Abstract

This paper describes a prototype feasibility demonstration system of a multipurpose Raman-fluorescence spectrograph and compact lidar system suitable for planetary sciences missions. The key measurement features of this instrument are its abilities to: i) detect minerals and organics at low levels in the dust constituents of surface, subsurface material and rocks on Mars, ii) determine the distribution of trace fluorescent ions with time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to learn about the geological conditions under which these minerals formed, iii) inspect material toxicity from a mobile robotic platform during local site characterization, iv) measure dust aerosol and cloud distributions, v) measure near-field atmospheric carbon dioxide, and vi) identify surface CO2-ice, surface water ice, and surface or subsurface methane hydrate. This prototype instrument and an improved follow-on design are described and have the capability for scientific investigations discussed above, to remotely investigate geological processes from a robotic platform at more than a 20-m radial distance with potential to go beyond 100 m. It also provides single wavelength (532 nm) aerosol/cloud profiling over very long ranges (>10km with potential to 20 km). Measurement results obtained with this prototype unit from a robotic platform and calculated potential performance are presented in this paper.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Wang, J. J. Freeman, B. L. Jolliff, and I.-M. Chou, “Sulfates on Mars: a systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 6118–6135 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. E. Acosta, P. G. Lucey, and M. N. Abedin, “Compact time-resolved remote Raman system for detection of anhydrous and hydrous minerals and ices for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE 7691, 76910F (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. N. Abedin, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, A. T. Bradley, S. Ismail, B. Robinson, J. Mau, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization from robotic platform using remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument,” in Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, 9–12 October 2011, p. 599.
  35. M. N. Abedin, A. T. Bradley, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, C. S. Garcia, J. Mau, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization using combined Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument from rovers and landers,” in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Vol. 43 of Lunar Planetary Science Conference Series (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2012), paper , 1219.

2012

2010

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. E. Acosta, P. G. Lucey, and M. N. Abedin, “Compact time-resolved remote Raman system for detection of anhydrous and hydrous minerals and ices for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE 7691, 76910F (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. E. Acosta, P. G. Lucey, and M. N. Abedin, “Compact time-resolved remote Raman system for detection of anhydrous and hydrous minerals and ices for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE 7691, 76910F (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Design and build a compact Raman sensor for identification of chemical composition,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 731210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Whiteway, M. Daly, A. Carswell, T. Duck, C. Dickinson, L. Komguem, and C. Cook, “Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E00A08 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. Nguyen, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Studies of minerals, organic and biogenic materials through time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6943, 694301 (2008).

2007

R. T. Clancy, M. J. Wolff, B. A. Whitney, B. A. Cantor, and M. D. Smith, “Mars equatorial mesospheric clouds: global occurrence and physical properties from Mars global surveyor TES and MOC limb observations,” J. Geophys. Res. (Planet) 112, E04004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Remote Raman sensor system for testing of rocks and minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6538, 6538-1I (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Wang, J. J. Freeman, B. L. Jolliff, and I.-M. Chou, “Sulfates on Mars: a systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 6118–6135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, P. G. Lucey, S. M. Angel, and C. P. McKay, “Remote pulsed Raman spectroscopy of inorganic and organic materials to a radial distance of 100 meters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 871–876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, T. F. Refaat, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, and S. P. Sandford, “Remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy system for detecting water, ice, and hydrous minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. K. Misra, S. K. Sharma, C. H. Chio, P. G. Lucey, and B. Lienert, “Pulsed remote Raman system for daytime measurements of mineral spectra,” Spectrochim. Acta A 61, 2281–2287 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Carter, S. M. Angel, M. Lawrence-Snyder, J. Scaffidi, R. E. Whipple, and J. G. Reynolds, “Standoff detection of high explosive materials at 50 meters in ambient light conditions using a small Raman instrument,” Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 769–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. K. Sharma, P. G. Lucey, M. Ghosh, H. W. Hubble, and K. A. Horton, “Stand-off Raman spectroscopic detection of minerals on planetary surfaces,” Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 2391–2407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

1997

R. W. Gauldie, S. K. Sharma, and E. Volk, “Micro-Raman spectra of Vaterite and Aragonite otoliths of Coho Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. 119A, 753–757 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

F. Pauer and J. Kipfstuhl, “Raman spectroscopic study on the nitrogen/oxygen ratio in natural ice clathrates in the GRIP ice core,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 969–971 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Stevenson and T. Vo-Dinh, “Analysis of polycyclic aromatic compounds using laser-induced synchronous luminescence,” Anal. Chim. Acta 303, 247–253 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

I. A. Degen and G. A. Newman, “Raman spectra of inorganic ions,” Spectrochim. Acta 49, 859–887 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1989

S. K. Sharma, “Applications of advanced Raman techniques in earth sciences,” Vib. Spectra Struct. 17B, 513–568 (1989).

1974

1964

M. J. Taylor and E. Whalley, “Raman spectra of ices Ih, Ic, II, II, and V,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1660–1664 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, M. N.

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. E. Acosta, P. G. Lucey, and M. N. Abedin, “Compact time-resolved remote Raman system for detection of anhydrous and hydrous minerals and ices for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE 7691, 76910F (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. E. Acosta, P. G. Lucey, and M. N. Abedin, “Compact time-resolved remote Raman system for detection of anhydrous and hydrous minerals and ices for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE 7691, 76910F (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Design and build a compact Raman sensor for identification of chemical composition,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 731210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. Nguyen, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Studies of minerals, organic and biogenic materials through time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6943, 694301 (2008).

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Remote Raman sensor system for testing of rocks and minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6538, 6538-1I (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, T. F. Refaat, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, and S. P. Sandford, “Remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy system for detecting water, ice, and hydrous minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, A. T. Bradley, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, B. Robinson, and J. Hibberd, “Compact remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar multi-sensor instrument for characterization of planetary surfaces and atmosphere from robotic platform,” in 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Woodlands, Texas, 7–11 March 2011, paper 2298.

M. N. Abedin, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, A. T. Bradley, S. Ismail, B. Robinson, J. Mau, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization from robotic platform using remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument,” in Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, 9–12 October 2011, p. 599.

M. N. Abedin, A. T. Bradley, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, C. S. Garcia, J. Mau, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization using combined Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument from rovers and landers,” in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Vol. 43 of Lunar Planetary Science Conference Series (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2012), paper , 1219.

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, S. K. Sharma, A. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, and M. J. Gazarik, “Remote Raman investigation of mixed minerals,” in 7th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy Applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences, GEORAMAN 2006 (Universidad de Valladolid, 2006).

Acosta, T. E.

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. E. Acosta, P. G. Lucey, and M. N. Abedin, “Compact time-resolved remote Raman system for detection of anhydrous and hydrous minerals and ices for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE 7691, 76910F (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. E. Acosta, P. G. Lucey, and M. N. Abedin, “Compact time-resolved remote Raman system for detection of anhydrous and hydrous minerals and ices for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE 7691, 76910F (2010).
[CrossRef]

Angel, S. M.

Bertaux, J.-L.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, A. T.

M. N. Abedin, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, A. T. Bradley, S. Ismail, B. Robinson, J. Mau, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization from robotic platform using remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument,” in Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, 9–12 October 2011, p. 599.

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, A. T. Bradley, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, B. Robinson, and J. Hibberd, “Compact remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar multi-sensor instrument for characterization of planetary surfaces and atmosphere from robotic platform,” in 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Woodlands, Texas, 7–11 March 2011, paper 2298.

M. N. Abedin, A. T. Bradley, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, C. S. Garcia, J. Mau, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization using combined Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument from rovers and landers,” in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Vol. 43 of Lunar Planetary Science Conference Series (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2012), paper , 1219.

Cabane, M.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cantor, B. A.

R. T. Clancy, M. J. Wolff, B. A. Whitney, B. A. Cantor, and M. D. Smith, “Mars equatorial mesospheric clouds: global occurrence and physical properties from Mars global surveyor TES and MOC limb observations,” J. Geophys. Res. (Planet) 112, E04004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carswell, A.

J. Whiteway, M. Daly, A. Carswell, T. Duck, C. Dickinson, L. Komguem, and C. Cook, “Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E00A08 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carswell, A. I.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carter, J. C.

Cernogora, G.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chassefiere, E.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chio, C. H.

A. K. Misra, S. K. Sharma, C. H. Chio, P. G. Lucey, and B. Lienert, “Pulsed remote Raman system for daytime measurements of mineral spectra,” Spectrochim. Acta A 61, 2281–2287 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chou, I.-M.

A. Wang, J. J. Freeman, B. L. Jolliff, and I.-M. Chou, “Sulfates on Mars: a systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 6118–6135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clancy, R. T.

R. T. Clancy, M. J. Wolff, B. A. Whitney, B. A. Cantor, and M. D. Smith, “Mars equatorial mesospheric clouds: global occurrence and physical properties from Mars global surveyor TES and MOC limb observations,” J. Geophys. Res. (Planet) 112, E04004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cook, C.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Whiteway, M. Daly, A. Carswell, T. Duck, C. Dickinson, L. Komguem, and C. Cook, “Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E00A08 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cooney, T. F.

P. G. Lucey, T. F. Cooney, and S. K. Sharma, “A remote Raman analysis system for planetary landers,” in 29th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, 16–20 March (1998), Lunar Planet. Sci. XXIX, Abstract #1354.

Daerden, F.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Daly, M.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Whiteway, M. Daly, A. Carswell, T. Duck, C. Dickinson, L. Komguem, and C. Cook, “Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E00A08 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davy, R.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Maziere, M.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Degen, I. A.

I. A. Degen and G. A. Newman, “Raman spectra of inorganic ions,” Spectrochim. Acta 49, 859–887 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, C.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Whiteway, M. Daly, A. Carswell, T. Duck, C. Dickinson, L. Komguem, and C. Cook, “Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E00A08 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dimarellis, E.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, J. P.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duck, T.

J. Whiteway, M. Daly, A. Carswell, T. Duck, C. Dickinson, L. Komguem, and C. Cook, “Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E00A08 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duck, T. J.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Elsayed-Ali, H.

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Design and build a compact Raman sensor for identification of chemical composition,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 731210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. Nguyen, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Studies of minerals, organic and biogenic materials through time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6943, 694301 (2008).

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Remote Raman sensor system for testing of rocks and minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6538, 6538-1I (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elsayed-Ali, H. E.

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, T. F. Refaat, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, and S. P. Sandford, “Remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy system for detecting water, ice, and hydrous minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, D.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fonteyn, D.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Forget, F.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, J. J.

A. Wang, J. J. Freeman, B. L. Jolliff, and I.-M. Chou, “Sulfates on Mars: a systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 6118–6135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fung, K. H.

Garcia, C. S.

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Design and build a compact Raman sensor for identification of chemical composition,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 731210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. Nguyen, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Studies of minerals, organic and biogenic materials through time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6943, 694301 (2008).

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Remote Raman sensor system for testing of rocks and minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6538, 6538-1I (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, T. F. Refaat, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, and S. P. Sandford, “Remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy system for detecting water, ice, and hydrous minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, A. T. Bradley, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, B. Robinson, and J. Hibberd, “Compact remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar multi-sensor instrument for characterization of planetary surfaces and atmosphere from robotic platform,” in 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Woodlands, Texas, 7–11 March 2011, paper 2298.

M. N. Abedin, A. T. Bradley, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, C. S. Garcia, J. Mau, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization using combined Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument from rovers and landers,” in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Vol. 43 of Lunar Planetary Science Conference Series (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2012), paper , 1219.

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, S. K. Sharma, A. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, and M. J. Gazarik, “Remote Raman investigation of mixed minerals,” in 7th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy Applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences, GEORAMAN 2006 (Universidad de Valladolid, 2006).

Gauldie, R. W.

R. W. Gauldie, S. K. Sharma, and E. Volk, “Micro-Raman spectra of Vaterite and Aragonite otoliths of Coho Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. 119A, 753–757 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gazarik, M. J.

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, S. K. Sharma, A. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, and M. J. Gazarik, “Remote Raman investigation of mixed minerals,” in 7th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy Applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences, GEORAMAN 2006 (Universidad de Valladolid, 2006).

Ghosh, M.

S. K. Sharma, P. G. Lucey, M. Ghosh, H. W. Hubble, and K. A. Horton, “Stand-off Raman spectroscopic detection of minerals on planetary surfaces,” Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 2391–2407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, S. M. Angel, M. Ghosh, H. W. Hubble, and P. G. Lucey, “A remote pulsed-laser Raman spectroscopy system for mineral analysis on planetary surfaces to 66 meters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 699–705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gomer, N. R.

Guibert, S.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

Han, J.

Harder, D.

Hauchecorne, A.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, M. H.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hermans, C.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hibberd, J.

M. N. Abedin, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, A. T. Bradley, S. Ismail, B. Robinson, J. Mau, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization from robotic platform using remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument,” in Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, 9–12 October 2011, p. 599.

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, A. T. Bradley, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, B. Robinson, and J. Hibberd, “Compact remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar multi-sensor instrument for characterization of planetary surfaces and atmosphere from robotic platform,” in 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Woodlands, Texas, 7–11 March 2011, paper 2298.

M. N. Abedin, A. T. Bradley, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, C. S. Garcia, J. Mau, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization using combined Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument from rovers and landers,” in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Vol. 43 of Lunar Planetary Science Conference Series (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2012), paper , 1219.

Hipkin, V.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirschfeld, T.

Horton, K. A.

S. K. Sharma, P. G. Lucey, M. Ghosh, H. W. Hubble, and K. A. Horton, “Stand-off Raman spectroscopic detection of minerals on planetary surfaces,” Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 2391–2407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hourdin, F.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hubble, H. W.

S. K. Sharma, P. G. Lucey, M. Ghosh, H. W. Hubble, and K. A. Horton, “Stand-off Raman spectroscopic detection of minerals on planetary surfaces,” Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 2391–2407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, S. M. Angel, M. Ghosh, H. W. Hubble, and P. G. Lucey, “A remote pulsed-laser Raman spectroscopy system for mineral analysis on planetary surfaces to 66 meters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 699–705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Illnicki, M.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Design and build a compact Raman sensor for identification of chemical composition,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 731210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. Nguyen, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Studies of minerals, organic and biogenic materials through time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6943, 694301 (2008).

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Remote Raman sensor system for testing of rocks and minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6538, 6538-1I (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, T. F. Refaat, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, and S. P. Sandford, “Remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy system for detecting water, ice, and hydrous minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, A. T. Bradley, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, B. Robinson, and J. Hibberd, “Compact remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar multi-sensor instrument for characterization of planetary surfaces and atmosphere from robotic platform,” in 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Woodlands, Texas, 7–11 March 2011, paper 2298.

M. N. Abedin, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, A. T. Bradley, S. Ismail, B. Robinson, J. Mau, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization from robotic platform using remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument,” in Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, 9–12 October 2011, p. 599.

M. N. Abedin, A. T. Bradley, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, C. S. Garcia, J. Mau, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization using combined Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument from rovers and landers,” in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Vol. 43 of Lunar Planetary Science Conference Series (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2012), paper , 1219.

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, S. K. Sharma, A. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, and M. J. Gazarik, “Remote Raman investigation of mixed minerals,” in 7th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy Applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences, GEORAMAN 2006 (Universidad de Valladolid, 2006).

Jolliff, B. L.

A. Wang, J. J. Freeman, B. L. Jolliff, and I.-M. Chou, “Sulfates on Mars: a systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 6118–6135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kipfstuhl, J.

F. Pauer and J. Kipfstuhl, “Raman spectroscopic study on the nitrogen/oxygen ratio in natural ice clathrates in the GRIP ice core,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 969–971 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kockarts, G.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Komguem, L.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Whiteway, M. Daly, A. Carswell, T. Duck, C. Dickinson, L. Komguem, and C. Cook, “Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E00A08 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Korablev, O.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kulp, T. J.

Lamppari, L. K.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence-Snyder, M.

Lefevre, F.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lemmon, L. T.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lienert, B.

A. K. Misra, S. K. Sharma, C. H. Chio, P. G. Lucey, and B. Lienert, “Pulsed remote Raman system for daytime measurements of mineral spectra,” Spectrochim. Acta A 61, 2281–2287 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lippens, C.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lucey, P. G.

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. E. Acosta, P. G. Lucey, and M. N. Abedin, “Compact time-resolved remote Raman system for detection of anhydrous and hydrous minerals and ices for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE 7691, 76910F (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. E. Acosta, P. G. Lucey, and M. N. Abedin, “Compact time-resolved remote Raman system for detection of anhydrous and hydrous minerals and ices for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE 7691, 76910F (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, P. G. Lucey, S. M. Angel, and C. P. McKay, “Remote pulsed Raman spectroscopy of inorganic and organic materials to a radial distance of 100 meters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 871–876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Misra, S. K. Sharma, C. H. Chio, P. G. Lucey, and B. Lienert, “Pulsed remote Raman system for daytime measurements of mineral spectra,” Spectrochim. Acta A 61, 2281–2287 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, P. G. Lucey, M. Ghosh, H. W. Hubble, and K. A. Horton, “Stand-off Raman spectroscopic detection of minerals on planetary surfaces,” Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 2391–2407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, S. M. Angel, M. Ghosh, H. W. Hubble, and P. G. Lucey, “A remote pulsed-laser Raman spectroscopy system for mineral analysis on planetary surfaces to 66 meters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 699–705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Lucey, T. F. Cooney, and S. K. Sharma, “A remote Raman analysis system for planetary landers,” in 29th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, 16–20 March (1998), Lunar Planet. Sci. XXIX, Abstract #1354.

Mau, J.

M. N. Abedin, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, A. T. Bradley, S. Ismail, B. Robinson, J. Mau, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization from robotic platform using remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument,” in Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, 9–12 October 2011, p. 599.

M. N. Abedin, A. T. Bradley, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, C. S. Garcia, J. Mau, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization using combined Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument from rovers and landers,” in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Vol. 43 of Lunar Planetary Science Conference Series (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2012), paper , 1219.

McKay, C.

McKay, C. P.

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamental and Applications (Krieger, 1992), p. 208.

Misra, A.

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, S. K. Sharma, A. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, and M. J. Gazarik, “Remote Raman investigation of mixed minerals,” in 7th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy Applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences, GEORAMAN 2006 (Universidad de Valladolid, 2006).

Misra, A. K.

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. E. Acosta, P. G. Lucey, and M. N. Abedin, “Compact time-resolved remote Raman system for detection of anhydrous and hydrous minerals and ices for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE 7691, 76910F (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. E. Acosta, P. G. Lucey, and M. N. Abedin, “Compact time-resolved remote Raman system for detection of anhydrous and hydrous minerals and ices for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE 7691, 76910F (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Design and build a compact Raman sensor for identification of chemical composition,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 731210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. Nguyen, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Studies of minerals, organic and biogenic materials through time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6943, 694301 (2008).

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Remote Raman sensor system for testing of rocks and minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6538, 6538-1I (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, T. F. Refaat, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, and S. P. Sandford, “Remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy system for detecting water, ice, and hydrous minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, P. G. Lucey, S. M. Angel, and C. P. McKay, “Remote pulsed Raman spectroscopy of inorganic and organic materials to a radial distance of 100 meters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 871–876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Misra, S. K. Sharma, C. H. Chio, P. G. Lucey, and B. Lienert, “Pulsed remote Raman system for daytime measurements of mineral spectra,” Spectrochim. Acta A 61, 2281–2287 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, A. T. Bradley, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, B. Robinson, and J. Hibberd, “Compact remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar multi-sensor instrument for characterization of planetary surfaces and atmosphere from robotic platform,” in 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Woodlands, Texas, 7–11 March 2011, paper 2298.

M. N. Abedin, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, A. T. Bradley, S. Ismail, B. Robinson, J. Mau, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization from robotic platform using remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument,” in Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, 9–12 October 2011, p. 599.

M. N. Abedin, A. T. Bradley, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, C. S. Garcia, J. Mau, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization using combined Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument from rovers and landers,” in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Vol. 43 of Lunar Planetary Science Conference Series (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2012), paper , 1219.

Moores, J. E.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, D.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moroz, V. I.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muller, C.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neefs, E.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Newman, G. A.

I. A. Degen and G. A. Newman, “Raman spectra of inorganic ions,” Spectrochim. Acta 49, 859–887 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, T.

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. Nguyen, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Studies of minerals, organic and biogenic materials through time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6943, 694301 (2008).

Pathak, J.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pauer, F.

F. Pauer and J. Kipfstuhl, “Raman spectroscopic study on the nitrogen/oxygen ratio in natural ice clathrates in the GRIP ice core,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 969–971 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Popovici, V.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quemerais, E.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rannou, P.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ray, M.

Refaat, T. F.

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, T. F. Refaat, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, and S. P. Sandford, “Remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy system for detecting water, ice, and hydrous minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, A. T. Bradley, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, B. Robinson, and J. Hibberd, “Compact remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar multi-sensor instrument for characterization of planetary surfaces and atmosphere from robotic platform,” in 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Woodlands, Texas, 7–11 March 2011, paper 2298.

M. N. Abedin, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, A. T. Bradley, S. Ismail, B. Robinson, J. Mau, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization from robotic platform using remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument,” in Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, 9–12 October 2011, p. 599.

M. N. Abedin, A. T. Bradley, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, C. S. Garcia, J. Mau, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization using combined Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument from rovers and landers,” in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Vol. 43 of Lunar Planetary Science Conference Series (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2012), paper , 1219.

Renno, N.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, J. G.

Robinson, B.

M. N. Abedin, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, A. T. Bradley, S. Ismail, B. Robinson, J. Mau, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization from robotic platform using remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument,” in Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, 9–12 October 2011, p. 599.

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, A. T. Bradley, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, B. Robinson, and J. Hibberd, “Compact remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar multi-sensor instrument for characterization of planetary surfaces and atmosphere from robotic platform,” in 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Woodlands, Texas, 7–11 March 2011, paper 2298.

Rodin, A.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruckman, M. W.

Sandel, B.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sandford, S. P.

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Design and build a compact Raman sensor for identification of chemical composition,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 731210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Remote Raman sensor system for testing of rocks and minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6538, 6538-1I (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, T. F. Refaat, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, and S. P. Sandford, “Remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy system for detecting water, ice, and hydrous minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Abedin, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, A. T. Bradley, S. Ismail, B. Robinson, J. Mau, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization from robotic platform using remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument,” in Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, 9–12 October 2011, p. 599.

M. N. Abedin, A. T. Bradley, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, C. S. Garcia, J. Mau, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization using combined Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument from rovers and landers,” in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Vol. 43 of Lunar Planetary Science Conference Series (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2012), paper , 1219.

Scaffidi, J.

Seabrook, J.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sedlacek, A. J.

Sharma, S. K.

S. M. Angel, N. R. Gomer, S. K. Sharma, and C. McKay, “Remote Raman spectroscopy for planetary exploration: a review,” Appl. Spectrosc. 66, 137–150 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. E. Acosta, P. G. Lucey, and M. N. Abedin, “Compact time-resolved remote Raman system for detection of anhydrous and hydrous minerals and ices for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE 7691, 76910F (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. E. Acosta, P. G. Lucey, and M. N. Abedin, “Compact time-resolved remote Raman system for detection of anhydrous and hydrous minerals and ices for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE 7691, 76910F (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Design and build a compact Raman sensor for identification of chemical composition,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 731210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. Nguyen, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Studies of minerals, organic and biogenic materials through time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6943, 694301 (2008).

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Remote Raman sensor system for testing of rocks and minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6538, 6538-1I (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, T. F. Refaat, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, and S. P. Sandford, “Remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy system for detecting water, ice, and hydrous minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, P. G. Lucey, S. M. Angel, and C. P. McKay, “Remote pulsed Raman spectroscopy of inorganic and organic materials to a radial distance of 100 meters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 871–876 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Misra, S. K. Sharma, C. H. Chio, P. G. Lucey, and B. Lienert, “Pulsed remote Raman system for daytime measurements of mineral spectra,” Spectrochim. Acta A 61, 2281–2287 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, P. G. Lucey, M. Ghosh, H. W. Hubble, and K. A. Horton, “Stand-off Raman spectroscopic detection of minerals on planetary surfaces,” Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 2391–2407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, S. M. Angel, M. Ghosh, H. W. Hubble, and P. G. Lucey, “A remote pulsed-laser Raman spectroscopy system for mineral analysis on planetary surfaces to 66 meters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 699–705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gauldie, S. K. Sharma, and E. Volk, “Micro-Raman spectra of Vaterite and Aragonite otoliths of Coho Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. 119A, 753–757 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, “Applications of advanced Raman techniques in earth sciences,” Vib. Spectra Struct. 17B, 513–568 (1989).

M. N. Abedin, A. T. Bradley, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, C. S. Garcia, J. Mau, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization using combined Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument from rovers and landers,” in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Vol. 43 of Lunar Planetary Science Conference Series (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2012), paper , 1219.

S. K. Sharma and J. P. Urmos, “Micro-Raman spectroscopic studies of materials at ambient and high-pressures with CW and pulsed lasers,” in Microbeam Analysis, R. H. Geiss, ed. (San Francisco Press, 1987), pp. 133–136.

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, S. K. Sharma, A. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, and M. J. Gazarik, “Remote Raman investigation of mixed minerals,” in 7th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy Applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences, GEORAMAN 2006 (Universidad de Valladolid, 2006).

M. N. Abedin, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, A. T. Bradley, S. Ismail, B. Robinson, J. Mau, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization from robotic platform using remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument,” in Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, 9–12 October 2011, p. 599.

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, A. T. Bradley, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, B. Robinson, and J. Hibberd, “Compact remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar multi-sensor instrument for characterization of planetary surfaces and atmosphere from robotic platform,” in 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Woodlands, Texas, 7–11 March 2011, paper 2298.

P. G. Lucey, T. F. Cooney, and S. K. Sharma, “A remote Raman analysis system for planetary landers,” in 29th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, 16–20 March (1998), Lunar Planet. Sci. XXIX, Abstract #1354.

Simon, P. C.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Singh, U. N.

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, T. F. Refaat, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, and S. P. Sandford, “Remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy system for detecting water, ice, and hydrous minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, S. K. Sharma, A. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, and M. J. Gazarik, “Remote Raman investigation of mixed minerals,” in 7th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy Applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences, GEORAMAN 2006 (Universidad de Valladolid, 2006).

Smith, M. D.

R. T. Clancy, M. J. Wolff, B. A. Whitney, B. A. Cantor, and M. D. Smith, “Mars equatorial mesospheric clouds: global occurrence and physical properties from Mars global surveyor TES and MOC limb observations,” J. Geophys. Res. (Planet) 112, E04004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Smith, “TES limb-geometry observations of aerosols,” in Sixth International Conference on Mars, Pasadena, California, 20–25 July (2003).

Smith, P. H.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stern, A.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, C. S.

C. S. Stevenson and T. Vo-Dinh, “Analysis of polycyclic aromatic compounds using laser-induced synchronous luminescence,” Anal. Chim. Acta 303, 247–253 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Talagrand, O.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, M. J.

M. J. Taylor and E. Whalley, “Raman spectra of ices Ih, Ic, II, II, and V,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1660–1664 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, P. A.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Urmos, J. P.

S. K. Sharma and J. P. Urmos, “Micro-Raman spectroscopic studies of materials at ambient and high-pressures with CW and pulsed lasers,” in Microbeam Analysis, R. H. Geiss, ed. (San Francisco Press, 1987), pp. 133–136.

Vess, T. M.

Vo-Dinh, T.

C. S. Stevenson and T. Vo-Dinh, “Analysis of polycyclic aromatic compounds using laser-induced synchronous luminescence,” Anal. Chim. Acta 303, 247–253 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Volk, E.

R. W. Gauldie, S. K. Sharma, and E. Volk, “Micro-Raman spectra of Vaterite and Aragonite otoliths of Coho Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. 119A, 753–757 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

A. Wang, J. J. Freeman, B. L. Jolliff, and I.-M. Chou, “Sulfates on Mars: a systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 6118–6135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Wang, J. Han, L. Guo, J. Yu, and P. Zeng, “Database of stand Raman spectra of minerals and related inorganic crystals,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 959–968 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Whalley, E.

M. J. Taylor and E. Whalley, “Raman spectra of ices Ih, Ic, II, II, and V,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1660–1664 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Whipple, R. E.

Whiteway, J.

J. Whiteway, M. Daly, A. Carswell, T. Duck, C. Dickinson, L. Komguem, and C. Cook, “Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E00A08 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Whiteway, J. A.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Whitney, B. A.

R. T. Clancy, M. J. Wolff, B. A. Whitney, B. A. Cantor, and M. D. Smith, “Mars equatorial mesospheric clouds: global occurrence and physical properties from Mars global surveyor TES and MOC limb observations,” J. Geophys. Res. (Planet) 112, E04004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, M. J.

R. T. Clancy, M. J. Wolff, B. A. Whitney, B. A. Cantor, and M. D. Smith, “Mars equatorial mesospheric clouds: global occurrence and physical properties from Mars global surveyor TES and MOC limb observations,” J. Geophys. Res. (Planet) 112, E04004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wood, S. E.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

Yu, J.

Zeng, P.

Zent, A. P.

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res.

J.-L. Bertaux, O. Korablev, D. Fonteyn, S. Guibert, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefevre, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, E. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “Global structure and composition of the Martian atmosphere with SPICAM on Mars Express,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta

C. S. Stevenson and T. Vo-Dinh, “Analysis of polycyclic aromatic compounds using laser-induced synchronous luminescence,” Anal. Chim. Acta 303, 247–253 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spectrosc.

Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part B, Biochem. Mol. Biol.

R. W. Gauldie, S. K. Sharma, and E. Volk, “Micro-Raman spectra of Vaterite and Aragonite otoliths of Coho Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch,” Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. 119A, 753–757 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta

A. Wang, J. J. Freeman, B. L. Jolliff, and I.-M. Chou, “Sulfates on Mars: a systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 6118–6135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

F. Pauer and J. Kipfstuhl, “Raman spectroscopic study on the nitrogen/oxygen ratio in natural ice clathrates in the GRIP ice core,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 969–971 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

M. J. Taylor and E. Whalley, “Raman spectra of ices Ih, Ic, II, II, and V,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1660–1664 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. Whiteway, M. Daly, A. Carswell, T. Duck, C. Dickinson, L. Komguem, and C. Cook, “Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E00A08 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (Planet)

R. T. Clancy, M. J. Wolff, B. A. Whitney, B. A. Cantor, and M. D. Smith, “Mars equatorial mesospheric clouds: global occurrence and physical properties from Mars global surveyor TES and MOC limb observations,” J. Geophys. Res. (Planet) 112, E04004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. Nguyen, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Studies of minerals, organic and biogenic materials through time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6943, 694301 (2008).

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Design and build a compact Raman sensor for identification of chemical composition,” Proc. SPIE 7312, 731210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. E. Acosta, P. G. Lucey, and M. N. Abedin, “Compact time-resolved remote Raman system for detection of anhydrous and hydrous minerals and ices for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE 7691, 76910F (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, T. E. Acosta, P. G. Lucey, and M. N. Abedin, “Compact time-resolved remote Raman system for detection of anhydrous and hydrous minerals and ices for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE 7691, 76910F (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, T. F. Refaat, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, and S. P. Sandford, “Remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy system for detecting water, ice, and hydrous minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6302, 630215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Garcia, M. N. Abedin, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, S. Ismail, S. P. Sandford, and H. Elsayed-Ali, “Remote Raman sensor system for testing of rocks and minerals,” Proc. SPIE 6538, 6538-1I (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. A. Whiteway, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, C. Cook, M. Illnicki, J. Seabrook, V. Popovici, T. J. Duck, R. Davy, P. A. Taylor, J. Pathak, D. Fisher, A. I. Carswell, M. Daly, V. Hipkin, A. P. Zent, M. H. Hecht, S. E. Wood, L. K. Lamppari, N. Renno, J. E. Moores, L. T. Lemmon, F. Daerden, and P. H. Smith, “Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation,” Science 325, 68–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta

I. A. Degen and G. A. Newman, “Raman spectra of inorganic ions,” Spectrochim. Acta 49, 859–887 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta A

S. K. Sharma, P. G. Lucey, M. Ghosh, H. W. Hubble, and K. A. Horton, “Stand-off Raman spectroscopic detection of minerals on planetary surfaces,” Spectrochim. Acta A 59, 2391–2407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Misra, S. K. Sharma, C. H. Chio, P. G. Lucey, and B. Lienert, “Pulsed remote Raman system for daytime measurements of mineral spectra,” Spectrochim. Acta A 61, 2281–2287 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vib. Spectra Struct.

S. K. Sharma, “Applications of advanced Raman techniques in earth sciences,” Vib. Spectra Struct. 17B, 513–568 (1989).

Other

P. G. Lucey, T. F. Cooney, and S. K. Sharma, “A remote Raman analysis system for planetary landers,” in 29th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, 16–20 March (1998), Lunar Planet. Sci. XXIX, Abstract #1354.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamental and Applications (Krieger, 1992), p. 208.

S. K. Sharma and J. P. Urmos, “Micro-Raman spectroscopic studies of materials at ambient and high-pressures with CW and pulsed lasers,” in Microbeam Analysis, R. H. Geiss, ed. (San Francisco Press, 1987), pp. 133–136.

M. D. Smith, “TES limb-geometry observations of aerosols,” in Sixth International Conference on Mars, Pasadena, California, 20–25 July (2003).

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, A. T. Bradley, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, B. Robinson, and J. Hibberd, “Compact remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar multi-sensor instrument for characterization of planetary surfaces and atmosphere from robotic platform,” in 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Woodlands, Texas, 7–11 March 2011, paper 2298.

M. N. Abedin, C. S. Garcia, S. K. Sharma, A. Misra, S. Ismail, U. N. Singh, and M. J. Gazarik, “Remote Raman investigation of mixed minerals,” in 7th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy Applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences, GEORAMAN 2006 (Universidad de Valladolid, 2006).

M. N. Abedin, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, A. T. Bradley, S. Ismail, B. Robinson, J. Mau, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization from robotic platform using remote Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument,” in Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, 9–12 October 2011, p. 599.

M. N. Abedin, A. T. Bradley, J. Hibberd, T. F. Refaat, S. Ismail, S. K. Sharma, A. K. Misra, C. S. Garcia, J. Mau, and S. P. Sandford, “Planetary surfaces and atmosphere characterization using combined Raman, fluorescence, and lidar instrument from rovers and landers,” in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Vol. 43 of Lunar Planetary Science Conference Series (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2012), paper , 1219.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Main components of the Raman and fluorescence grating spectrometer with lidar receiver system: pulsed Nd:YAG Laser, beam expander, steering mirror, mirror-2 attached with 100 mm telescope, PMT2 (lidar channel), optics (f1=focusing lens for Raman and fluorescence channel, f3=focusing lens for lidar return signal, f3=f4=PMT1=APD=not used and dumped 355 and 1064 laser lines). Sections  1 and 2 are mounted at the left arm of the rover, CPU control unit, power supply, ADC, pulse generator, and interface (not seen here) mounted at the back of the rover system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

LaRC’s science rover with 4 in. telescope, space-qualifiable laser, beam expander and mirrors (not visible), and Raman/fluorescence spectrometer at the rear of the rover system.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

LabVIEW control panel for ICCD camera for Raman-fluorescence signals and PMT for lidar signals.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

High-frequency Raman spectra of (a) liquid water and ice, and of (b) hydrous minerals, FeSO47H2O, MgSO47H20, MgCl26H2O, and gypsum [27].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Time-resolved spectra of calcite sample no. 1 show both Raman lines and fluorescence emission at gate delay from 80 to 115 ns with a fixed gate width of 5 ns, and (b) calcite sample no. 2 shows Raman lines and short lifetime fluorescence, detected using a fixed gate width of 5 ns with gate delays from 80 to 115 ns [16].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Atmospheric range-corrected return signal profile and (b) range-corrected return signal images with 1 s average (20 shot averages). Lidar return signals were recorded on October 9, 2008, in the evening of the cloudy sky at LaRC.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Raman spectra of (a) water, (b) ice, and (c) dry ice (solid CO2) from a distance of 15 m. Space qualifiable laser with 355, 532, and 1064 nm lines, 45mJ/pulse, 20 Hz.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Atmospheric range-corrected return signal (a.u.- arbitrary units) profile [sampling time or range (0.0–7000 m)] and (b) return signal images with 1 min average (1200 shot averages). Lidar return signals were recorded on August 20, 2010, in the morning (from 10:00 a.m. to 11:57 a.m.) of the clear sky at LaRC.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Average atmospheric range-corrected lidar signal profile and (b) image of range-corrected signals with 1 min or 1200 shot averaging. Lidar return signals were recorded on June 28, 2011, in the afternoon from 3:39 to 4:39 p.m. at LaRC.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Photograph of the RFLMS system in (a) Raman-fluorescence mode mounted onto the Langley Rover (top left photo). The lower plot shows the Raman spectrum of CO2-ice measured at 15 m distance on the ground. (b) Atmospheric lidar mode (top right photo), and the bottom plot shows the atmospheric range corrected signal image obtained on August 20, 2010, during from 10:00 to 11:57 a.m. local time (laser 532 nm, 17mJ/pulse, 20 Hz).

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