Abstract

A design scheme for silicon-based slot–waveguide crossing using a slot-to-strip mode converter (at each port) and a strip–multimode–waveguide (SMW) crossing is proposed. The guided modes of the input slot–waveguide are first efficiently transformed into that of the single-mode strip waveguide by using the mode converter, and then enter into the SMW, where fields converge at the center of the intersection due to the multimode interference effect. Consequently, the size of the input beam is much smaller than the width of the SMW at the crossing center, leading to the significant reduction of the crosstalk (CT) and radiation loss. The numerical results show that a slot–waveguide crossing operating at a wavelength of 1.55 μm with the insertion loss (IL), CT, and reflection (RT) of 0.086, 35.58, and 27.51dB, respectively, is achieved. Moreover, the IL, CT, and RT as functions of the structural parameters together with the operating wavelength are analyzed in detail by using a finite-difference time domain method, and their fabrication tolerances are presented. In addition, the evolution of the injected fields along the propagation distance through the slot–waveguide crossing is also demonstrated.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

J. Xiao, W. Li, S. Xia, and X. Sun, “Characteristic analysis of a directional coupler in horizontal multiple-slotted silicon wires with slanted sidewalls,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 1747–1752 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

C. H. Chen and C. H. Chiu, “Taper-integrated multimode-interference based waveguide crossing design,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1656–1661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, “Design of polarization-independent optical couplers composed of three parallel slot waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2687–2695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half-wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact polarization splitter in horizontal multiple-slotted structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748–3754 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44, 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

J. Xiao and X. Sun, “A modified full-vectorial finite-difference beam propagation method based on H-fields for optical waveguides with step-index profiles,” Opt. Commun. 266, 505–511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujisawa and M. Koshiba, “Theoretical investigation of ultrasmall polarization-insensitive 1×2 multimode interference waveguides based on sandwiched structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1246–1248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujisawa and M. Koshiba, “Polarization-independent optical directional coupler based on slot waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 56–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

1998

1995

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1966

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302–307 (1966).

Almeida, V. R.

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half-wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss, low-cross-talk crossings for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2801–2803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Bienstman, P.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Chao, C. Y.

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Chen and C. H. Chiu, “Taper-integrated multimode-interference based waveguide crossing design,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1656–1661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

Chiu, C. H.

C. H. Chen and C. H. Chiu, “Taper-integrated multimode-interference based waveguide crossing design,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1656–1661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Claes, T.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

Daldosso, N.

Dalton, L.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half-wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half-wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Fan, S.

Fedeli, J. M.

Fujisawa, T.

T. Fujisawa and M. Koshiba, “Polarization-independent optical directional coupler based on slot waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 56–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujisawa and M. Koshiba, “Theoretical investigation of ultrasmall polarization-insensitive 1×2 multimode interference waveguides based on sandwiched structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1246–1248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galan, J. V.

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1583–1585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Griol, A.

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1583–1585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guider, R.

Hashimoto, T.

Hashizume, Y.

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44, 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

He, S.

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half-wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half-wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ikuma, Y.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, and H. Tsuda, “Low loss, small crosstalk offset crossing structure for large-scale planar lightwave circuits,” IEICE Electron. Express 6, 407–411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44, 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

M. A. Popovic, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Low-loss bloch waves in open structures and highly compact, efficient Si waveguide-crossing arrays,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 56–57.

Itoh, M.

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44, 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half-wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Jordana, E.

Kamei, S.

Kargar, A.

Kartner, F. X.

M. A. Popovic, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Low-loss bloch waves in open structures and highly compact, efficient Si waveguide-crossing arrays,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 56–57.

Kim, T. D.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half-wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kohtoku, M.

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44, 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

T. Fujisawa and M. Koshiba, “Polarization-independent optical directional coupler based on slot waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 56–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujisawa and M. Koshiba, “Theoretical investigation of ultrasmall polarization-insensitive 1×2 multimode interference waveguides based on sandwiched structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1246–1248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwan, C. H.

Li, W.

J. Xiao, W. Li, S. Xia, and X. Sun, “Characteristic analysis of a directional coupler in horizontal multiple-slotted silicon wires with slanted sidewalls,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 1747–1752 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, X.

Luo, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half-wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

Marti, J.

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1583–1585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Molera, J. G.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nasu, Y.

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44, 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Pavesi, L.

Penkov, B.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half-wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Perdigues, J. M.

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1583–1585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piqueras, M. A.

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1583–1585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pitanti, A.

Popovic, M. A.

M. A. Popovic, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, “Low-loss bloch waves in open structures and highly compact, efficient Si waveguide-crossing arrays,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 56–57.

Ram, R.

R. Ram, “CMOS photonic integrated circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2E.1.

Saida, T.

Sakamaki, Y.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, T. Hashimoto, S. Kamei, and H. Takahashi, “Loss reduction of waveguide crossings by wavefront matching method and their application to integrated optical circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2257–2263 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44, 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, P.

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1583–1585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schacht, E.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half-wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half-wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

J. Xiao, W. Li, S. Xia, and X. Sun, “Characteristic analysis of a directional coupler in horizontal multiple-slotted silicon wires with slanted sidewalls,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 1747–1752 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact polarization splitter in horizontal multiple-slotted structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748–3754 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, “Design of polarization-independent optical couplers composed of three parallel slot waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2687–2695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, “Design of an ultracompact MMI wavelength demultiplexer in slot waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 15, 8300–8308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao and X. Sun, “A modified full-vectorial finite-difference beam propagation method based on H-fields for optical waveguides with step-index profiles,” Opt. Commun. 266, 505–511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Takayesu, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half-wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, D.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, and H. Tsuda, “Low loss, small crosstalk offset crossing structure for large-scale planar lightwave circuits,” IEICE Electron. Express 6, 407–411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Thourhout, D. V.

Tsuda, H.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, and H. Tsuda, “Low loss, small crosstalk offset crossing structure for large-scale planar lightwave circuits,” IEICE Electron. Express 6, 407–411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

Wang, Z.

Watanabe, K.

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44, 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wosinski, L.

Xia, S.

J. Xiao, W. Li, S. Xia, and X. Sun, “Characteristic analysis of a directional coupler in horizontal multiple-slotted silicon wires with slanted sidewalls,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 1747–1752 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, J.

J. Xiao, W. Li, S. Xia, and X. Sun, “Characteristic analysis of a directional coupler in horizontal multiple-slotted silicon wires with slanted sidewalls,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 1747–1752 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact polarization splitter in horizontal multiple-slotted structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748–3754 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, “Design of polarization-independent optical couplers composed of three parallel slot waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2687–2695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, “Design of an ultracompact MMI wavelength demultiplexer in slot waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 15, 8300–8308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao and X. Sun, “A modified full-vectorial finite-difference beam propagation method based on H-fields for optical waveguides with step-index profiles,” Opt. Commun. 266, 505–511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yee, K. S.

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302–307 (1966).

Zhu, N.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic layout of the proposed device: (a) top view, (b) cross-sectional view along line ll, and (c) cross-sectional view along line II. Optimized parameters are g=60nm, LT=3.6μm, LP=1μm, LC=1.1μm, WP=0.4μm, LSMW=4.2μm, WSMW=1.2μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Field distributions of the quasi-TE fundamental mode: (a) major component Ex, (b) minor component Ey for a slot waveguide, (c) major component Ex, and (d) minor component Ey for a strip waveguide.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission efficiency η as a function of the lateral distance g.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission efficiency η as a function of the length of the mode converter LT.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission efficiency η as a function of the length of the strip waveguide LP.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmission efficiency as functions of the width WSMW and length LSMW of the strip–multimode–waveguide (SMW).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Insertion loss (IL), crosstalk (CT), and reflection (RT) as a function of the length of the SMW LSMW.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Insertion loss (IL), crosstalk (CT), and reflection (RT) as a function of the width of the SMW WSMW.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Insertion loss (IL), crosstalk (CT), and reflection (RT) as a function of the length of the taper LC.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Insertion loss (IL), crosstalk (CT), and reflection (RT) as a function of the length of the mode converter LT.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Insertion loss (IL), crosstalk (CT), and reflection (RT) as a function of the operating wavelength λ.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Evolutions of (a) Ex and (b) Hy components of the fundamental quasi-TE mode of the input slot waveguide along the propagation distance through the designed crossing.

Equations (3)

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IL(dB)=10log10(P2P1),
CT(dB)=10log10(P3P1),
RT(dB)=10log10(P4P1),

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