Abstract

An efficient laser-diode-pumped Nd:LuVO4 916 nm laser by using the polarized pumping is reported. The maximum continuous-wave output power of 4.75 W is achieved at the incident pump power of 27.8 W, with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 17.1% and a slope efficiency of 29.5%. The slope efficiency is up to 45.4% with respect to the absorbed pump power and nearly 1.7 times higher than the previous results ever reported under the 808 nm diode laser pumping. The beam quality is measured to be M22.3 at the output power of 4.75 W.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (2)

L. J. Xu and X. H. Zhang, “Continuous wave Nd:LuVO4-LBO blue laser under direct 888 nm diode laser pumping,” Laser Phys. 22, 78–80 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, R. P. Yan, X. J. Dai, X. Yu, L. Zhang, and X. D. Wu, “Quasi-three-level neodymium vanadate laser operation under polarized diode pumping: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Laser Phys. 22, 1279–1285 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

F. Chen, X. Yu, R. P. Yan, X. D. Li, C. Wang, J. H. Yu, and Z. H. Zhang, “High-repetition-rate, high-peak-power linear-polarized 473 nm Nd:YAG/BiBO blue laser by extracavity frequency-doubling,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2714–2716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. Yu, X. D. Li, R. P. Yan, C. Wang, M. Luo, J. B. Peng, Z. H. Zhang, and J. H. Yu, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped high-power continuous-wave 912 nm Nd:GdVO4 laser operation at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3755–3760 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, F. Chen, R. P. Yan, X. D. Li, J. H. Yu, and Z. H. Zhang, “High power diode-pumped 914 nm Nd:YVO4 laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 499–501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

Q. Zheng, Y. Yao, B. Li, D. P. Qu, and L. Zhao, “13.2 W laser-diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/LBO blue laser at 457 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1238–1242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Gong, Y. Qi, and Y. Bi, “A comparative study of continuous laser operation on the F3/24−I9/24 transitions of Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 282, 955–957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, X. Yu, F. Chen, X. D. Li, R. P. Yan, K. Zhang, J. H. Yu, and Y. Z. Wang, “12.0 W continuous-wave diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with high brightness operating at 912 nm,” Opt. Express 17, 3574–3580 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser at 916 nm,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2413–2416 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped intra-cavity doubled Nd:LuVO4 laser at 458 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3853–3855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

1997 (1)

Y. F. Chen, C. F. Kao, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Influence of thermal effect on output power optimization in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 3, 29–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 605–612 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Bettinelli, M.

Bi, Y.

W. P. Gong, Y. Qi, and Y. Bi, “A comparative study of continuous laser operation on the F3/24−I9/24 transitions of Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 282, 955–957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 605–612 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cavalli, E.

Chen, F.

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, C. F. Kao, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Influence of thermal effect on output power optimization in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 3, 29–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dai, X. J.

J. Gao, R. P. Yan, X. J. Dai, X. Yu, L. Zhang, and X. D. Wu, “Quasi-three-level neodymium vanadate laser operation under polarized diode pumping: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Laser Phys. 22, 1279–1285 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J. L.

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 605–612 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gao, C. Q.

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser at 916 nm,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2413–2416 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped intra-cavity doubled Nd:LuVO4 laser at 458 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3853–3855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

J. Gao, R. P. Yan, X. J. Dai, X. Yu, L. Zhang, and X. D. Wu, “Quasi-three-level neodymium vanadate laser operation under polarized diode pumping: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Laser Phys. 22, 1279–1285 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, X. Yu, F. Chen, X. D. Li, R. P. Yan, K. Zhang, J. H. Yu, and Y. Z. Wang, “12.0 W continuous-wave diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with high brightness operating at 912 nm,” Opt. Express 17, 3574–3580 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garetz, B. A.

Gong, W. P.

W. P. Gong, Y. Qi, and Y. Bi, “A comparative study of continuous laser operation on the F3/24−I9/24 transitions of Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 282, 955–957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, K. N.

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser at 916 nm,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2413–2416 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped intra-cavity doubled Nd:LuVO4 laser at 458 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3853–3855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. M.

Y. F. Chen, C. F. Kao, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Influence of thermal effect on output power optimization in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 3, 29–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

Kao, C. F.

Y. F. Chen, C. F. Kao, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Influence of thermal effect on output power optimization in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 3, 29–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khosrofian, J. M.

Knappe, R.

Li, B.

Li, D. H.

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser at 916 nm,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2413–2416 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped intra-cavity doubled Nd:LuVO4 laser at 458 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3853–3855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, E. B.

Li, H. F.

Li, X. D.

Liu, J.

Long, Y. B.

Luo, M.

F. Chen, X. Yu, X. D. Li, R. P. Yan, C. Wang, M. Luo, J. B. Peng, Z. H. Zhang, and J. H. Yu, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped high-power continuous-wave 912 nm Nd:GdVO4 laser operation at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3755–3760 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maunier, C.

McDonagh, L.

Moncorgé, R.

Nebel, A.

Peng, J. B.

F. Chen, X. Yu, X. D. Li, R. P. Yan, C. Wang, M. Luo, J. B. Peng, Z. H. Zhang, and J. H. Yu, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped high-power continuous-wave 912 nm Nd:GdVO4 laser operation at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3755–3760 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qi, Y.

W. P. Gong, Y. Qi, and Y. Bi, “A comparative study of continuous laser operation on the F3/24−I9/24 transitions of Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 282, 955–957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qu, D. P.

Shao, Z.

Speghini, A.

Wallenstein, R.

Wang, C.

F. Chen, X. Yu, X. D. Li, R. P. Yan, C. Wang, M. Luo, J. B. Peng, Z. H. Zhang, and J. H. Yu, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped high-power continuous-wave 912 nm Nd:GdVO4 laser operation at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3755–3760 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. Yu, R. P. Yan, X. D. Li, C. Wang, J. H. Yu, and Z. H. Zhang, “High-repetition-rate, high-peak-power linear-polarized 473 nm Nd:YAG/BiBO blue laser by extracavity frequency-doubling,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2714–2716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. L.

Y. F. Chen, C. F. Kao, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Influence of thermal effect on output power optimization in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 3, 29–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, J. Y.

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser at 916 nm,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2413–2416 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped intra-cavity doubled Nd:LuVO4 laser at 458 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3853–3855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Y. Wei, C. Zhang, Y. B. Long, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped continuous-wave Nd:LuVO4 laser operating at 916 nm,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1435–1437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Wang, S. C.

Y. F. Chen, C. F. Kao, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Influence of thermal effect on output power optimization in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 3, 29–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Z.

Wang, Z.

Weber, H.

Wei, Z. Y.

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser at 916 nm,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2413–2416 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped intra-cavity doubled Nd:LuVO4 laser at 458 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3853–3855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Y. Wei, C. Zhang, Y. B. Long, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped continuous-wave Nd:LuVO4 laser operating at 916 nm,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1435–1437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. D.

J. Gao, R. P. Yan, X. J. Dai, X. Yu, L. Zhang, and X. D. Wu, “Quasi-three-level neodymium vanadate laser operation under polarized diode pumping: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Laser Phys. 22, 1279–1285 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L. J.

L. J. Xu and X. H. Zhang, “Continuous wave Nd:LuVO4-LBO blue laser under direct 888 nm diode laser pumping,” Laser Phys. 22, 78–80 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R. P.

J. Gao, R. P. Yan, X. J. Dai, X. Yu, L. Zhang, and X. D. Wu, “Quasi-three-level neodymium vanadate laser operation under polarized diode pumping: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Laser Phys. 22, 1279–1285 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, F. Chen, R. P. Yan, X. D. Li, J. H. Yu, and Z. H. Zhang, “High power diode-pumped 914 nm Nd:YVO4 laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 499–501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. Yu, X. D. Li, R. P. Yan, C. Wang, M. Luo, J. B. Peng, Z. H. Zhang, and J. H. Yu, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped high-power continuous-wave 912 nm Nd:GdVO4 laser operation at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3755–3760 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. Yu, R. P. Yan, X. D. Li, C. Wang, J. H. Yu, and Z. H. Zhang, “High-repetition-rate, high-peak-power linear-polarized 473 nm Nd:YAG/BiBO blue laser by extracavity frequency-doubling,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2714–2716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, X. Yu, F. Chen, X. D. Li, R. P. Yan, K. Zhang, J. H. Yu, and Y. Z. Wang, “12.0 W continuous-wave diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with high brightness operating at 912 nm,” Opt. Express 17, 3574–3580 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J. Q.

Yao, Y.

Yu, J. H.

Yu, X.

J. Gao, R. P. Yan, X. J. Dai, X. Yu, L. Zhang, and X. D. Wu, “Quasi-three-level neodymium vanadate laser operation under polarized diode pumping: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Laser Phys. 22, 1279–1285 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. Yu, X. D. Li, R. P. Yan, C. Wang, M. Luo, J. B. Peng, Z. H. Zhang, and J. H. Yu, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped high-power continuous-wave 912 nm Nd:GdVO4 laser operation at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3755–3760 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. Yu, R. P. Yan, X. D. Li, C. Wang, J. H. Yu, and Z. H. Zhang, “High-repetition-rate, high-peak-power linear-polarized 473 nm Nd:YAG/BiBO blue laser by extracavity frequency-doubling,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2714–2716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, F. Chen, R. P. Yan, X. D. Li, J. H. Yu, and Z. H. Zhang, “High power diode-pumped 914 nm Nd:YVO4 laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 499–501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, X. Yu, F. Chen, X. D. Li, R. P. Yan, K. Zhang, J. H. Yu, and Y. Z. Wang, “12.0 W continuous-wave diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with high brightness operating at 912 nm,” Opt. Express 17, 3574–3580 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, C. Y.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, H. J.

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser at 916 nm,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2413–2416 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped intra-cavity doubled Nd:LuVO4 laser at 458 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3853–3855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Y. Wei, C. Zhang, Y. B. Long, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped continuous-wave Nd:LuVO4 laser operating at 916 nm,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1435–1437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

Zhang, L.

J. Gao, R. P. Yan, X. J. Dai, X. Yu, L. Zhang, and X. D. Wu, “Quasi-three-level neodymium vanadate laser operation under polarized diode pumping: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Laser Phys. 22, 1279–1285 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Y. Wei, C. Zhang, Y. B. Long, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped continuous-wave Nd:LuVO4 laser operating at 916 nm,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1435–1437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

L. J. Xu and X. H. Zhang, “Continuous wave Nd:LuVO4-LBO blue laser under direct 888 nm diode laser pumping,” Laser Phys. 22, 78–80 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. G.

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser at 916 nm,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2413–2416 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped intra-cavity doubled Nd:LuVO4 laser at 458 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3853–3855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, Z. Y. Wei, C. Zhang, Y. B. Long, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped continuous-wave Nd:LuVO4 laser operating at 916 nm,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1435–1437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. H.

X. Yu, F. Chen, R. P. Yan, X. D. Li, J. H. Yu, and Z. H. Zhang, “High power diode-pumped 914 nm Nd:YVO4 laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 499–501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. Yu, X. D. Li, R. P. Yan, C. Wang, M. Luo, J. B. Peng, Z. H. Zhang, and J. H. Yu, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped high-power continuous-wave 912 nm Nd:GdVO4 laser operation at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3755–3760 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. Yu, R. P. Yan, X. D. Li, C. Wang, J. H. Yu, and Z. H. Zhang, “High-repetition-rate, high-peak-power linear-polarized 473 nm Nd:YAG/BiBO blue laser by extracavity frequency-doubling,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2714–2716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

Zheng, Q.

Zhou, R.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 605–612 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, C. F. Kao, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Influence of thermal effect on output power optimization in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 3, 29–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Phys. (2)

J. Gao, R. P. Yan, X. J. Dai, X. Yu, L. Zhang, and X. D. Wu, “Quasi-three-level neodymium vanadate laser operation under polarized diode pumping: theoretical and experimental investigation,” Laser Phys. 22, 1279–1285 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Xu and X. H. Zhang, “Continuous wave Nd:LuVO4-LBO blue laser under direct 888 nm diode laser pumping,” Laser Phys. 22, 78–80 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

F. Chen, X. Yu, X. D. Li, R. P. Yan, C. Wang, M. Luo, J. B. Peng, Z. H. Zhang, and J. H. Yu, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped high-power continuous-wave 912 nm Nd:GdVO4 laser operation at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3755–3760 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped intra-cavity doubled Nd:LuVO4 laser at 458 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3853–3855 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. N. He, C. Q. Gao, Z. Y. Wei, D. H. Li, Z. G. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser at 916 nm,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2413–2416 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Gong, Y. Qi, and Y. Bi, “A comparative study of continuous laser operation on the F3/24−I9/24 transitions of Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 282, 955–957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup of the 916 nm laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Output powers of the 916 nm laser using laser rods with different lengths.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Output powers of the 916 nm laser with different pump radii.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output powers of the 916 nm laser with different output couplers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Output powers of the 916 nm laser under the polarized pumping and the unpolarized pumping.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Beam quality and spatial beam distribution of the 916 nm laser at 4.75 W output power.

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