Abstract

The optical waveguides in Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) crystals in both depressed-cladding and dual-line configurations have been produced using femtosecond-laser micromachining. The guiding properties and thermal stabilities of the BGO waveguides have been investigated for both geometries, showing different performance of the fabricated structures. Both depressed-cladding and dual-line waveguides support guidance along both TE and TM polarizations. Thermal annealing treatments up to 600°C reduce the propagation loss of dual-line waveguides to as low as 0.5dB/cm, while the cladding waveguide is only stable under thermal treatment not higher than 260°C, reaching a propagation loss of 2.1dB/cm.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (7)

F. Chen, “Micro- and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 622–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. B. Montanari, P. De Nicola, S. Sugliani, A. Menin, A. Parini, A. Nubile, G. Bellanca, M. Chiarini, M. Bianconi, and G. G. Bentini, “Step-index optical waveguide produced by multistep ion implantation in LiNbO3,” Opt. Express 20, 4444–4453 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Kallepalli, V. Soma, and N. Desai, “Femtosecond-laser direct writing in polymers and potential applications in microfluidics and memory devices,” Opt. Eng. 51, 073402 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Okhrimchuk, V. Mezentsev, A. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Low loss depressed cladding waveguide inscribed in YAG:Nd single crystal by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 20, 3832–3843 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. L. Liu, Y. C. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics: fabrication, fluorescence imaging and laser performance,” Opt. Express 20, 18620–18629 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Y. Ren, Q. M. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072701 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (9)

C. Zhang, N. N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. M. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express 19, 12503–12508 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1587–1589 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. N. Dong, Y. Tan, A. Benayas, J. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, C. Romero, F. Chen, and Q. M. Lu, “Femtosecond laser writing of multifunctional optical waveguides in a Nd:YVO4+KTP hybrid system,” Opt. Lett. 36, 975–977 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Tervonen, B. R. West, and S. Honkanen, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguide technology: a review,” Opt. Eng. 50, 071107 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, N. Troy, S. T. Reis, R. K. Brow, and D. M. Krol, “Direct femtosecond laser waveguide writing inside zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Express 19, 7929–7936 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, Y. C. Jia, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and D. Jaque, “Simultaneous dual-wavelength lasers at 1064 and 1342 nm in femtosecond-laser-written Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 1607–1610 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Rodenas and A. K. Kar, “High-contrast step-index waveguides in borate nonlinear laser crystals by 3D laser writing,” Opt. Express 19, 17820–17833 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, C. Zhang, F. Chen, S. Akhmadaliev, and S. Q. Zhou, “Planar optical waveguides in Bi4Ge3O12 crystal fabricated by swift heavy-ion irradiation,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6678–6681 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 131–135 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Drozdowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, and M. Berkowski, “Scintillation yield of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) pixel crystals,” Physica B 405, 1647–1651 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

B. Qian, Y. Liao, G. P. Dong, F. F. Luo, L. B. Su, S. Z. Sun, and J. R. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser-written waveguides in a bismuth germanate single crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 070601 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

S. M. Mahdavi and P. D. Townsend, “Optical effects of defect diffusion in Bi4Ge3O12 and Bi12GeO20 produced by ion implantation,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 86, 1287–1291 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

S. M. Mahdavi, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Formation of planar waveguides in bismuth germanate by He4+ ion implantation,” J. Phys. D 22, 1354–1357 (1989).
[Crossref]

Akhmadaliev, S.

Ams, M.

An, Q.

Audouard, E.

Bányász, I.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bardyszewiski, W.

Bellanca, G.

Benayas, A.

N. N. Dong, Y. Tan, A. Benayas, J. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, C. Romero, F. Chen, and Q. M. Lu, “Femtosecond laser writing of multifunctional optical waveguides in a Nd:YVO4+KTP hybrid system,” Opt. Lett. 36, 975–977 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bennion, I.

Bentini, G. G.

Berkowski, M.

W. Drozdowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, and M. Berkowski, “Scintillation yield of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) pixel crystals,” Physica B 405, 1647–1651 (2010).
[Crossref]

Berneschi, S.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bianconi, M.

Bookey, H. T.

Brow, R. K.

Calmano, T.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 131–135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cantelar, E.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111103 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Jaque, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “Lattice micro-modifications induced by Zn diffusion in Nd:LiNbO3 channel waveguides probed by Nd3+ confocal micro-luminescence,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 201–204 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

Chandler, P. J.

S. M. Mahdavi, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Formation of planar waveguides in bismuth germanate by He4+ ion implantation,” J. Phys. D 22, 1354–1357 (1989).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

Q. An, Y. Ren, Y. Jia, J. Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Mid-infrared waveguides in zinc sulfide crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 466–471 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. L. Liu, Y. C. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics: fabrication, fluorescence imaging and laser performance,” Opt. Express 20, 18620–18629 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Y. Ren, Q. M. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072701 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, “Micro- and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 622–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. N. Dong, Y. Tan, A. Benayas, J. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, C. Romero, F. Chen, and Q. M. Lu, “Femtosecond laser writing of multifunctional optical waveguides in a Nd:YVO4+KTP hybrid system,” Opt. Lett. 36, 975–977 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, C. Zhang, F. Chen, S. Akhmadaliev, and S. Q. Zhou, “Planar optical waveguides in Bi4Ge3O12 crystal fabricated by swift heavy-ion irradiation,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6678–6681 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Tan, Y. C. Jia, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and D. Jaque, “Simultaneous dual-wavelength lasers at 1064 and 1342 nm in femtosecond-laser-written Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 1607–1610 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, N. N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. M. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express 19, 12503–12508 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. J.

Chiarini, M.

Chichkov, B. N.

Chiodo, N.

Davis, K. M.

De Nicola, P.

Desai, N.

L. Kallepalli, V. Soma, and N. Desai, “Femtosecond-laser direct writing in polymers and potential applications in microfluidics and memory devices,” Opt. Eng. 51, 073402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dong, G. P.

B. Qian, Y. Liao, G. P. Dong, F. F. Luo, L. B. Su, S. Z. Sun, and J. R. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser-written waveguides in a bismuth germanate single crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 070601 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dong, N. N.

Drozdowski, W.

W. Drozdowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, and M. Berkowski, “Scintillation yield of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) pixel crystals,” Physica B 405, 1647–1651 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eaton, S. M.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Fernandez, T. T.

Fletcher, L. B.

Fredrich-Thornton, S. T.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fried, M.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fuerbach, A.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gross, S.

Hellmig, O.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 131–135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

Ho, S.

Honkanen, S.

A. Tervonen, B. R. West, and S. Honkanen, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguide technology: a review,” Opt. Eng. 50, 071107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 131–135 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huot, N.

Jaque, D.

Jha, A.

Jia, Y.

Jia, Y. C.

Jose, G.

Kaczmarek, S. M.

W. Drozdowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, and M. Berkowski, “Scintillation yield of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) pixel crystals,” Physica B 405, 1647–1651 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kallepalli, L.

L. Kallepalli, V. Soma, and N. Desai, “Femtosecond-laser direct writing in polymers and potential applications in microfluidics and memory devices,” Opt. Eng. 51, 073402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kar, A. K.

Khánh, N. Q.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khrushchev, I.

Krol, D. M.

Kuan, K.

Lancaster, D. G.

Laporta, P.

Lengyel, K.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Liao, Y.

B. Qian, Y. Liao, G. P. Dong, F. F. Luo, L. B. Su, S. Z. Sun, and J. R. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser-written waveguides in a bismuth germanate single crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 070601 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lifante, G.

D. Jaque, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “Lattice micro-modifications induced by Zn diffusion in Nd:LiNbO3 channel waveguides probed by Nd3+ confocal micro-luminescence,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 201–204 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. L.

Lohner, T.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, Q. M.

Luo, F. F.

B. Qian, Y. Liao, G. P. Dong, F. F. Luo, L. B. Su, S. Z. Sun, and J. R. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser-written waveguides in a bismuth germanate single crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 070601 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mahdavi, S. M.

S. M. Mahdavi and P. D. Townsend, “Optical effects of defect diffusion in Bi4Ge3O12 and Bi12GeO20 produced by ion implantation,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 86, 1287–1291 (1990).
[Crossref]

S. M. Mahdavi, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Formation of planar waveguides in bismuth germanate by He4+ ion implantation,” J. Phys. D 22, 1354–1357 (1989).
[Crossref]

Marshall, G. D.

Mauclair, C.

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Meilán, P. F.

Mendez, C.

Menin, A.

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

Mezentsev, V.

Mitchell, J.

Miura, K.

Monro, T. M.

Montanari, G. B.

Ng, M. L.

Nolte, S.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4360–4364 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nubile, A.

Nunzi-Conti, G.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Okhrimchuk, A.

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

Osellame, R.

Parini, A.

Paschke, A. G.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pelli, S.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Péter, Á.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 131–135 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Petrik, P.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Psaila, N. D.

Qian, B.

B. Qian, Y. Liao, G. P. Dong, F. F. Luo, L. B. Su, S. Z. Sun, and J. R. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser-written waveguides in a bismuth germanate single crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 070601 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J. R.

B. Qian, Y. Liao, G. P. Dong, F. F. Luo, L. B. Su, S. Z. Sun, and J. R. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser-written waveguides in a bismuth germanate single crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 070601 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rademaker, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and R. Ramponi, Femtosecond Laser Micromachining (Springer-Verlag, 2012).

Reis, S. T.

Ren, Y.

Ren, Y. Y.

Y. C. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Y. Ren, Q. M. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Righini, G. C.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rodenas, A.

Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, J.

Romero, C.

Y. C. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Y. Ren, Q. M. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072701 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. N. Dong, Y. Tan, A. Benayas, J. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, C. Romero, F. Chen, and Q. M. Lu, “Femtosecond laser writing of multifunctional optical waveguides in a Nd:YVO4+KTP hybrid system,” Opt. Lett. 36, 975–977 (2011).
[Crossref]

Roso, L.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111103 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilán, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Femtosecond laser written surface waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Express 15, 13266–13271 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shen, S.

Shestakov, A.

Shestakov, A. V.

Siebenmorgen, J.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 131–135 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Soma, V.

L. Kallepalli, V. Soma, and N. Desai, “Femtosecond-laser direct writing in polymers and potential applications in microfluidics and memory devices,” Opt. Eng. 51, 073402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stoian, R.

Su, L. B.

B. Qian, Y. Liao, G. P. Dong, F. F. Luo, L. B. Su, S. Z. Sun, and J. R. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser-written waveguides in a bismuth germanate single crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 070601 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, N.

Sugliani, S.

Sun, S. Z.

B. Qian, Y. Liao, G. P. Dong, F. F. Luo, L. B. Su, S. Z. Sun, and J. R. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser-written waveguides in a bismuth germanate single crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 070601 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tan, Y.

Tervonen, A.

A. Tervonen, B. R. West, and S. Honkanen, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguide technology: a review,” Opt. Eng. 50, 071107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thomson, R. R.

Torchia, G. A.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111103 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilán, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Femtosecond laser written surface waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Express 15, 13266–13271 (2007).
[Crossref]

Townsend, P. D.

S. M. Mahdavi and P. D. Townsend, “Optical effects of defect diffusion in Bi4Ge3O12 and Bi12GeO20 produced by ion implantation,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 86, 1287–1291 (1990).
[Crossref]

S. M. Mahdavi, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Formation of planar waveguides in bismuth germanate by He4+ ion implantation,” J. Phys. D 22, 1354–1357 (1989).
[Crossref]

Troy, N.

Tünnermann, A.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4360–4364 (2002).
[Crossref]

Valle, G. D.

Vázquez de Aldana, J.

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Watterich, A.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

West, B. R.

A. Tervonen, B. R. West, and S. Honkanen, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguide technology: a review,” Opt. Eng. 50, 071107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Will, M.

Witcher, J. J.

Withford, M. J.

Wojtowicz, A. J.

W. Drozdowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, and M. Berkowski, “Scintillation yield of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) pixel crystals,” Physica B 405, 1647–1651 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yagi, H.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Yevick, D.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, H.

Zhou, S. Q.

Zolnai, Z.

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

D. Jaque, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “Lattice micro-modifications induced by Zn diffusion in Nd:LiNbO3 channel waveguides probed by Nd3+ confocal micro-luminescence,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 201–204 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 131–135 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 251–255 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. C. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Y. Ren, Q. M. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 072701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 111103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Qian, Y. Liao, G. P. Dong, F. F. Luo, L. B. Su, S. Z. Sun, and J. R. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser-written waveguides in a bismuth germanate single crystal,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 070601 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. (1)

S. M. Mahdavi and P. D. Townsend, “Optical effects of defect diffusion in Bi4Ge3O12 and Bi12GeO20 produced by ion implantation,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 86, 1287–1291 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

S. M. Mahdavi, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Formation of planar waveguides in bismuth germanate by He4+ ion implantation,” J. Phys. D 22, 1354–1357 (1989).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

F. Chen, “Micro- and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 622–640 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B (1)

I. Bányász, S. Berneschi, N. Q. Khánh, T. Lohner, K. Lengyel, M. Fried, Á. Péter, P. Petrik, Z. Zolnai, A. Watterich, G. Nunzi-Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Formation of slab waveguides in eulytine type BGO and CaF2 crystals by implantation of MeV nitrogen ions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 286, 80–84 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

A. Tervonen, B. R. West, and S. Honkanen, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguide technology: a review,” Opt. Eng. 50, 071107 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Kallepalli, V. Soma, and N. Desai, “Femtosecond-laser direct writing in polymers and potential applications in microfluidics and memory devices,” Opt. Eng. 51, 073402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (12)

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W. J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 9443–9458 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, S. Shen, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, “Supercontinuum generation in an ultrafast laser inscribed chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Opt. Express 15, 15776–15781 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser writing of homogeneous longitudinal waveguides in glasses using dynamic wavefront correction,” Opt. Express 16, 5481–5492 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. T. Fernandez, G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, G. Jose, N. Chiodo, A. Jha, and P. Laporta, “Active waveguides written by femtosecond laser irradiation in an erbium-doped phospho-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 16, 15198–15205 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. B. Montanari, P. De Nicola, S. Sugliani, A. Menin, A. Parini, A. Nubile, G. Bellanca, M. Chiarini, M. Bianconi, and G. G. Bentini, “Step-index optical waveguide produced by multistep ion implantation in LiNbO3,” Opt. Express 20, 4444–4453 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, N. Troy, S. T. Reis, R. K. Brow, and D. M. Krol, “Direct femtosecond laser waveguide writing inside zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Express 19, 7929–7936 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Rodenas and A. K. Kar, “High-contrast step-index waveguides in borate nonlinear laser crystals by 3D laser writing,” Opt. Express 19, 17820–17833 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, N. N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. M. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express 19, 12503–12508 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilán, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, and L. Roso, “Femtosecond laser written surface waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Express 15, 13266–13271 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Study of the influence of femtosecond laser polarisation on direct writing of waveguides,” Opt. Express 14, 13158–13163 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Okhrimchuk, V. Mezentsev, A. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Low loss depressed cladding waveguide inscribed in YAG:Nd single crystal by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 20, 3832–3843 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. L. Liu, Y. C. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics: fabrication, fluorescence imaging and laser performance,” Opt. Express 20, 18620–18629 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Physica B (1)

W. Drozdowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, and M. Berkowski, “Scintillation yield of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) pixel crystals,” Physica B 405, 1647–1651 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

http://www.rsoftdesign.com .

R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and R. Ramponi, Femtosecond Laser Micromachining (Springer-Verlag, 2012).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the end-face coupling arrangement applied to investigate the near-field intensity distributions of the BGO waveguides.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical microscope images of the cross sections of (a) cladding and (b) dual-line BGO waveguides Nos. 1–4. The dashed line indicates the location of the cladding waveguide.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured near-field intensity distributions of (a) TE and (b) TM modes of the circular cladding waveguide at 632.8 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured near-field intensity distributions of dual-line waveguides Nos. 1–4 for both TE (top) and TM (bottom) polarizations at 632.8 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Reconstructed 2D refractive index profile at the cross section and (b) calculated modal profile of dual-line BGO waveguide No. 4 of TM polarization at 632.8 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Propagation losses α of the TM modes of dual-line BGO waveguides Nos. 1–4 before and after thermal annealing treatments.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Fabrication Parameters of BGO Waveguides by Fs-Laser Micromachining

Equations (1)

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Δnsin2Θm2n,

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