Abstract

A scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instrument for identification of carbon dioxide leaks at carbon sequestration sites has been developed and initial data has been collected at Montana State University. The laser transmitter uses two tunable discrete mode laser diodes operating in the continuous-wave mode with one locked to the online absorption wavelength and the other operating at the offline wavelength. Two in-line fiber optic switches are used to switch between online and offline operation. After the fiber optic switch, an acousto-optic modulator is used to generate a pulse train used to injection seed an erbium-doped fiber amplifier to produce eye-safe laser pulses with maximum pulse energies of 66 μJ, a pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz, and an operating wavelength of 1.571 μm. The DIAL receiver uses a 28 cm diameter Schmidt–Cassegrain telescope to collect that backscattered light, which is then monitored using a photomultiplier tube module operating in the photon counting mode. The DIAL has measured carbon dioxide profiles from 1 to 2.5 km with 60 min temporal averaging. Comparisons of DIAL measurements with a Licor LI-820 gas analyzer point sensor have been made.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, P. Baron, H. Iwai, R. Oda, T. Itabe, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, M. Koyama, T. Tanaka, I. Morino, O. Uchino, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Partial CO2 column-averaged dry-air mixing ratio from measurements by coherent 2 um differential absorption and wind lidar with laser frequency offset locking,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 29, 1169–1181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Imaki, S. Kameyama, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, D. Sakaizawa, S. Kawakami, and M. Nakajima, “Laser absorption spectrometer using frequency chirped intensity modulation at 1.57 um wavelength for CO2 measurement,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2688–2690 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

K. Numata, J. R. Chen, S. T. Wu, J. B. Abshire, and M. A. Krainak, “Frequency stabilization of distributed-feedback laser diodes at 1572 nm for lidar measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1047–1056 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kameyama, M. Imaki, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, and M. Nakajima, “Performance improvement and analysis of a 1.6 um continuous-wave modulation laser absorption spectrometer system for CO2 sensing,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1560–1569 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kameyama, M. Imaki, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, T. Kimura, and M. Nakajima, “Feasibility study on 1.6 μm continuous-wave modulation laser absorption spectrometer system for measurement of global CO2 concentration from a satellite,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2055–2068 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. J. Koch, M. Rubio, T. L. Mack, A. Notari, J. E. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, M. N. Abedin, and U. N. Singh, “Backscatter 2 um lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 572–580(2011).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Barr, S. D. Humphries, A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Laser-based carbon dioxide monitoring instrument testing during a 30-day controlled underground carbon release field experiment,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 5, 138–145 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, “Eye-safe diode-laser-based micropulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for water vapor profiling in the lower troposphere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 131–147 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. Randoph Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Ma, O. Slattery, and X. Tang, “Detection and spectral measurement of single photons in communication bands using up-conversion technology,” Laser Phys. 20, 1244–1250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (8)

F. Gibert, L. Joly, I. Xueref-Remy, M. Schmidt, A. Royer, P. H. Flamant, M. Ramonet, B. Parvitte, G. Durry, and V. Zeninari, “Inter-comparison of 2 um heterodyne differential absorption lidar, laser diode spectrometer, LICOR NDIR analyzer and flasks measurements of near-ground atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 71, 1914–1921 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kameyama, M. Imaki, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, and M. Nakajima, “Development of 1.6 um continuous-wave modulation hard-target differential absorption lidar system for CO2 sensing,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, M. Nakazato, and T. Sakai, “Development of a 1.6 um differential absorption lidar with a quasi-phase-matching optical parametric oscillator and photon-counting detector for the vertical CO2 profile,” Appl. Opt. 48, 748–757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Caron and Y. Durand, “Operating wavelengths optimization for a spaceborne lidar measuring atmospheric CO2,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5413–5422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Lewicki, G. E. Hilley, M. L. Fischer, L. Pan, C. M. Oldenburg, L. Dobeck, and L. Spangler, “Eddy covariance observations of surface leakage during shallow subsurface CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D12302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Cortis, and C. M. Oldenburg, “Short-range atmospheric dispersion of carbon dioxide,” Bound.-Lay. Meteorol. 133, 17–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, M. Nakazato, and T. Sakai, “Development of a 1.6 μm differential absorption lidar with quasi-phase matching parametric oscillator and photon-counting detector for the vertical CO2 profile,” Appl. Opt. 48, 748–757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

A. A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, T. Abo, Y. Shibata, and M. Nakazato, “Measurement of pressure-induced broadening and shift coefficients of carbon dioxide absorption lines around 1.6 um for using differential absorption lidar,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 325–328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, F. Gilbert, B. W. Barnes, S. Ismail, M. Petros, P. J. Petzar, J. Yu, E. A. Modlin, K. J. Davis, and U. N. Singh, “Side-line tunable laser transmitter for differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2: design and application to atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 944–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Humphries, A. R. Nehrir, C. J. Keith, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Testing carbon sequestration site monitor instruments using a controlled carbon diode release facility,” Appl. Opt. 47, 548–555 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Lityski, S. Plasynski, H. G. McIlvried, C. Mahoney, and R. D. Srivastava, “The United States Department of Energy’s regional carbon sequestration partnerships validation phase,” Environ. Int. 34, 127–138 (2008).

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

J. L. Lewicki, C. M. Oldenburg, L. Dobeck, and L. Spangler, “Surface CO2 leakage during the first shallow subsurface CO2 release experiment. LBNL 63528,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L24402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Houghton, “Balancing the global carbon budget,” Annu. Rev. Earth Planet Sci. 35, 313–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Wilson, S. J. Friedmann, and M. F. Pollak, “Research and development: incorporating risk, regulation, and liability for carbon capture and sequestration,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 5945–5952 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, D. Bruneau, and C. Loth, “Two-micrometer heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in the boundary layer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4448–4458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mingzhe, L. Zhaowen, L. Shuliang, and S. Huang, “CO2sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs-caprock characterization and storage capacity,” Energy Conservation Management 47, 1372–1382 (2006).

M. Scheffer, V. Brovkin, and P. M. Cox, “Positive feedback between global warming and atmospheric CO2 concentration inferred from past climate change,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L10702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Hovorka, S. M. Benson, C. Doughty, B. M. Freifeld, S. Sakurai, T. M. Daley, Y. K. Kharaka, M. H. Holtz, R. C. Trautz, H. S. Nance, L. R. Myer, and K. G. Knauss, “Measuring permanence of CO2 storage in saline formations: the Frio experiment,” Environ. Geosci. 13, 105–121 (2006).

D. Bruneau, P. H. Flamant, and J. Pelon, “Complementary study of differential absorption lidar optimization in direct and heterodyne detections,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4898–4908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

J. L. Machol, T. Ayers, K. T. Schwenz, K. W. Koenig, R. M. Hardesty, C. J. Senff, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, H. E. Bravo, and S. P. Sandberg, “Preliminary measurements with an automated compact differential absorption lidar for the profiling of water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3110–3121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Whittaker, “Geological storage of greenhouse gases: the IEA Weyburn CO2 monitoring and storage project,” Reservoir 31, 9 (2004).

D. P. Billesbach, M. L. Fischer, M. S. Torn, and J. A. Berry, “A portable eddy covariance system for measurement of ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CO2, water vapor, and energy,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 639–650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Norby, and Y. Luo, “Evaluating ecosystem responses to rising atmospheric CO2 and global warming in a multi-factor world,” New Phytol. 162, 281–293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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T. R. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. J. Koch, M. Rubio, T. L. Mack, A. Notari, J. E. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, M. N. Abedin, and U. N. Singh, “Backscatter 2 um lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 572–580(2011).
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J. Alcamo, and G. J. J. Kreileman, “Emission scenarios and global climate protection,” Glob. Environ. Change 6, 305–334(1996).
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J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. Randoph Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
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A. A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008).
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J. L. Barr, S. D. Humphries, A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Laser-based carbon dioxide monitoring instrument testing during a 30-day controlled underground carbon release field experiment,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 5, 138–145 (2011).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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S. D. Hovorka, S. M. Benson, C. Doughty, B. M. Freifeld, S. Sakurai, T. M. Daley, Y. K. Kharaka, M. H. Holtz, R. C. Trautz, H. S. Nance, L. R. Myer, and K. G. Knauss, “Measuring permanence of CO2 storage in saline formations: the Frio experiment,” Environ. Geosci. 13, 105–121 (2006).

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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J. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. Randoph Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Bravo, H. E.

Brovkin, V.

M. Scheffer, V. Brovkin, and P. M. Cox, “Positive feedback between global warming and atmospheric CO2 concentration inferred from past climate change,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L10702 (2006).
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Browell, E. V.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Bruneau, D.

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, “Eye-safe diode-laser-based micropulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for water vapor profiling in the lower troposphere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 28, 131–147 (2011).
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J. L. Barr, S. D. Humphries, A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Laser-based carbon dioxide monitoring instrument testing during a 30-day controlled underground carbon release field experiment,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 5, 138–145 (2011).
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S. D. Humphries, A. R. Nehrir, C. J. Keith, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Testing carbon sequestration site monitor instruments using a controlled carbon diode release facility,” Appl. Opt. 47, 548–555 (2008).
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Caron, J.

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Chen, J. R.

Choi, Y.

T. R. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. J. Koch, M. Rubio, T. L. Mack, A. Notari, J. E. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, M. N. Abedin, and U. N. Singh, “Backscatter 2 um lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 572–580(2011).
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Collins, J. E.

T. R. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. J. Koch, M. Rubio, T. L. Mack, A. Notari, J. E. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, M. N. Abedin, and U. N. Singh, “Backscatter 2 um lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 572–580(2011).
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Cortis, A.

A. Cortis, and C. M. Oldenburg, “Short-range atmospheric dispersion of carbon dioxide,” Bound.-Lay. Meteorol. 133, 17–34 (2009).
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Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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M. Scheffer, V. Brovkin, and P. M. Cox, “Positive feedback between global warming and atmospheric CO2 concentration inferred from past climate change,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L10702 (2006).
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Daley, T. M.

S. D. Hovorka, S. M. Benson, C. Doughty, B. M. Freifeld, S. Sakurai, T. M. Daley, Y. K. Kharaka, M. H. Holtz, R. C. Trautz, H. S. Nance, L. R. Myer, and K. G. Knauss, “Measuring permanence of CO2 storage in saline formations: the Frio experiment,” Environ. Geosci. 13, 105–121 (2006).

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Davis, K. J.

Davis, R. E.

De Young, R.

T. R. Refaat, S. Ismail, G. J. Koch, M. Rubio, T. L. Mack, A. Notari, J. E. Collins, J. Lewis, R. De Young, Y. Choi, M. N. Abedin, and U. N. Singh, “Backscatter 2 um lidar validation for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption lidar applications,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 572–580(2011).
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Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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J. L. Lewicki, G. E. Hilley, M. L. Fischer, L. Pan, C. M. Oldenburg, L. Dobeck, and L. Spangler, “Eddy covariance observations of surface leakage during shallow subsurface CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D12302 (2009).
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Dobeck, L. M.

J. L. Barr, S. D. Humphries, A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Laser-based carbon dioxide monitoring instrument testing during a 30-day controlled underground carbon release field experiment,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 5, 138–145 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Humphries, A. R. Nehrir, C. J. Keith, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Testing carbon sequestration site monitor instruments using a controlled carbon diode release facility,” Appl. Opt. 47, 548–555 (2008).
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Doughty, C.

S. D. Hovorka, S. M. Benson, C. Doughty, B. M. Freifeld, S. Sakurai, T. M. Daley, Y. K. Kharaka, M. H. Holtz, R. C. Trautz, H. S. Nance, L. R. Myer, and K. G. Knauss, “Measuring permanence of CO2 storage in saline formations: the Frio experiment,” Environ. Geosci. 13, 105–121 (2006).

Durand, Y.

Durry, G.

F. Gibert, L. Joly, I. Xueref-Remy, M. Schmidt, A. Royer, P. H. Flamant, M. Ramonet, B. Parvitte, G. Durry, and V. Zeninari, “Inter-comparison of 2 um heterodyne differential absorption lidar, laser diode spectrometer, LICOR NDIR analyzer and flasks measurements of near-ground atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 71, 1914–1921 (2009).
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Ehret, G.

A. A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008).
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G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Plot of the atmospheric transmission as a function of wavelength for a path length of 10 km.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Plot of the cross section as a function of wavelength at 296 K and 1 atm (solid blue line) and 0.85 atm (dashed green line). The online and offline wavelengths used by the DIAL instrument are labeled.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plot of the temperature sensitivity as a function of temperature for the 11 CO 2 absorption lines listed in Table 1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic of the DIAL instrument. After the PMT, a discriminator is used to create a TTL logic pulse for photon counting. MCS is then used to integrate the return signal over time.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Plot of the operating wavelength as a function of time for the DMLD laser with the locking engaged. The control loop for locking can maintain the operating frequency of the DMLD laser to within ± 70 MHz over a 60 min time period.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Plot of the variable spatial window used for spatial averaging as a function of range for the number density retrieval.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Plot of the background subtracted return signal as a function of range for the online (red dashed line) and offline (blue solid line) wavelengths averaged over a 30 min time period. The inset plot shows the return signals as a function of range on a semi-log plot.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Plot of the CO 2 concentration profile as a function of range. Data were collected over a period of 60 min.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Plot of the CO 2 concentration as a function of range and time over a 5 h period.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Plot of the CO 2 concentration as a function of time for the 1.5 km range is shown as the solid blue line. The CO 2 concentration measured with a collocated Licor LI-820 gas analyzer placed 1.5 km away from the DIAL is shown as the red dashed line.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Plot of the CO 2 concentration profile as a function of range. Data were collected over a period of 60 min.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Plot of the CO 2 concentration as a function of range and time over a 6 h period.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Plot of the CO 2 concentration as a function of time for the 1 km range is shown as the solid blue line. The CO 2 concentration measured with a collocated Licor LI-820 gas analyzer placed 1 km away from the DIAL is shown as the red dashed line.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters for Selected CO 2 and H 2 O Absorption Features Near 1.57 μm from the HITRAN 2008 Database [49]a

Tables Icon

Table 2. Summary of the DIAL Transmitter and Receiver Parameters

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N ( λ , r ) = N 0 ( λ ) A r 2 Δ r β ( λ , r ) T A 2 ( λ , r ) ε 0 ( r ) ε R ( λ ) ε D ( λ ) ,
T A 2 ( λ , r ) = e 2 0 r κ ( λ , r ) d r e 2 0 r σ ( λ , r ) N d ( r ) d r ,
N d ( r ) = 1 2 Δ r ( σ ( λ on , r ) σ ( λ off , r ) ) ln ( N ( λ on , r ) N ( λ off , r + Δ r ) N ( λ on , r + Δ r ) N ( λ off , r ) ) .
S ( T ) = S 0 ( T o T ) [ 1 exp h c υ 0 / k T ) 1 exp ( h c υ 0 / k T 0 ) ] exp [ h c k ( 1 T 0 1 T ) E ] ,
σ ( T ) = S ( T ) ln ( 2 ) π 3 / 2 γ L γ D 2 e t 2 ( γ L γ D ) 2 ln 2 + [ ν ν 0 γ D ( ln 2 ) 1 / 2 t ] 2 d t ,
1 σ d σ d T 1 T T σ ( T ) σ ( T ) ( σ ( T ) + σ ( T ) 2 ) .
C CO 2 ( r ) = N d ( r ) N L T 273.15 1 P * 10 6 ,

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