Abstract

We report an ultrafast web inspector that operates at a 1000 times higher scan rate than conventional methods. This system is based on a hybrid dispersion laser scanner that performs line scans at nearly 100 MHz. Specifically, we demonstrate web inspection with detectable resolution of 48.6μm/pixel (scan direction) ×23μm (web flow direction) within a width of view of 6 mm at a record high scan rate of 90.9 MHz. We demonstrate the identification and evaluation of particles on silicon wafers. This method holds great promise for speeding up quality control and hence reducing manufacturing costs.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. L. Smith, Surface Inspection Techniques: Using the Integration of Innovative Machine Vision and Graphical Modeling Techniques (Wiley, 2001).
  2. R. Leach, Optical Measurement of Surface Topography (Springer, 2011).
  3. D. M. Tsai and C. Y. Hsieh, “Automated surface inspection for statistical textures,” Image Vis. Comput. 21, 307–323 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. F. Zhang and R. R. Bressee, “Fabric defect detection and classification using image analysis,” Tex. Res. J. 65, 1–9 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Olsson and S. Gruber, “Web process inspection using neural classification of scattering light,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 40, 228–234 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Maenpaa, M. Turtinen, and M. Pietikainen, “Real-time surface inspection by texture,” Real-Time Imaging 9, 289–296 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D.-M. Tsai and B. Hsiao, “Automatic surface inspection using wavelet reconstruction,” Pattern Recogn. 34, 1285–1305 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Sorebo and R. Lorenz, “Web inspection using gradient-indexed optics,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 41, 1476–1482 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. C. Leslie, M. Nikoonahad, and K. B. Wells, “Optical scanning system for surface inspection,” U.S. patent6,081,325 (4January2000).
  10. S. Son, H. Park, and K. H. Lee, “Automated laser scanning system for reverse engineering and inspection,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 42, 889–897 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics 7, 102–112 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics 7, 102–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Sorebo and R. Lorenz, “Web inspection using gradient-indexed optics,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 41, 1476–1482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. M. Tsai and C. Y. Hsieh, “Automated surface inspection for statistical textures,” Image Vis. Comput. 21, 307–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Maenpaa, M. Turtinen, and M. Pietikainen, “Real-time surface inspection by texture,” Real-Time Imaging 9, 289–296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Son, H. Park, and K. H. Lee, “Automated laser scanning system for reverse engineering and inspection,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 42, 889–897 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D.-M. Tsai and B. Hsiao, “Automatic surface inspection using wavelet reconstruction,” Pattern Recogn. 34, 1285–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. F. Zhang and R. R. Bressee, “Fabric defect detection and classification using image analysis,” Tex. Res. J. 65, 1–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. Olsson and S. Gruber, “Web process inspection using neural classification of scattering light,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 40, 228–234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J.

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ayazi, A.

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bressee, R. R.

Y. F. Zhang and R. R. Bressee, “Fabric defect detection and classification using image analysis,” Tex. Res. J. 65, 1–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R.

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, E.

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Di Carlo, D.

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fard, A.

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goda, K.

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics 7, 102–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gossett, D. R.

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, S.

L. Olsson and S. Gruber, “Web process inspection using neural classification of scattering light,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 40, 228–234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, B.

D.-M. Tsai and B. Hsiao, “Automatic surface inspection using wavelet reconstruction,” Pattern Recogn. 34, 1285–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. Y.

D. M. Tsai and C. Y. Hsieh, “Automated surface inspection for statistical textures,” Image Vis. Comput. 21, 307–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics 7, 102–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leach, R.

R. Leach, Optical Measurement of Surface Topography (Springer, 2011).

Lee, K. H.

S. Son, H. Park, and K. H. Lee, “Automated laser scanning system for reverse engineering and inspection,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 42, 889–897 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leslie, B. C.

B. C. Leslie, M. Nikoonahad, and K. B. Wells, “Optical scanning system for surface inspection,” U.S. patent6,081,325 (4January2000).

Liu, Y.

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, R.

J. Sorebo and R. Lorenz, “Web inspection using gradient-indexed optics,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 41, 1476–1482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maenpaa, T.

T. Maenpaa, M. Turtinen, and M. Pietikainen, “Real-time surface inspection by texture,” Real-Time Imaging 9, 289–296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mahjoubfar, A.

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Malik, O.

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nikoonahad, M.

B. C. Leslie, M. Nikoonahad, and K. B. Wells, “Optical scanning system for surface inspection,” U.S. patent6,081,325 (4January2000).

Olsson, L.

L. Olsson and S. Gruber, “Web process inspection using neural classification of scattering light,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 40, 228–234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

S. Son, H. Park, and K. H. Lee, “Automated laser scanning system for reverse engineering and inspection,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 42, 889–897 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pietikainen, M.

T. Maenpaa, M. Turtinen, and M. Pietikainen, “Real-time surface inspection by texture,” Real-Time Imaging 9, 289–296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarkhosh, N.

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. L.

M. L. Smith, Surface Inspection Techniques: Using the Integration of Innovative Machine Vision and Graphical Modeling Techniques (Wiley, 2001).

Sollier, E.

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Son, S.

S. Son, H. Park, and K. H. Lee, “Automated laser scanning system for reverse engineering and inspection,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 42, 889–897 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sorebo, J.

J. Sorebo and R. Lorenz, “Web inspection using gradient-indexed optics,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 41, 1476–1482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. M.

D. M. Tsai and C. Y. Hsieh, “Automated surface inspection for statistical textures,” Image Vis. Comput. 21, 307–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D.-M.

D.-M. Tsai and B. Hsiao, “Automatic surface inspection using wavelet reconstruction,” Pattern Recogn. 34, 1285–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Turtinen, M.

T. Maenpaa, M. Turtinen, and M. Pietikainen, “Real-time surface inspection by texture,” Real-Time Imaging 9, 289–296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wells, K. B.

B. C. Leslie, M. Nikoonahad, and K. B. Wells, “Optical scanning system for surface inspection,” U.S. patent6,081,325 (4January2000).

Zhang, Y. F.

Y. F. Zhang and R. R. Bressee, “Fabric defect detection and classification using image analysis,” Tex. Res. J. 65, 1–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. (1)

J. Sorebo and R. Lorenz, “Web inspection using gradient-indexed optics,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 41, 1476–1482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (1)

L. Olsson and S. Gruber, “Web process inspection using neural classification of scattering light,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 40, 228–234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Image Vis. Comput. (1)

D. M. Tsai and C. Y. Hsieh, “Automated surface inspection for statistical textures,” Image Vis. Comput. 21, 307–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. (1)

S. Son, H. Park, and K. H. Lee, “Automated laser scanning system for reverse engineering and inspection,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 42, 889–897 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics 7, 102–112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pattern Recogn. (1)

D.-M. Tsai and B. Hsiao, “Automatic surface inspection using wavelet reconstruction,” Pattern Recogn. 34, 1285–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Real-Time Imaging (1)

T. Maenpaa, M. Turtinen, and M. Pietikainen, “Real-time surface inspection by texture,” Real-Time Imaging 9, 289–296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep. (1)

K. Goda, A. Mahjoubfar, C. Wang, A. Fard, J. Adam, D. R. Gossett, A. Ayazi, E. Sollier, O. Malik, E. Chen, Y. Liu, R. Brown, N. Sarkhosh, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, “Hybrid dispersion laser scanner,” Sci. Rep. 2, 445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tex. Res. J. (1)

Y. F. Zhang and R. R. Bressee, “Fabric defect detection and classification using image analysis,” Tex. Res. J. 65, 1–9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. L. Smith, Surface Inspection Techniques: Using the Integration of Innovative Machine Vision and Graphical Modeling Techniques (Wiley, 2001).

R. Leach, Optical Measurement of Surface Topography (Springer, 2011).

B. C. Leslie, M. Nikoonahad, and K. B. Wells, “Optical scanning system for surface inspection,” U.S. patent6,081,325 (4January2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the HDLS inspector. The spectrum of each pulse from the laser is temporally stretched by the dispersive fiber and is then spatially dispersed by the pair of diffraction gratings and incident onto the target web. Different frequency components of the pulse arrive at different spatial coordinates on the web at different times successively, resulting in a laser scan. Here, the web is reflective while dust particles on it scatter the incident light. The reflection from the web is detected and digitized by the photodetector and oscilloscope, respectively. The colors of the pulses in the figure are only for illustrative purposes and do not represent the real wavelengths.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Train of pulses with and without a dust particle captured by the photodetector and displayed on the oscilloscope. The pulse interval is 11 ns, corresponding to the scan rate of 90.9 MHz. The figure inset shows a dip in the signal that corresponds to the presence of a particle.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Resolution and detectability of the HDLS inspector. (a) USAF-1951 resolution test target imaged by the HDLS inspector. (b) Determination of the resolution in the scan direction. (c) Determination of the detectability in the scan direction. (d) Determination of the resolution in the web flow direction.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Identification of dust particles with the HDLS inspector. (a) Pair of medium-sized dust particles of identical dimensions (400μm×300μm) captured by the HDLS inspector. (b) Small dust particle (40μm×70μm) captured by the HDLS inspector. The inset shows a magnified image of the particle. (c) Scratch (i.e., defect) on the silicon wafer captured by the HDLS inspector in comparison with a microscope image of the scratch.

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