Abstract

Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than ±10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

S. Kuang, M. J. Newchurch, J. Burris, L. Wang, K. Knupp, and G. Huang, “Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport revealed by ground-based lidar and ozonesonde at a midlatitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, D18305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

S. Kuang, M. J. Newchurch, J. burris, L. Wang, P. Buckley, S. Johnson, K. Knupp, G. Huang, and D. Phillips, “Nocturnal ozone enhancement in the lower troposphere observed by lidar,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 6078–6084 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Schafer, “What is a Savitzky–Golay filter? [lecture notes],” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 28(4), 111–117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Langford, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Parrish, and T. B. Ryerson, “Comparison between the TOPAZ airborne ozone lidar and in situ measurements during TexAQS 2006,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1243–1257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuang, J. F. Burris, M. J. Newchurch, S. Johnson, and S. Long, “Differential absorption lidar to measure subhourly variation of tropospheric ozone profiles,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 557–571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, A. O. Langford, D. D. Parrish, M. K. Trainer, L. S. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, B. Lambeth, J. A. Neuman, W. M. Angevine, J. Nielsen-Gammon, S. P. Sandberg, and A. B. White, “Dependence of daily peak O3 concentrations near Houston, Texas on environmental factors: wind speed, temperature, and boundary-layer depth,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 162–173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

B. J. Johnson, D. Helmig, and S. Oltmans, “Evaluation of ozone measurements from a tethered balloon-sampling platform at South Pole station in December 2003,” Atmos. Environ. 42, 2780–2787 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

A. Pour-Biazar, R. T. McNider, S. J. Roselle, R. Suggs, G. Jedlovec, D. W. Byun, S. Kim, C. J. Lin, T. C. Ho, S. Haines, B. Dornblaser, and R. Cameron, “Correcting photolysis rates on the basis of satellite observed clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. G. J. Smit, W. Straeter, B. J. Johnson, S. J. Oltmans, J. Davies, D. W. Tarasick, B. Hoegger, R. Stubi, F. J. Schmidlin, T. Northam, A. M. Thompson, J. C. Witte, I. Boyd, and F. Posny, “Assessment of the performance of ECC-ozonesondes under quasi-flight conditions in the environmental simulation chamber: insights from the Juelich ozone sonde intercomparison experiment (JOSIE),” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, K. Chance, C. E. Sioris, and T. P. Kurosu, “Impact of using different ozone cross sections on ozone profile retrievals from global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) ultraviolet measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 3571–3578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

C. M. Berkowitz, T. Jobson, G. Jiang, C. W. Spicer, and P. V. Doskey, “Chemical and meteorological characteristics associated with rapid increases of O3 in Houston, Texas,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D10307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bsenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370–5385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Choi, Y.-J. Kim, D. H. Kim, H. K. Cha, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for ozone measurements in the planetary boundary layer in an urban area,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 44, 1432–1437 (2004).

2003 (4)

F. Immler, “A new algorithm for simultaneous ozone and aerosol retrieval from tropospheric DIAL measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 593–596 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Porteneuve, and A. Garnier, “Systematic DIAL lidar monitoring of the stratospheric ozone vertical distribution at observatoire de haute-provence (43.92°N, 5.71°E),” J. Environ. Monit. 5, 57–67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Orphal, “A critical review of the absorption cross-sections of O3 and NO2 in the 240–790 nm region,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 185–209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. A. Ayoub, S. Oltmans, B. Johnson, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Vertical distribution of ozone at four sites in the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4031 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

J. Burris, T. McGee, W. Hoegy, P. Newman, L. Lait, L. Twigg, G. Sumnicht, W. Heaps, C. Hostetler, R. Neuber, and K. F. Künzi, “Lidar temperature measurements during the SOLVE campaign and the absence of polar stratospheric clouds from regions of very cold air,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8297 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Elsayed, S. S. Chen, L. B. Petway, B. L. Meadows, W. D. Marsh, W. C. Edwards, J. C. Barnes, and R. J. DeYoung, “High-energy, efficient, 30 Hz ultraviolet laser sources for airborne ozone-lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2734–2739 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. McDermid, G. Beyerle, D. Haner, and T. Leblanc, “Redesign and improved performance of the tropospheric ozone lidar at the jet propulsion laboratory table mountain facility,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7550–7555 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, D. J. Jacob, I. Bey, P. I. Palmer, B. N. Duncan, B. D. Field, R. V. Martin, A. M. Fiore, R. M. Yantosca, D. D. Parrish, P. G. Simmonds, and S. J. Oltmans, “Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH 4-1–ACH 4-21 (2002).

2000 (1)

P. Solomon, E. Cowling, G. Hidy, and C. Furiness, “Comparison of scientific findings from major ozone field studies in North America and Europe,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1885–1920 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, M. Trainer, R. T. McNider, R. J. Valente, S. D. Mayor, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Hardesty, D. Parrish, and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Daytime buildup and nighttime transport of urban ozone in the boundary layer during a stagnation episode,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22519–22544 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Brion, A. Chakir, J. Charbonnier, D. Daumont, C. Parisse, and J. Malicet, “Absorption spectra measurements for the ozone molecule in the 350–830 nm region,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 291–299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Y. Zhao, R. D. Marchbanks, and R. M. Hardesty, “ETL’s transportable lower-troposphere ozone lidar and its applications in air-quality studies,” Proc. SPIE 3127, 53–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Proffitt and A. O. Langford, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar system for day or night measurements of ozone throughout the free troposphere,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2568–2585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, and G. Di Donfrancesco, “A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3274–3280 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

W. D. Komhyr, R. A. Barnes, G. B. Brothers, J. A. Lanthrop, and D. P. Opperman, “Electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde performance evaluation during STOIC 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9231–9244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Bristow, D. Bundy, and A. Wright, “Signal linearity, gain stability, and gating in photomultipliers: application to differential absorption lidars,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4437–4452 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbonnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, “Ozone UV spectroscopy, II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence,” J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263–273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1993 (2)

D. P. Donovan, J. A. Whiteway, and A. I. Carswell, “Correction for nonlinear photon-counting effects in lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6742–6753 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Brion, A. Chakir, D. Daumont, and J. Malicet, “High-resolution laboratory absorption cross section of O3 temperature effect,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 213, 610–612 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

D. Daumont, J. Brion, J. Charbonnier, and J. Malicet, “Ozone UV spectroscopy I: absorption cross-sections at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 145–155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1985 (3)

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

1969 (1)

W. D. Komhyr, “Electrochemical cells for gas analysis,” Ann. Geophys. 25, 203–210 (1969).

1964 (1)

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627–1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, R.

Alvarez, R. J.

A. O. Langford, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Parrish, and T. B. Ryerson, “Comparison between the TOPAZ airborne ozone lidar and in situ measurements during TexAQS 2006,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1243–1257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, A. O. Langford, D. D. Parrish, M. K. Trainer, L. S. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, B. Lambeth, J. A. Neuman, W. M. Angevine, J. Nielsen-Gammon, S. P. Sandberg, and A. B. White, “Dependence of daily peak O3 concentrations near Houston, Texas on environmental factors: wind speed, temperature, and boundary-layer depth,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 162–173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, M. Trainer, R. T. McNider, R. J. Valente, S. D. Mayor, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Hardesty, D. Parrish, and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Daytime buildup and nighttime transport of urban ozone in the boundary layer during a stagnation episode,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22519–22544 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Amiridis, V.

Amodeo, A.

Ancellet, G.

Angevine, W. M.

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, A. O. Langford, D. D. Parrish, M. K. Trainer, L. S. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, B. Lambeth, J. A. Neuman, W. M. Angevine, J. Nielsen-Gammon, S. P. Sandberg, and A. B. White, “Dependence of daily peak O3 concentrations near Houston, Texas on environmental factors: wind speed, temperature, and boundary-layer depth,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 162–173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

Apituley, A.

Ayoub, M. A.

M. J. Newchurch, M. A. Ayoub, S. Oltmans, B. Johnson, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Vertical distribution of ozone at four sites in the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4031 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Banta, R. M.

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, A. O. Langford, D. D. Parrish, M. K. Trainer, L. S. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, B. Lambeth, J. A. Neuman, W. M. Angevine, J. Nielsen-Gammon, S. P. Sandberg, and A. B. White, “Dependence of daily peak O3 concentrations near Houston, Texas on environmental factors: wind speed, temperature, and boundary-layer depth,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 162–173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Langford, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Parrish, and T. B. Ryerson, “Comparison between the TOPAZ airborne ozone lidar and in situ measurements during TexAQS 2006,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1243–1257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, M. Trainer, R. T. McNider, R. J. Valente, S. D. Mayor, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Hardesty, D. Parrish, and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Daytime buildup and nighttime transport of urban ozone in the boundary layer during a stagnation episode,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22519–22544 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. C.

Barnes, R. A.

W. D. Komhyr, R. A. Barnes, G. B. Brothers, J. A. Lanthrop, and D. P. Opperman, “Electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde performance evaluation during STOIC 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9231–9244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bergwerff, H.

Berkowitz, C. M.

C. M. Berkowitz, T. Jobson, G. Jiang, C. W. Spicer, and P. V. Doskey, “Chemical and meteorological characteristics associated with rapid increases of O3 in Houston, Texas,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D10307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bey, I.

Q. Li, D. J. Jacob, I. Bey, P. I. Palmer, B. N. Duncan, B. D. Field, R. V. Martin, A. M. Fiore, R. M. Yantosca, D. D. Parrish, P. G. Simmonds, and S. J. Oltmans, “Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH 4-1–ACH 4-21 (2002).

Beyerle, G.

Boyd, I.

H. G. J. Smit, W. Straeter, B. J. Johnson, S. J. Oltmans, J. Davies, D. W. Tarasick, B. Hoegger, R. Stubi, F. J. Schmidlin, T. Northam, A. M. Thompson, J. C. Witte, I. Boyd, and F. Posny, “Assessment of the performance of ECC-ozonesondes under quasi-flight conditions in the environmental simulation chamber: insights from the Juelich ozone sonde intercomparison experiment (JOSIE),” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, W.

Brewer, W. A.

R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brion, J.

J. Brion, A. Chakir, J. Charbonnier, D. Daumont, C. Parisse, and J. Malicet, “Absorption spectra measurements for the ozone molecule in the 350–830 nm region,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 291–299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbonnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, “Ozone UV spectroscopy, II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence,” J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263–273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Brion, A. Chakir, D. Daumont, and J. Malicet, “High-resolution laboratory absorption cross section of O3 temperature effect,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 213, 610–612 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Daumont, J. Brion, J. Charbonnier, and J. Malicet, “Ozone UV spectroscopy I: absorption cross-sections at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 145–155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, M.

Brothers, G. B.

W. D. Komhyr, R. A. Barnes, G. B. Brothers, J. A. Lanthrop, and D. P. Opperman, “Electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde performance evaluation during STOIC 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9231–9244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, R. C. Harriss, and M. C. Shipham, “Ozone and aerosol distributions in the summertime troposphere over Canada,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1739–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and S. T. Shipley, “Ultraviolet DIAL measurements of O3 profiles in regions of spatially inhomogeneous aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2827–2836 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bsenberg, J.

Buckley, P.

S. Kuang, M. J. Newchurch, J. burris, L. Wang, P. Buckley, S. Johnson, K. Knupp, G. Huang, and D. Phillips, “Nocturnal ozone enhancement in the lower troposphere observed by lidar,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 6078–6084 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bundy, D.

Burris, J.

S. Kuang, M. J. Newchurch, J. Burris, L. Wang, K. Knupp, and G. Huang, “Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport revealed by ground-based lidar and ozonesonde at a midlatitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, D18305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuang, M. J. Newchurch, J. burris, L. Wang, P. Buckley, S. Johnson, K. Knupp, G. Huang, and D. Phillips, “Nocturnal ozone enhancement in the lower troposphere observed by lidar,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 6078–6084 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Burris, T. McGee, W. Hoegy, P. Newman, L. Lait, L. Twigg, G. Sumnicht, W. Heaps, C. Hostetler, R. Neuber, and K. F. Künzi, “Lidar temperature measurements during the SOLVE campaign and the absence of polar stratospheric clouds from regions of very cold air,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8297 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burris, J. F.

S. Kuang, J. F. Burris, M. J. Newchurch, S. Johnson, and S. Long, “Differential absorption lidar to measure subhourly variation of tropospheric ozone profiles,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 557–571 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Butler, C. F.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, R. C. Harriss, and M. C. Shipham, “Ozone and aerosol distributions in the summertime troposphere over Canada,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1739–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Byun, D. W.

A. Pour-Biazar, R. T. McNider, S. J. Roselle, R. Suggs, G. Jedlovec, D. W. Byun, S. Kim, C. J. Lin, T. C. Ho, S. Haines, B. Dornblaser, and R. Cameron, “Correcting photolysis rates on the basis of satellite observed clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cairo, F.

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, and G. Di Donfrancesco, “A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3274–3280 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, R.

A. Pour-Biazar, R. T. McNider, S. J. Roselle, R. Suggs, G. Jedlovec, D. W. Byun, S. Kim, C. J. Lin, T. C. Ho, S. Haines, B. Dornblaser, and R. Cameron, “Correcting photolysis rates on the basis of satellite observed clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carswell, A.

Carswell, A. I.

Centurioni, S.

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, and G. Di Donfrancesco, “A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3274–3280 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cha, H. K.

S. C. Choi, Y.-J. Kim, D. H. Kim, H. K. Cha, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for ozone measurements in the planetary boundary layer in an urban area,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 44, 1432–1437 (2004).

Chakir, A.

J. Brion, A. Chakir, J. Charbonnier, D. Daumont, C. Parisse, and J. Malicet, “Absorption spectra measurements for the ozone molecule in the 350–830 nm region,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 291–299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbonnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, “Ozone UV spectroscopy, II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence,” J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263–273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Brion, A. Chakir, D. Daumont, and J. Malicet, “High-resolution laboratory absorption cross section of O3 temperature effect,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 213, 610–612 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

X. Liu, K. Chance, C. E. Sioris, and T. P. Kurosu, “Impact of using different ozone cross sections on ozone profile retrievals from global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) ultraviolet measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 3571–3578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Charbonnier, J.

J. Brion, A. Chakir, J. Charbonnier, D. Daumont, C. Parisse, and J. Malicet, “Absorption spectra measurements for the ozone molecule in the 350–830 nm region,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 291–299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbonnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, “Ozone UV spectroscopy, II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence,” J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263–273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Daumont, J. Brion, J. Charbonnier, and J. Malicet, “Ozone UV spectroscopy I: absorption cross-sections at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 145–155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. S.

Choi, S. C.

S. C. Choi, Y.-J. Kim, D. H. Kim, H. K. Cha, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for ozone measurements in the planetary boundary layer in an urban area,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 44, 1432–1437 (2004).

Claude, H.

Clayton, M.

Congeduti, F.

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, and G. Di Donfrancesco, “A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3274–3280 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cowling, E.

P. Solomon, E. Cowling, G. Hidy, and C. Furiness, “Comparison of scientific findings from major ozone field studies in North America and Europe,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1885–1920 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Darby, L. S.

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, A. O. Langford, D. D. Parrish, M. K. Trainer, L. S. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, B. Lambeth, J. A. Neuman, W. M. Angevine, J. Nielsen-Gammon, S. P. Sandberg, and A. B. White, “Dependence of daily peak O3 concentrations near Houston, Texas on environmental factors: wind speed, temperature, and boundary-layer depth,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 162–173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Daumont, D.

J. Brion, A. Chakir, J. Charbonnier, D. Daumont, C. Parisse, and J. Malicet, “Absorption spectra measurements for the ozone molecule in the 350–830 nm region,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 291–299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Malicet, D. Daumont, J. Charbonnier, C. Parisse, A. Chakir, and J. Brion, “Ozone UV spectroscopy, II. Absorption cross-sections and temperature dependence,” J. Atmos. Chem. 21, 263–273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Brion, A. Chakir, D. Daumont, and J. Malicet, “High-resolution laboratory absorption cross section of O3 temperature effect,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 213, 610–612 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Daumont, J. Brion, J. Charbonnier, and J. Malicet, “Ozone UV spectroscopy I: absorption cross-sections at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 145–155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J.

H. G. J. Smit, W. Straeter, B. J. Johnson, S. J. Oltmans, J. Davies, D. W. Tarasick, B. Hoegger, R. Stubi, F. J. Schmidlin, T. Northam, A. M. Thompson, J. C. Witte, I. Boyd, and F. Posny, “Assessment of the performance of ECC-ozonesondes under quasi-flight conditions in the environmental simulation chamber: insights from the Juelich ozone sonde intercomparison experiment (JOSIE),” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Tomasi, F.

DeYoung, R. J.

Di Donfrancesco, G.

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, and G. Di Donfrancesco, “A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3274–3280 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Donovan, D.

Donovan, D. P.

Dornblaser, B.

A. Pour-Biazar, R. T. McNider, S. J. Roselle, R. Suggs, G. Jedlovec, D. W. Byun, S. Kim, C. J. Lin, T. C. Ho, S. Haines, B. Dornblaser, and R. Cameron, “Correcting photolysis rates on the basis of satellite observed clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doskey, P. V.

C. M. Berkowitz, T. Jobson, G. Jiang, C. W. Spicer, and P. V. Doskey, “Chemical and meteorological characteristics associated with rapid increases of O3 in Houston, Texas,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D10307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, B. N.

Q. Li, D. J. Jacob, I. Bey, P. I. Palmer, B. N. Duncan, B. D. Field, R. V. Martin, A. M. Fiore, R. M. Yantosca, D. D. Parrish, P. G. Simmonds, and S. J. Oltmans, “Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH 4-1–ACH 4-21 (2002).

Eberhard, W.

Edwards, W. C.

Eisele, H.

Elsayed, K. A.

Fehsenfeld, F. C.

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, M. Trainer, R. T. McNider, R. J. Valente, S. D. Mayor, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Hardesty, D. Parrish, and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Daytime buildup and nighttime transport of urban ozone in the boundary layer during a stagnation episode,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22519–22544 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, M. A.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, R. C. Harriss, and M. C. Shipham, “Ozone and aerosol distributions in the summertime troposphere over Canada,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1739–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fernald, F.

Ferrare, R.

Field, B. D.

Q. Li, D. J. Jacob, I. Bey, P. I. Palmer, B. N. Duncan, B. D. Field, R. V. Martin, A. M. Fiore, R. M. Yantosca, D. D. Parrish, P. G. Simmonds, and S. J. Oltmans, “Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH 4-1–ACH 4-21 (2002).

Fiore, A. M.

Q. Li, D. J. Jacob, I. Bey, P. I. Palmer, B. N. Duncan, B. D. Field, R. V. Martin, A. M. Fiore, R. M. Yantosca, D. D. Parrish, P. G. Simmonds, and S. J. Oltmans, “Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH 4-1–ACH 4-21 (2002).

Frioud, M.

Furiness, C.

P. Solomon, E. Cowling, G. Hidy, and C. Furiness, “Comparison of scientific findings from major ozone field studies in North America and Europe,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1885–1920 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garnier, A.

S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Porteneuve, and A. Garnier, “Systematic DIAL lidar monitoring of the stratospheric ozone vertical distribution at observatoire de haute-provence (43.92°N, 5.71°E),” J. Environ. Monit. 5, 57–67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Godin, S.

Godin-Beekmann, S.

S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Porteneuve, and A. Garnier, “Systematic DIAL lidar monitoring of the stratospheric ozone vertical distribution at observatoire de haute-provence (43.92°N, 5.71°E),” J. Environ. Monit. 5, 57–67 (2003).
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Golay, M. J. E.

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627–1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W. B.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, R. C. Harriss, and M. C. Shipham, “Ozone and aerosol distributions in the summertime troposphere over Canada,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1739–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

Haines, S.

A. Pour-Biazar, R. T. McNider, S. J. Roselle, R. Suggs, G. Jedlovec, D. W. Byun, S. Kim, C. J. Lin, T. C. Ho, S. Haines, B. Dornblaser, and R. Cameron, “Correcting photolysis rates on the basis of satellite observed clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haner, D.

Hardesty, R. M.

R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Langford, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Parrish, and T. B. Ryerson, “Comparison between the TOPAZ airborne ozone lidar and in situ measurements during TexAQS 2006,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1243–1257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, A. O. Langford, D. D. Parrish, M. K. Trainer, L. S. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, B. Lambeth, J. A. Neuman, W. M. Angevine, J. Nielsen-Gammon, S. P. Sandberg, and A. B. White, “Dependence of daily peak O3 concentrations near Houston, Texas on environmental factors: wind speed, temperature, and boundary-layer depth,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 162–173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, M. Trainer, R. T. McNider, R. J. Valente, S. D. Mayor, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Hardesty, D. Parrish, and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Daytime buildup and nighttime transport of urban ozone in the boundary layer during a stagnation episode,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22519–22544 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, R. D. Marchbanks, and R. M. Hardesty, “ETL’s transportable lower-troposphere ozone lidar and its applications in air-quality studies,” Proc. SPIE 3127, 53–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harriss, R. C.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, R. C. Harriss, and M. C. Shipham, “Ozone and aerosol distributions in the summertime troposphere over Canada,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1739–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heaps, W.

J. Burris, T. McGee, W. Hoegy, P. Newman, L. Lait, L. Twigg, G. Sumnicht, W. Heaps, C. Hostetler, R. Neuber, and K. F. Künzi, “Lidar temperature measurements during the SOLVE campaign and the absence of polar stratospheric clouds from regions of very cold air,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8297 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Helmig, D.

B. J. Johnson, D. Helmig, and S. Oltmans, “Evaluation of ozone measurements from a tethered balloon-sampling platform at South Pole station in December 2003,” Atmos. Environ. 42, 2780–2787 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hidy, G.

P. Solomon, E. Cowling, G. Hidy, and C. Furiness, “Comparison of scientific findings from major ozone field studies in North America and Europe,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1885–1920 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ho, T. C.

A. Pour-Biazar, R. T. McNider, S. J. Roselle, R. Suggs, G. Jedlovec, D. W. Byun, S. Kim, C. J. Lin, T. C. Ho, S. Haines, B. Dornblaser, and R. Cameron, “Correcting photolysis rates on the basis of satellite observed clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoegger, B.

H. G. J. Smit, W. Straeter, B. J. Johnson, S. J. Oltmans, J. Davies, D. W. Tarasick, B. Hoegger, R. Stubi, F. J. Schmidlin, T. Northam, A. M. Thompson, J. C. Witte, I. Boyd, and F. Posny, “Assessment of the performance of ECC-ozonesondes under quasi-flight conditions in the environmental simulation chamber: insights from the Juelich ozone sonde intercomparison experiment (JOSIE),” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoegy, W.

J. Burris, T. McGee, W. Hoegy, P. Newman, L. Lait, L. Twigg, G. Sumnicht, W. Heaps, C. Hostetler, R. Neuber, and K. F. Künzi, “Lidar temperature measurements during the SOLVE campaign and the absence of polar stratospheric clouds from regions of very cold air,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8297 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hostetler, C.

J. Burris, T. McGee, W. Hoegy, P. Newman, L. Lait, L. Twigg, G. Sumnicht, W. Heaps, C. Hostetler, R. Neuber, and K. F. Künzi, “Lidar temperature measurements during the SOLVE campaign and the absence of polar stratospheric clouds from regions of very cold air,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8297 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

S. Kuang, M. J. Newchurch, J. Burris, L. Wang, K. Knupp, and G. Huang, “Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport revealed by ground-based lidar and ozonesonde at a midlatitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, D18305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuang, M. J. Newchurch, J. burris, L. Wang, P. Buckley, S. Johnson, K. Knupp, G. Huang, and D. Phillips, “Nocturnal ozone enhancement in the lower troposphere observed by lidar,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 6078–6084 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iarlori, M.

Immler, F.

F. Immler, “A new algorithm for simultaneous ozone and aerosol retrieval from tropospheric DIAL measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 593–596 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

Jacob, D. J.

Q. Li, D. J. Jacob, I. Bey, P. I. Palmer, B. N. Duncan, B. D. Field, R. V. Martin, A. M. Fiore, R. M. Yantosca, D. D. Parrish, P. G. Simmonds, and S. J. Oltmans, “Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH 4-1–ACH 4-21 (2002).

Jedlovec, G.

A. Pour-Biazar, R. T. McNider, S. J. Roselle, R. Suggs, G. Jedlovec, D. W. Byun, S. Kim, C. J. Lin, T. C. Ho, S. Haines, B. Dornblaser, and R. Cameron, “Correcting photolysis rates on the basis of satellite observed clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, G.

C. M. Berkowitz, T. Jobson, G. Jiang, C. W. Spicer, and P. V. Doskey, “Chemical and meteorological characteristics associated with rapid increases of O3 in Houston, Texas,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D10307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jobson, T.

C. M. Berkowitz, T. Jobson, G. Jiang, C. W. Spicer, and P. V. Doskey, “Chemical and meteorological characteristics associated with rapid increases of O3 in Houston, Texas,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D10307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B.

M. J. Newchurch, M. A. Ayoub, S. Oltmans, B. Johnson, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Vertical distribution of ozone at four sites in the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4031 (2003).
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Johnson, B. J.

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A. Pour-Biazar, R. T. McNider, S. J. Roselle, R. Suggs, G. Jedlovec, D. W. Byun, S. Kim, C. J. Lin, T. C. Ho, S. Haines, B. Dornblaser, and R. Cameron, “Correcting photolysis rates on the basis of satellite observed clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10302 (2007).
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Knupp, K.

S. Kuang, M. J. Newchurch, J. Burris, L. Wang, K. Knupp, and G. Huang, “Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport revealed by ground-based lidar and ozonesonde at a midlatitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, D18305 (2012).
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S. Kuang, J. F. Burris, M. J. Newchurch, S. Johnson, and S. Long, “Differential absorption lidar to measure subhourly variation of tropospheric ozone profiles,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 557–571 (2011).
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S. Kuang, J. F. Burris, M. J. Newchurch, S. Johnson, and S. Long, “Differential absorption lidar to measure subhourly variation of tropospheric ozone profiles,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 557–571 (2011).
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R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, M. Trainer, R. T. McNider, R. J. Valente, S. D. Mayor, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Hardesty, D. Parrish, and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Daytime buildup and nighttime transport of urban ozone in the boundary layer during a stagnation episode,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22519–22544 (1998).
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R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
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R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, A. O. Langford, D. D. Parrish, M. K. Trainer, L. S. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, B. Lambeth, J. A. Neuman, W. M. Angevine, J. Nielsen-Gammon, S. P. Sandberg, and A. B. White, “Dependence of daily peak O3 concentrations near Houston, Texas on environmental factors: wind speed, temperature, and boundary-layer depth,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 162–173 (2011).
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S. Kuang, J. F. Burris, M. J. Newchurch, S. Johnson, and S. Long, “Differential absorption lidar to measure subhourly variation of tropospheric ozone profiles,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 557–571 (2011).
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R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, A. O. Langford, D. D. Parrish, M. K. Trainer, L. S. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, B. Lambeth, J. A. Neuman, W. M. Angevine, J. Nielsen-Gammon, S. P. Sandberg, and A. B. White, “Dependence of daily peak O3 concentrations near Houston, Texas on environmental factors: wind speed, temperature, and boundary-layer depth,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 162–173 (2011).
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B. J. Johnson, D. Helmig, and S. Oltmans, “Evaluation of ozone measurements from a tethered balloon-sampling platform at South Pole station in December 2003,” Atmos. Environ. 42, 2780–2787 (2008).
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M. J. Newchurch, M. A. Ayoub, S. Oltmans, B. Johnson, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Vertical distribution of ozone at four sites in the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4031 (2003).
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H. G. J. Smit, W. Straeter, B. J. Johnson, S. J. Oltmans, J. Davies, D. W. Tarasick, B. Hoegger, R. Stubi, F. J. Schmidlin, T. Northam, A. M. Thompson, J. C. Witte, I. Boyd, and F. Posny, “Assessment of the performance of ECC-ozonesondes under quasi-flight conditions in the environmental simulation chamber: insights from the Juelich ozone sonde intercomparison experiment (JOSIE),” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19306 (2007).
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R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, M. Trainer, R. T. McNider, R. J. Valente, S. D. Mayor, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Hardesty, D. Parrish, and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Daytime buildup and nighttime transport of urban ozone in the boundary layer during a stagnation episode,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22519–22544 (1998).
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A. O. Langford, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Parrish, and T. B. Ryerson, “Comparison between the TOPAZ airborne ozone lidar and in situ measurements during TexAQS 2006,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1243–1257 (2011).
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A. O. Langford, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Parrish, and T. B. Ryerson, “Comparison between the TOPAZ airborne ozone lidar and in situ measurements during TexAQS 2006,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1243–1257 (2011).
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Sandberg, S.

Sandberg, S. P.

R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, A. O. Langford, D. D. Parrish, M. K. Trainer, L. S. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, B. Lambeth, J. A. Neuman, W. M. Angevine, J. Nielsen-Gammon, S. P. Sandberg, and A. B. White, “Dependence of daily peak O3 concentrations near Houston, Texas on environmental factors: wind speed, temperature, and boundary-layer depth,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 162–173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Savitzky, A.

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627–1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, R. W.

R. W. Schafer, “What is a Savitzky–Golay filter? [lecture notes],” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 28(4), 111–117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidlin, F. J.

H. G. J. Smit, W. Straeter, B. J. Johnson, S. J. Oltmans, J. Davies, D. W. Tarasick, B. Hoegger, R. Stubi, F. J. Schmidlin, T. Northam, A. M. Thompson, J. C. Witte, I. Boyd, and F. Posny, “Assessment of the performance of ECC-ozonesondes under quasi-flight conditions in the environmental simulation chamber: insights from the Juelich ozone sonde intercomparison experiment (JOSIE),” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, M. A. Ayoub, S. Oltmans, B. Johnson, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Vertical distribution of ozone at four sites in the United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4031 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Senff, C.

Senff, C. J.

A. O. Langford, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Parrish, and T. B. Ryerson, “Comparison between the TOPAZ airborne ozone lidar and in situ measurements during TexAQS 2006,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1243–1257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, A. O. Langford, D. D. Parrish, M. K. Trainer, L. S. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, B. Lambeth, J. A. Neuman, W. M. Angevine, J. Nielsen-Gammon, S. P. Sandberg, and A. B. White, “Dependence of daily peak O3 concentrations near Houston, Texas on environmental factors: wind speed, temperature, and boundary-layer depth,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 162–173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, M. Trainer, R. T. McNider, R. J. Valente, S. D. Mayor, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Hardesty, D. Parrish, and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Daytime buildup and nighttime transport of urban ozone in the boundary layer during a stagnation episode,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22519–22544 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shipham, M. C.

E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, R. C. Harriss, and M. C. Shipham, “Ozone and aerosol distributions in the summertime troposphere over Canada,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 1739–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shipley, S. T.

Simmonds, P. G.

Q. Li, D. J. Jacob, I. Bey, P. I. Palmer, B. N. Duncan, B. D. Field, R. V. Martin, A. M. Fiore, R. M. Yantosca, D. D. Parrish, P. G. Simmonds, and S. J. Oltmans, “Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH 4-1–ACH 4-21 (2002).

Sioris, C. E.

X. Liu, K. Chance, C. E. Sioris, and T. P. Kurosu, “Impact of using different ozone cross sections on ozone profile retrievals from global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) ultraviolet measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 3571–3578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sivaraman, C.

Smit, H. G. J.

H. G. J. Smit, W. Straeter, B. J. Johnson, S. J. Oltmans, J. Davies, D. W. Tarasick, B. Hoegger, R. Stubi, F. J. Schmidlin, T. Northam, A. M. Thompson, J. C. Witte, I. Boyd, and F. Posny, “Assessment of the performance of ECC-ozonesondes under quasi-flight conditions in the environmental simulation chamber: insights from the Juelich ozone sonde intercomparison experiment (JOSIE),” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, P.

P. Solomon, E. Cowling, G. Hidy, and C. Furiness, “Comparison of scientific findings from major ozone field studies in North America and Europe,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1885–1920 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spicer, C. W.

C. M. Berkowitz, T. Jobson, G. Jiang, C. W. Spicer, and P. V. Doskey, “Chemical and meteorological characteristics associated with rapid increases of O3 in Houston, Texas,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D10307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steinbrecht, W.

Straeter, W.

H. G. J. Smit, W. Straeter, B. J. Johnson, S. J. Oltmans, J. Davies, D. W. Tarasick, B. Hoegger, R. Stubi, F. J. Schmidlin, T. Northam, A. M. Thompson, J. C. Witte, I. Boyd, and F. Posny, “Assessment of the performance of ECC-ozonesondes under quasi-flight conditions in the environmental simulation chamber: insights from the Juelich ozone sonde intercomparison experiment (JOSIE),” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stubi, R.

H. G. J. Smit, W. Straeter, B. J. Johnson, S. J. Oltmans, J. Davies, D. W. Tarasick, B. Hoegger, R. Stubi, F. J. Schmidlin, T. Northam, A. M. Thompson, J. C. Witte, I. Boyd, and F. Posny, “Assessment of the performance of ECC-ozonesondes under quasi-flight conditions in the environmental simulation chamber: insights from the Juelich ozone sonde intercomparison experiment (JOSIE),” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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A. Pour-Biazar, R. T. McNider, S. J. Roselle, R. Suggs, G. Jedlovec, D. W. Byun, S. Kim, C. J. Lin, T. C. Ho, S. Haines, B. Dornblaser, and R. Cameron, “Correcting photolysis rates on the basis of satellite observed clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10302 (2007).
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J. Burris, T. McGee, W. Hoegy, P. Newman, L. Lait, L. Twigg, G. Sumnicht, W. Heaps, C. Hostetler, R. Neuber, and K. F. Künzi, “Lidar temperature measurements during the SOLVE campaign and the absence of polar stratospheric clouds from regions of very cold air,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8297 (2002).
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Sunesson, J. A.

Swart, D.

Swart, D. P. J.

Tabata, I.

Tarasick, D. W.

H. G. J. Smit, W. Straeter, B. J. Johnson, S. J. Oltmans, J. Davies, D. W. Tarasick, B. Hoegger, R. Stubi, F. J. Schmidlin, T. Northam, A. M. Thompson, J. C. Witte, I. Boyd, and F. Posny, “Assessment of the performance of ECC-ozonesondes under quasi-flight conditions in the environmental simulation chamber: insights from the Juelich ozone sonde intercomparison experiment (JOSIE),” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A. M.

H. G. J. Smit, W. Straeter, B. J. Johnson, S. J. Oltmans, J. Davies, D. W. Tarasick, B. Hoegger, R. Stubi, F. J. Schmidlin, T. Northam, A. M. Thompson, J. C. Witte, I. Boyd, and F. Posny, “Assessment of the performance of ECC-ozonesondes under quasi-flight conditions in the environmental simulation chamber: insights from the Juelich ozone sonde intercomparison experiment (JOSIE),” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, M. Trainer, R. T. McNider, R. J. Valente, S. D. Mayor, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Hardesty, D. Parrish, and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Daytime buildup and nighttime transport of urban ozone in the boundary layer during a stagnation episode,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22519–22544 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trainer, M. K.

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, A. O. Langford, D. D. Parrish, M. K. Trainer, L. S. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, B. Lambeth, J. A. Neuman, W. M. Angevine, J. Nielsen-Gammon, S. P. Sandberg, and A. B. White, “Dependence of daily peak O3 concentrations near Houston, Texas on environmental factors: wind speed, temperature, and boundary-layer depth,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 162–173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T.

Turner, D.

Twigg, L.

J. Burris, T. McGee, W. Hoegy, P. Newman, L. Lait, L. Twigg, G. Sumnicht, W. Heaps, C. Hostetler, R. Neuber, and K. F. Künzi, “Lidar temperature measurements during the SOLVE campaign and the absence of polar stratospheric clouds from regions of very cold air,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8297 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, O.

Valente, R. J.

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, M. Trainer, R. T. McNider, R. J. Valente, S. D. Mayor, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Hardesty, D. Parrish, and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Daytime buildup and nighttime transport of urban ozone in the boundary layer during a stagnation episode,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22519–22544 (1998).
[CrossRef]

von der Gathen, P.

Wandinger, U.

Wang, L.

S. Kuang, M. J. Newchurch, J. Burris, L. Wang, K. Knupp, and G. Huang, “Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport revealed by ground-based lidar and ozonesonde at a midlatitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, D18305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuang, M. J. Newchurch, J. burris, L. Wang, P. Buckley, S. Johnson, K. Knupp, G. Huang, and D. Phillips, “Nocturnal ozone enhancement in the lower troposphere observed by lidar,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 6078–6084 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Weickmann, A.

Weickmann, A. M.

R. J. Alvarez, C. J. Senff, A. O. Langford, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, J. L. Machol, D. A. Merritt, R. D. Marchbanks, S. P. Sandberg, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, and R. M. Banta, “Development and application of a compact, tunable, solid-state airborne ozone lidar system for boundary layer profiling,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 1258–1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

White, A. B.

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, R. J. Alvarez, A. O. Langford, D. D. Parrish, M. K. Trainer, L. S. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, B. Lambeth, J. A. Neuman, W. M. Angevine, J. Nielsen-Gammon, S. P. Sandberg, and A. B. White, “Dependence of daily peak O3 concentrations near Houston, Texas on environmental factors: wind speed, temperature, and boundary-layer depth,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 162–173 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Banta, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, M. Trainer, R. T. McNider, R. J. Valente, S. D. Mayor, R. J. Alvarez, R. M. Hardesty, D. Parrish, and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Daytime buildup and nighttime transport of urban ozone in the boundary layer during a stagnation episode,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22519–22544 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Whiteway, J. A.

Witte, J. C.

H. G. J. Smit, W. Straeter, B. J. Johnson, S. J. Oltmans, J. Davies, D. W. Tarasick, B. Hoegger, R. Stubi, F. J. Schmidlin, T. Northam, A. M. Thompson, J. C. Witte, I. Boyd, and F. Posny, “Assessment of the performance of ECC-ozonesondes under quasi-flight conditions in the environmental simulation chamber: insights from the Juelich ozone sonde intercomparison experiment (JOSIE),” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D19306 (2007).
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Wright, A.

Yantosca, R. M.

Q. Li, D. J. Jacob, I. Bey, P. I. Palmer, B. N. Duncan, B. D. Field, R. V. Martin, A. M. Fiore, R. M. Yantosca, D. D. Parrish, P. G. Simmonds, and S. J. Oltmans, “Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, ACH 4-1–ACH 4-21 (2002).

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, R. D. Marchbanks, and R. M. Hardesty, “ETL’s transportable lower-troposphere ozone lidar and its applications in air-quality studies,” Proc. SPIE 3127, 53–62 (1997).
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[CrossRef]

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S. C. Choi, Y.-J. Kim, D. H. Kim, H. K. Cha, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for ozone measurements in the planetary boundary layer in an urban area,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 44, 1432–1437 (2004).

J. Photochem. Photobiol. A (1)

J. Orphal, “A critical review of the absorption cross-sections of O3 and NO2 in the 240–790 nm region,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 185–209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. Zhao, R. D. Marchbanks, and R. M. Hardesty, “ETL’s transportable lower-troposphere ozone lidar and its applications in air-quality studies,” Proc. SPIE 3127, 53–62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, and G. Di Donfrancesco, “A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3274–3280 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. R. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, 1984).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Configuration schematic for the UAHuntsville ozone lidar in (a) its vertical cross section and (b) its horizontal cross section.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Design of the 2.5 cm receiver.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Timing chart for the 2.5 cm receiver. rPD represents the range (or the height AGL) of the photodiode trigger pulse, and rS denotes range at the start of the data recording by the Licel TR, which is a photon counter. Subscripts 285 and 291 represent the two lasers. Receiver is located at approximately 12 m AGL for both lasers, which is the laboratory height. The solid portions of the signals represent the signals that are recorded by the TR. The dashed portion is not recorded. For accurate DIAL retrieval, r* should be minimized by adjusting Delay285 and Delay291.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Modeled percentage errors in the DIAL retrievals due to range registration offsets, r*, between on- and off-line wavelength by assuming a 1.5×1012 molecule cm3 constant ozone profile, no aerosol, and using the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere [23]. Every 1.5 m range offset corresponds to a 10 ns time offset.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Estimated effective spatial resolutions of the DIAL retrievals as a function of range for channels 1, 2, and 3. The step-function-like increase in resolution at the upper range of each channel is due to an increasing filtering width. The gray shaded areas designate the region where the adjacent channels can be joined together.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Ozone lidar retrievals (channel 1—bottom, channel 2—middle, and channel 3—top) compared with the ozonesonde (marked by the black triangle at 1310 launch time) and EPA (16km away) hourly surface measurements.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of the 10 min DIAL retrievals for the three altitude/PMT channels and the collocated ozonesonde measurement. The mixed layer height is about 2.1 km, suggested by a large ozone gradient and confirmed by a temperature inversion (not shown) from the ozonesonde profile.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Modeled statistical uncertainties for channels 1, 2, and 3 with the effective vertical resolutions shown in Fig. 5 by using an average summer ozonesonde profile.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Variability of the ozone lidar measurements in Fig. 6. (a) Average of the 10 min lidar profiles and the 1σ standard deviation. (b) The 1σ standard deviation in units of percentage.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Characteristics of the UAHuntsville Ozone Lidar

Equations (1)

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no3(r)=12ΔO3(r)ddr[lnPon(r)Poff(r)]+Δno3(r),

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