Abstract

Modulation-averaging reflectors have recently been proposed as a means for improving the link margin in self-seeded wavelength-division multiplexing in passive optical networks. In this work, we describe simple methods for determining key parameters of such structures and use them to predict their averaging efficiency. We characterize several reflectors built by arraying fiber-Bragg gratings along a segment of an optical fiber and show very good agreement between experiments and theoretical models.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C.-H. Lee, W. V. Sorin, and B. Y. Kim, “Fiber to the home using a PON infrastructure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4568–4583 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. F. Lam, Passive Optical Networks: Principles and Practice (Academic, 2007).
  3. B. Kim and B.-W. Kim, “WDM-PON development and deployment as a present optical access solution,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, San Diego, 1–3 March, 2009.
  4. E. Wong, K. L. Lee, and T. B. Anderson, “Directly modulated self-seeding reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers as colorless transmitters in wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 67–74 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Komljenovic, D. Babic, and Z. Sipus, “Modulation-averaging reflectors for extended-cavity optical sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2249–2258 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Komljenovic, D. Babic, and Z. Sipus, “47 km 1.25 Gbps transmission using a self-seeded transmitter with a modulation averaging reflector,” Opt. Express 20, 17386–17392 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. EXFO, OTDR Specifications, www.exfo.com .
  8. A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coatings (McGraw-Hill, 1989).

2012

2011

2007

2006

Anderson, T. B.

Babic, D.

Kim, B.

B. Kim and B.-W. Kim, “WDM-PON development and deployment as a present optical access solution,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, San Diego, 1–3 March, 2009.

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, B.-W.

B. Kim and B.-W. Kim, “WDM-PON development and deployment as a present optical access solution,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, San Diego, 1–3 March, 2009.

Komljenovic, T.

Lam, C. F.

C. F. Lam, Passive Optical Networks: Principles and Practice (Academic, 2007).

Lee, C.-H.

Lee, K. L.

Sipus, Z.

Sorin, W. V.

Thelen, A.

A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coatings (McGraw-Hill, 1989).

Wong, E.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

MAR with n layers. The structure is typically terminated with unit reflectivity (only r=1), while all other mirrors are semi-transparent (ri<1, for i=1:n).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Defining the unit transmission matrix for the MAR.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calibrating terminations realized with different optical couplers.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Analytically calculated (thick black line) and measured (triangles connected with thin lines) curves of total reflectivity for various reflectivities of the end mirror for the (a) 10-layered and (b) 20-layered designs. The analytically calculated curves are plotted for two different tc parameters in order to show the influence of the input connector loss.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured γ/γ0 for different terminations of the (a) 10-layered and (b) 20-layered MARs compared to simulations with different tc.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured Γ for the 10-layer and 20-layer MARs with different reflectivities of end mirrors compared to simulated results using extracted parameters.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured Γ versus number of layers compared to simulations with extracted MAR parameters.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Relationship between total MAR reflectivity and Γ as a function of a and r. The gray star shows the position of a corresponding MAR structure with r=0.06 and a=0.015. (a) 10-layered MAR and (b) 20-layered MAR.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Histograms of Γ for random variation of r and a of each partially reflective surface by ±10% and by ±20% with uniform distribution for a 20-layer MAR. The Γ for r=0.06 and a=0.015 is equal to 0.2128.

Equations (11)

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Γ=γγ0·P0P,
PF0=t1PF1+r1PR0,PR1=r1PF1+t1PR0.
[PFkPRk]=A(k)[PF,k1PR,k1].
A(k)=[a11a12a21a22]=[1tkrktkrktktk2rk2tk].
B=k=1nA(k)=An.
An=Sn1(x)ASn2(x)I,x=a11+a22,
Sn1(coshθ)=sinhnθsinhθ.
x2=coshθ,x=1+t2r2t.
B=An=sinhnθsinhθ[a11sinh(n1)θsinhnθa12a21a22sinh(n1)θsinhnθ].
C=[1tC00tC],C=[1tC00tC],H=[PTt0r0t0PT].
R(n)=tC2b21+(tC)2r0b22b11+(tC)2r0b12,T(n)=tCt0tCb11+(tC)2r0b12.

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