Abstract

Polarization switching (PS) between two orthogonal linearly polarized fundamental modes is experimentally observed in commercial free-running 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) (Raycan). The characteristics of this PS are strongly modified after introducing a polarization-preserved (PP) or polarization-orthogonal (PO) optical feedback. Under the case that the external cavity is approximately 30 cm, the PP optical feedback results in the PS point shifting toward a lower injection current, and the region within which the two polarization modes coexist is enlarged with the increase of the PP feedback strength. Under too-strong PP feedback levels, the PS disappears. The impact of PO optical feedback on VCSEL polarization behavior is quite similar to that of PP optical feedback, but larger feedback strength is needed to obtain similar results.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Kawaguchi, Bistabilities and Nonlinearities in Laser Diodes (Artech House, 1994).
  2. P. Pakedeevanich and M. J. Adams, “Switching powers for optical bistability in a semiconductor laser above and below threshold,” Opt. Commun. 176, 195–198 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Xia, S. Chan, and J. Liu, “Multistability in a semiconductor laser with optoelectronic feedback,” Opt. Express 15, 572–576 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, “Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 023804 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. H. Hong, R. Ju, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Investigation of polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subjected to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 619–624 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. F. Wang, G. Q. Xia, and Z. M. Wu, “Theoretical investigations on the polarization performances of current-modulated VCSELs subject to weak optical feedback,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 160–168 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Paul, C. Masoller, Y. H. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Experimental study of polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers as a dynamical bifurcation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 748–750 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. H. Russell and T. D. Milster, “Polarization switching control in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2520–2522 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Panajotov and F. Prati, “Polarization dynamics of VCSELs,” in VCSELs, R. Michalzik, ed., Vol. 166, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2012), pp. 181–231.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Parekh, B. Zhang, X. Zhao, Y. Yue, W. Hofmann, M. C. Amann, A. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Long distance single-mode fiber transmission of multimode VCSELs by injection locking,” Opt. Express 18, 20552–20557 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Pérez, A. A. Quirce, L. L. Pesquera, and A. A. Valle, “Polarization-resolved nonlinear dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1228–1235 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two-wavelength switching with a 1550 nm VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 911–917 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. H. Hong, J. Paul, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Influence of low-frequency modulation on polarization switching of VCSELs subject to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 30–35 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550 nm VCSEL: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1242–1249 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. A. Arteaga, H. J. Unold, J. M. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extreme short external cavity. Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 89–101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. H. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Suppression of polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by use of optical feedback,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2151–2153 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Paul, C. Masoller, Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Impact of orthogonal optical feedback on the polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1987–1994 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Polarization selection and sensitivity of external cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 639–641 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550 nm VCSEL: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1242–1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Pérez, A. A. Quirce, L. L. Pesquera, and A. A. Valle, “Polarization-resolved nonlinear dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1228–1235 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two-wavelength switching with a 1550 nm VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 911–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Hong, J. Paul, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Influence of low-frequency modulation on polarization switching of VCSELs subject to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 30–35 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (4)

J. Buesa, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198–207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Arteaga, H. J. Unold, J. M. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extreme short external cavity. Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 89–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Koyama, “Recent advances of VCSEL photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4502–4513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Paul, C. Masoller, Y. H. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Experimental study of polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers as a dynamical bifurcation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 748–750 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. H. Hong, R. Ju, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Investigation of polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subjected to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 619–624 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2000 (2)

P. Pakedeevanich and M. J. Adams, “Switching powers for optical bistability in a semiconductor laser above and below threshold,” Opt. Commun. 176, 195–198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Iga, “Surface-emitting laser–its birth and generation of new optoelectronics field,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1201–1215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Polarization selection and sensitivity of external cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 639–641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. H. Russell and T. D. Milster, “Polarization switching control in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2520–2522 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. J.

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550 nm VCSEL: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1242–1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two-wavelength switching with a 1550 nm VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 911–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Pakedeevanich and M. J. Adams, “Switching powers for optical bistability in a semiconductor laser above and below threshold,” Opt. Commun. 176, 195–198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ali Khan, N.

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550 nm VCSEL: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1242–1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Al-Seyab, R.

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550 nm VCSEL: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1242–1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

Arteaga, M. A.

M. A. Arteaga, H. J. Unold, J. M. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extreme short external cavity. Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 89–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buesa, J.

J. Buesa, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198–207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, S.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Chen, Z. Y.

Gatare, I.

I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, “Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 023804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Buesa, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198–207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, P.

Henning, I. D.

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550 nm VCSEL: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1242–1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two-wavelength switching with a 1550 nm VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 911–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, W.

Hong, Y.

Hong, Y. H.

Y. H. Hong, J. Paul, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Influence of low-frequency modulation on polarization switching of VCSELs subject to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 30–35 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Paul, C. Masoller, Y. H. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Experimental study of polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers as a dynamical bifurcation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 748–750 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Hong, R. Ju, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Investigation of polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subjected to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 619–624 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Suppression of polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by use of optical feedback,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2151–2153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hurtado, A.

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550 nm VCSEL: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1242–1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two-wavelength switching with a 1550 nm VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 911–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

K. Iga, “Surface-emitting laser–its birth and generation of new optoelectronics field,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1201–1215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, N.

Ju, R.

Y. H. Hong, R. Ju, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Investigation of polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subjected to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 619–624 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, H.

H. Kawaguchi, Bistabilities and Nonlinearities in Laser Diodes (Artech House, 1994).

Koyama, F.

Liu, J.

Luo, B.

Masoller, C.

Michalzik, R.

M. A. Arteaga, H. J. Unold, J. M. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extreme short external cavity. Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 89–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milster, T. D.

T. H. Russell and T. D. Milster, “Polarization switching control in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2520–2522 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ostermann, J. M.

M. A. Arteaga, H. J. Unold, J. M. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extreme short external cavity. Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 89–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pakedeevanich, P.

P. Pakedeevanich and M. J. Adams, “Switching powers for optical bistability in a semiconductor laser above and below threshold,” Opt. Commun. 176, 195–198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

Panajotov, K.

I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, “Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 023804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Buesa, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198–207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Arteaga, H. J. Unold, J. M. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extreme short external cavity. Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 89–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Panajotov and F. Prati, “Polarization dynamics of VCSELs,” in VCSELs, R. Michalzik, ed., Vol. 166, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2012), pp. 181–231.

Parekh, D.

Paul, J.

Pérez, P.

P. Pérez, A. A. Quirce, L. L. Pesquera, and A. A. Valle, “Polarization-resolved nonlinear dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1228–1235 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pesquera, L.

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Polarization selection and sensitivity of external cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 639–641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pesquera, L. L.

P. Pérez, A. A. Quirce, L. L. Pesquera, and A. A. Valle, “Polarization-resolved nonlinear dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1228–1235 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Prati, F.

K. Panajotov and F. Prati, “Polarization dynamics of VCSELs,” in VCSELs, R. Michalzik, ed., Vol. 166, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2012), pp. 181–231.

Quirce, A. A.

P. Pérez, A. A. Quirce, L. L. Pesquera, and A. A. Valle, “Polarization-resolved nonlinear dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1228–1235 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Russell, T. H.

T. H. Russell and T. D. Milster, “Polarization switching control in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2520–2522 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schires, K.

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550 nm VCSEL: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1242–1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sciamanna, M.

I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, “Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 023804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Buesa, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198–207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shore, K. A.

Y. H. Hong, J. Paul, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Influence of low-frequency modulation on polarization switching of VCSELs subject to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 30–35 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Paul, C. Masoller, Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Impact of orthogonal optical feedback on the polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1987–1994 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Paul, C. Masoller, Y. H. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Experimental study of polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers as a dynamical bifurcation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 748–750 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Hong, R. Ju, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Investigation of polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subjected to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 619–624 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Suppression of polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by use of optical feedback,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2151–2153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Polarization selection and sensitivity of external cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 639–641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, P. S.

Thienpont, H.

J. Buesa, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198–207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Arteaga, H. J. Unold, J. M. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extreme short external cavity. Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 89–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Unold, H. J.

M. A. Arteaga, H. J. Unold, J. M. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extreme short external cavity. Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 89–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Valle, A.

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Polarization selection and sensitivity of external cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 639–641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Valle, A. A.

P. Pérez, A. A. Quirce, L. L. Pesquera, and A. A. Valle, “Polarization-resolved nonlinear dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1228–1235 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. F.

Willner, A.

Wu, Z. M.

Xia, G.

Xia, G. Q.

Xiang, S. Y.

Xu, A. S.

Yan, L. S.

Yang, L.

Yang, W. J.

Yue, Y.

Zhang, B.

Zhao, X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. H. Russell and T. D. Milster, “Polarization switching control in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2520–2522 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

J. Buesa, I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, and M. Sciamanna, “Mapping of the dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 198–207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Hong, R. Ju, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Investigation of polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subjected to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 619–624 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Arteaga, H. J. Unold, J. M. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extreme short external cavity. Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 89–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Hong, J. Paul, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Influence of low-frequency modulation on polarization switching of VCSELs subject to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 30–35 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550 nm VCSEL: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1242–1249 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Iga, “Surface-emitting laser–its birth and generation of new optoelectronics field,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1201–1215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Pérez, A. A. Quirce, L. L. Pesquera, and A. A. Valle, “Polarization-resolved nonlinear dynamics induced by orthogonal optical injection in long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1228–1235 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Two-wavelength switching with a 1550 nm VCSEL under single orthogonal optical injection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 911–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Polarization selection and sensitivity of external cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 639–641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Pakedeevanich and M. J. Adams, “Switching powers for optical bistability in a semiconductor laser above and below threshold,” Opt. Commun. 176, 195–198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

I. Gatare, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, “Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 023804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Kawaguchi, Bistabilities and Nonlinearities in Laser Diodes (Artech House, 1994).

K. Panajotov and F. Prati, “Polarization dynamics of VCSELs,” in VCSELs, R. Michalzik, ed., Vol. 166, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2012), pp. 181–231.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. VCSEL, vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser; AL, aspheric lens; BS, nonpolarization beam splitter; VA, variable attenuator; QWP, quarter-wave plate; M, mirror; PBS, polarization beam splitter; ISO, isolator; FC, fiber coupler; PM, power meter; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) L–I curve, (c) polarization-resolved L–I curve, and optical spectra of the free-running 1550 nm VCSEL biased at (b) 3.88 mA and (d) 4.72 mA, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Polarization-resolved L–I curves measured experimentally for the 1550 nm VCSEL with PP feedback. The feedback ratios fext in (a)–(f) are 47, 43.1, 35.6, 26.9, 16.43, and 6.4dB, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical spectra evolution with the bias current of the VCSEL under (a) free-running, (b) fext=35.6dB, and (c) fext=6.4dB, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Polarization-resolved L–I curves measured experimentally for the 1550 nm VCSEL with PO feedback. The feedback ratios fext in (a)–(f) are 48.2, 44.8, 39.8, 31.73, 18.15, and 6.6dB, respectively.

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