A globally convergent Lagrangian barrier algorithm for optimization with general inequality constraints and simple bounds,” Math. Comput. 66, 261–288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trees, C.

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Vaqué, D.

C. M. Duarte, S. Agustí, M. P. Satta, and D. Vaqué, “Partitioning particulate light absorption: a budget for a Mediterranean bay,” Limnol. Oceanog. 43, 236–244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vodacek, A.

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Wang, G.

G. Wang, W. Cao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Partitioning particulate absorption coefficient into contributions of phytoplankton and nonalgal particles: a case study in the northern South China Sea,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 78, 513–520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A.

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Werdell, P. J.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wieland, J.

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

Yang, D.

G. Wang, W. Cao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Partitioning particulate absorption coefficient into contributions of phytoplankton and nonalgal particles: a case study in the northern South China Sea,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 78, 513–520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yentsch, C. S.

C. S. Yentsch, “Measurement of visible light absorption by particulate matter in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanog. 7, 207–217 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

G. Wang, W. Cao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Partitioning particulate absorption coefficient into contributions of phytoplankton and nonalgal particles: a case study in the northern South China Sea,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 78, 513–520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bull. Mar. Sci. (1)

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Deep Sea Res. Part I (2)

N. Nelson, D. Siegel, and A. Michaels, “Seasonal dynamics of colored dissolved material in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part I 45, 931–957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Cleveland and M. J. Perry, “A model for partitioning particulate absorption into phytoplanktonic and detrital components,” Deep Sea Res. Part I 41, 197–221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. (2)

G. Wang, W. Cao, D. Yang, and J. Zhao, “Partitioning particulate absorption coefficient into contributions of phytoplankton and nonalgal particles: a case study in the northern South China Sea,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 78, 513–520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Bowers and C. Binding, “The optical properties of mineral suspended particles: a review and synthesis,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67, 219–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Carder, S. Hawes, K. Baker, and R. Smith, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanog. (9)

C. S. Yentsch, “Measurement of visible light absorption by particulate matter in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanog. 7, 207–217 (1962).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud and D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanog. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, and S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanog. 31, 557–566 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, “An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 40, 1358–1368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanog. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Duarte, S. Agustí, M. P. Satta, and D. Vaqué, “Partitioning particulate light absorption: a budget for a Mediterranean bay,” Limnol. Oceanog. 43, 236–244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer and J. B. SooHoo, “Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California,” Limnol. Oceanog. 27, 492–499 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, “Theoretical and experimental approaches to improve the accuracy of particulate absorption coefficients derived from the quantitative filter technique,” Limnol. Oceanog. 43, 1649–1660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanog. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods (2)

K. Oubelkheir, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, and M. Babin, “Partitioning total spectral absorption in phytoplankton and colored detrital material contributions,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5, 384–395 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, “Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 237–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Math. Comput. (1)

A. R. Conn, N. Gould, and P. L. Toint, “A globally convergent Lagrangian barrier algorithm for optimization with general inequality constraints and simple bounds,” Math. Comput. 66, 261–288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient for aquatic particulates using the quantitative filter technique,” Proc. SPIE 1302, 137–148 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

SIAM J. Numer. Anal. (1)

A. R. Conn, N. I. M. Gould, and P. Toint, “A globally convergent augmented Lagrangian algorithm for optimization with general constraints and simple bounds,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 28, 545–572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

B. G. Mitchell, A. Bricaud, K. Carder, J. Cleveland, G. Ferrari, R. Gould, M. Kahru, M. Kishino, H. Maske, T. Moisan, L. Moore, N. Nelson, D. Phinney, R. Reynolds, H. Sosik, D. Stramski, S. Tassan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. Wieland, and A. Vodacek, “Determination of spectral absorption coefficients of particles, dissolved material and phytoplankton for discrete water samples,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, eds., Tech. Memo. 209966 (NASA, 2000), pp. 125–153.

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 1994), pp. 46–109.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fitted results for the absorption coefficients at 489 and 411 nm using 1333 samples from the NOMAD and NSCS data sets. (a) Linear relationship: a ph ( 411 ) = 1.322 a ph ( 489 ) 0.001 , R 2 = 0.96 ; nonlinear relationship: a ph ( 411 ) = 0.353 a ph ( 489 ) 2 + 1.456 a ph ( 489 ) , R 2 = 0.97 . (b) Linear relationship: a p ( 411 ) = 1.819 a p ( 489 ) 0.01 , R 2 = 0.98 ; nonlinear relationship: a p ( 411 ) = 0.025 a p ( 489 ) 2 + 1.802 a p ( 489 ) , R 2 = 0.98 ; Barnard linear relationship: a p ( 411 ) = 1.287 a p ( 489 ) + 0.009 , R 2 = 0.97 .

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Nonlinear model of the fitted results between a ph / p ( λ ) and a ph / p ( 489 ) using 1333 samples, including 550 samples from the NOMAD data set and 783 samples from the NSCS data set.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relationships between measured absorption parameters and estimates from the total-minus-water absorption-coefficient measurements in the NOMAD data set: phytoplankton absorption coefficients at (a) 443 nm and (b) 510 nm; (c) CDM absorption coefficients at 443 nm and (d) corresponding exponential slopes; (e) CDOM coefficients at 443 nm and (f) exponential slopes; (g) NAP coefficients at 443 nm and (h) exponential slopes.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Same as Fig. 3, but for the NSCS data set.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Same as Fig. 3, but for the BBOP data set.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Frequency distributions of the relative contributions to the total absorption. (a) CDM, (b) phytoplankton, (c) CDOM, and (d) NAP.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Data Sets, Measurements, and Number of Samples

Tables Icon

Table 2. Parameters of the Nonlinear Model of Particulate Absorption and Phytoplankton Absorption

Tables Icon

Table 3. Statistical Parameters of the Relationships between the Estimated (E) and Measured (M) Absorption in the Three Validation Data Sets a

Tables Icon

Table 4. Comparison with Other Approaches Using the Validation Data Set Based on NOMAD, NSCS, and BBOP ( N = 1877 Sample)

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

a t w ( λ ) = a ph ( λ ) + a CDOM ( λ ) + a NAP ( λ ) .
a CDM ( λ ) = a CDM ( λ 0 ) exp [ S CDM λ 0 ) ] ,
a ph ( λ ) = m 0 ( λ ) a ph ( λ 0 ) 2 + m 1 ( λ ) a ph ( λ 0 ) ,
a p ( λ ) = n 0 ( λ ) a p ( λ 0 ) 2 + n 1 ( λ ) a p ( λ 0 ) ,
a t w ( λ ) = a ph ( λ ) + a CDM ( λ ) .
a t w ( λ ) = m 0 ( λ ) a ph ( λ 0 ) 2 + m 1 ( λ ) a ph ( λ 0 ) + a CDM ( 412 ) exp [ S CDM ( λ 412 ) ] ,
a t w ( λ ) = n 0 ( λ ) a p ( λ 0 ) 2 + n 1 ( λ ) a p ( λ 0 ) + a CDOM ( 412 ) exp [ S CDOM ( λ 412 ) ] ,
a p ( λ ) = m 0 ( λ ) a ph ( λ 0 ) 2 + m 1 ( λ ) a ph ( λ 0 ) + a NAP ( 412 ) exp [ S NAP ( λ 412 ) ] .
RMSE ( % ) = 100 1 n i = 1 n ( x i , computed x i , measured x i , measured ) 2 ,

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