Abstract

The 2007 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey on Earth Science and Applications from Space recommended Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as a midterm, Tier II, NASA space mission. ITT Exelis, formerly ITT Corp., and NASA Langley Research Center have been working together since 2004 to develop and demonstrate a prototype laser absorption spectrometer for making high-precision, column CO2 mixing ratio measurements needed for the ASCENDS mission. This instrument, called the multifunctional fiber laser lidar (MFLL), operates in an intensity-modulated, continuous wave mode in the 1.57 μm CO2 absorption band. Flight experiments have been conducted with the MFLL on a Lear-25, UC-12, and DC-8 aircraft over a variety of different surfaces and under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Very high-precision CO2 column measurements resulting from high signal-to-noise ratio (>1300) column optical depth (OD) measurements for a 10 s (1km) averaging interval have been achieved. In situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 profiles were used to derive the expected CO2 column values, and when compared to the MFLL measurements over desert and vegetated surfaces, the MFLL measurements were found to agree with the in situ-derived CO2 columns to within an average of 0.17% or 0.65ppmv with a standard deviation of 0.44% or 1.7ppmv. Initial results demonstrating ranging capability using a swept modulation technique are also presented.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

2011

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kameyama, M. Imaki, I. Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, T. Kimura, and M. Nakajima, “Feasibility study on 1∶6  μm continuous-wave modulation laser absorption spectrometer system for measurement of global CO2 concentration from a satellite,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2055–2068 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Spaceborne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: asensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1∶57  μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, F. Gibert, B. W. Barnes, S. Ismail, M. Petros, P. J. Petzar, J. Yu, E. A. Modlin, K. J. Davis, and U. N. Singh, “Side-line tunable laser transmitter for differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2: design and application to atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 944–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, and R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6348  cm−1: position, intensities, and air- and self-broadening derived with constrained multispectrum analysis,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 242, 90–117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. P. Barkley, P. S. Monks, and R. J. Engelen, “Comparison of SCIAMACHY and AIRS CO2 measurements over North America during the summer and autumn of 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L20805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Bosch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the orbiting carbon observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Chahine, C. Barnet, E. Olsen, L. Chen, and E. Maddy, “On the determination of atmospheric minor gases by the method of vanishing partial derivatives with application to CO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Agishev, B. Gross, F. Moshary, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Atmospheric CW-FM-LD-RR ladar for trace-constituent detection: a concept development,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 695–703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Simpson, M. Cheng, T. Q. Dam, K. E. Lenox, J. R. Price, J. M. Storey, E. A. Wachter, and W. G. Fisher, “Intensity-modulated, stepped frequency cw lidar for distributed aerosol and hard target measurements,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Yokota, H. Oguma, I. Morino, A. Higurashi, T. Aoki, and G. Inoue, “Test measurements by a BBM of the nadir-looking SWIR FTS aboard GOSAT to monitor CO2 column density from space,” Proc. SPIE 5652, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. Menzies and D. M. Tratt, “Differential laser absorption spectrometry for global profiling of tropospheric carbon dioxide: selection of optimum sounding frequencies for high precision measurements,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6569–6577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D20, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Pruitt, M. E. Dobbs, M. Gypson, B. R. Neff, and W. E. Sharp, “High-speed CW lidar retrieval using spectral lock-in algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5154, 138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1983

Abshire, J. B.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Agishev, R.

R. Agishev, B. Gross, F. Moshary, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Atmospheric CW-FM-LD-RR ladar for trace-constituent detection: a concept development,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 695–703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, S.

R. Agishev, B. Gross, F. Moshary, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Atmospheric CW-FM-LD-RR ladar for trace-constituent detection: a concept development,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 695–703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alkhaled, A.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Allan, G. R.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Amediek, A.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Spaceborne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: asensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1∶57  μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B. E.

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D20, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

T. Yokota, H. Oguma, I. Morino, A. Higurashi, T. Aoki, and G. Inoue, “Test measurements by a BBM of the nadir-looking SWIR FTS aboard GOSAT to monitor CO2 column density from space,” Proc. SPIE 5652, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atlas, R. M.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Avery, M. A.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D20, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barkley, M. P.

M. P. Barkley, P. S. Monks, and R. J. Engelen, “Comparison of SCIAMACHY and AIRS CO2 measurements over North America during the summer and autumn of 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L20805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, B. W.

Barnet, C.

M. Chahine, C. Barnet, E. Olsen, L. Chen, and E. Maddy, “On the determination of atmospheric minor gases by the method of vanishing partial derivatives with application to CO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Basilio, R.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, and R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6348  cm−1: position, intensities, and air- and self-broadening derived with constrained multispectrum analysis,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 242, 90–117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bernfeld, M.

C. Cook and M. Bernfeld, Radar Signals: An Introduction to Theory and Application (Academic, 1967).

Beyon, J. Y.

Biraud, S.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blake, D. R.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D20, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blake, N. J.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blume, N.

M. Dobbs, J. Pruitt, N. Blume, D. Gregory, and W. Sharp, “Matched filter enhanced fiber-based lidar for earth, weather and exploration,” presented at the AGU Fall Meeting, A1194, San Francisco, California, 11–15 December2006.

Boesch, H.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, H.

H. Bosch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the orbiting carbon observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Braun, M.

M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, M. Braun, D. McGregor, J. Overbeck, B. Moore, E. V. Browell, and T. Zaccheo, “A Modulated CW Fiber Laser-Lidar Suite for the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 24–29 July 2008.

Breon, F. M.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E.

J. Dobler, M. Dobbs, S. Zaccheo, J. Nagel, W. Harrison, E. Browell, and B. Moore, “CW fiber laser absorption spectrometer for 02 column measurements in support of the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo,” First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide, presented at the Fourth Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications,” 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

E. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, M. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. Vay, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Validation of airborne CO2 laser measurements,” presented at the 5th Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications, 91st AMS Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, 23–28 January2011.

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, Susan A. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from Space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

M. Dobbs, W. Sharp, E. V. Browell, T. S. Zaccheo, and B. Moore, “A sinusoidal modulated CW integrated path differential absorption lidar for mapping sources and sinks of carbon dioxide from space,” presented at the 14th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Snowmass, Colorado, 8–13 July2007.

M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, M. Braun, D. McGregor, J. Overbeck, B. Moore, E. V. Browell, and T. Zaccheo, “A Modulated CW Fiber Laser-Lidar Suite for the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 24–29 July 2008.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne demonstration of 1.57-micron laser absorption spectrometer for atmospheric CO2 measurements,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 23–24 June 2008.

J. T. Dobler, J. Nagel, V. L. Temyanko, T. S. Zaccheo, E. V. Browell, F. W. Harrison, and S. A. Kooi, “Advancements in a multifunctional fiber laser lidar for measuring atmospheric CO2 and O2,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

E. V. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne validation of laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” presented at the 25th International Laser Radar Conference, St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July 2010.

E. V. Browell, J. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne laser CO2 column measurements: Evaluation of precision and accuracy under wide range of conditions,” presented at the Fall AGU Meeting, San Francisco, California, 5–9 December2011.

E. V. BrowellNASA/LaRCJ. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne validation of laser CO2 and O2 column measurements,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

Brown, L. R.

V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, and R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6348  cm−1: position, intensities, and air- and self-broadening derived with constrained multispectrum analysis,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 242, 90–117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bruegge, C. J.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Buchwitz, M.

H. Bosch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the orbiting carbon observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J. P.

H. Bosch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the orbiting carbon observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chahine, M.

M. Chahine, C. Barnet, E. Olsen, L. Chen, and E. Maddy, “On the determination of atmospheric minor gases by the method of vanishing partial derivatives with application to CO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

M. Chahine, C. Barnet, E. Olsen, L. Chen, and E. Maddy, “On the determination of atmospheric minor gases by the method of vanishing partial derivatives with application to CO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, M.

Choi, Y.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. V. BrowellNASA/LaRCJ. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne validation of laser CO2 and O2 column measurements,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

E. V. Browell, J. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne laser CO2 column measurements: Evaluation of precision and accuracy under wide range of conditions,” presented at the Fall AGU Meeting, San Francisco, California, 5–9 December2011.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne demonstration of 1.57-micron laser absorption spectrometer for atmospheric CO2 measurements,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 23–24 June 2008.

E. V. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne validation of laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” presented at the 25th International Laser Radar Conference, St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July 2010.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, Susan A. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from Space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo,” First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide, presented at the Fourth Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications,” 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

E. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, M. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. Vay, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Validation of airborne CO2 laser measurements,” presented at the 5th Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications, 91st AMS Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, 23–28 January2011.

Christi, M.

H. Bosch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the orbiting carbon observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chudasama, B.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ciais, P.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cisewski, M.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Dobbs, W. Krabill, M. Cisewski, F. W. Harrison, C. K. Shum, D. McGregor, M. Neal, and S. Stokes, “A multifunctional fiber laser lidar for earth science and exploration,” presented at the Proceedings of Earth Science Technology Conference, College Park, Maryland, 24–26 June2008.

Connor, B. J.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Bosch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the orbiting carbon observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cook, C.

C. Cook and M. Bernfeld, Radar Signals: An Introduction to Theory and Application (Academic, 1967).

Crisp, D.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Bosch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the orbiting carbon observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dam, T. Q.

Davis, K. J.

Day, J. O.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

de Beek, R.

H. Bosch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the orbiting carbon observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DeCola, P. L.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Denning, A. S.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, and R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6348  cm−1: position, intensities, and air- and self-broadening derived with constrained multispectrum analysis,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 242, 90–117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diskin, G. W.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, M.

M. Dobbs, W. Sharp, E. V. Browell, T. S. Zaccheo, and B. Moore, “A sinusoidal modulated CW integrated path differential absorption lidar for mapping sources and sinks of carbon dioxide from space,” presented at the 14th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Snowmass, Colorado, 8–13 July2007.

M. Dobbs, W. Krabill, M. Cisewski, F. W. Harrison, C. K. Shum, D. McGregor, M. Neal, and S. Stokes, “A multifunctional fiber laser lidar for earth science and exploration,” presented at the Proceedings of Earth Science Technology Conference, College Park, Maryland, 24–26 June2008.

J. Dobler, M. Dobbs, S. Zaccheo, J. Nagel, W. Harrison, E. Browell, and B. Moore, “CW fiber laser absorption spectrometer for 02 column measurements in support of the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

M. Dobbs, J. Pruitt, N. Blume, D. Gregory, and W. Sharp, “Matched filter enhanced fiber-based lidar for earth, weather and exploration,” presented at the AGU Fall Meeting, A1194, San Francisco, California, 11–15 December2006.

Dobbs, M. E.

J. Pruitt, M. E. Dobbs, M. Gypson, B. R. Neff, and W. E. Sharp, “High-speed CW lidar retrieval using spectral lock-in algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5154, 138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne demonstration of 1.57-micron laser absorption spectrometer for atmospheric CO2 measurements,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 23–24 June 2008.

M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, M. Braun, D. McGregor, J. Overbeck, B. Moore, E. V. Browell, and T. Zaccheo, “A Modulated CW Fiber Laser-Lidar Suite for the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 24–29 July 2008.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo,” First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide, presented at the Fourth Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications,” 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, Susan A. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from Space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

Dobler, J.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, Susan A. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from Space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo,” First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide, presented at the Fourth Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications,” 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

E. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, M. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. Vay, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Validation of airborne CO2 laser measurements,” presented at the 5th Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications, 91st AMS Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, 23–28 January2011.

M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, M. Braun, D. McGregor, J. Overbeck, B. Moore, E. V. Browell, and T. Zaccheo, “A Modulated CW Fiber Laser-Lidar Suite for the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 24–29 July 2008.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne demonstration of 1.57-micron laser absorption spectrometer for atmospheric CO2 measurements,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 23–24 June 2008.

E. V. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne validation of laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” presented at the 25th International Laser Radar Conference, St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July 2010.

J. Dobler, M. Dobbs, S. Zaccheo, J. Nagel, W. Harrison, E. Browell, and B. Moore, “CW fiber laser absorption spectrometer for 02 column measurements in support of the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

Dobler, J. T.

J. T. Dobler, J. Nagel, V. L. Temyanko, T. S. Zaccheo, E. V. Browell, F. W. Harrison, and S. A. Kooi, “Advancements in a multifunctional fiber laser lidar for measuring atmospheric CO2 and O2,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

E. V. Browell, J. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne laser CO2 column measurements: Evaluation of precision and accuracy under wide range of conditions,” presented at the Fall AGU Meeting, San Francisco, California, 5–9 December2011.

E. V. BrowellNASA/LaRCJ. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne validation of laser CO2 and O2 column measurements,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

Doney, S. C.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ehret, G.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Spaceborne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: asensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1∶57  μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Engelen, R. J.

M. P. Barkley, P. S. Monks, and R. J. Engelen, “Comparison of SCIAMACHY and AIRS CO2 measurements over North America during the summer and autumn of 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L20805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, L.

A. Kononov, L. Ulander, and L. Eriksson, “Design of Optimum Weighting Functions for LFM Signals,” in Convergence and Hybrid Information Technologies, M. Crisan, ed. (Computer and Information Science, 2010). http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/10982/InTech-Design_of_optimum_weighting_functions_for_lfm_signals.pdf .

Fenn, M.

E. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, M. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. Vay, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Validation of airborne CO2 laser measurements,” presented at the 5th Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications, 91st AMS Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, 23–28 January2011.

Fenn, M. A.

E. V. Browell, J. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne laser CO2 column measurements: Evaluation of precision and accuracy under wide range of conditions,” presented at the Fall AGU Meeting, San Francisco, California, 5–9 December2011.

E. V. BrowellNASA/LaRCJ. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne validation of laser CO2 and O2 column measurements,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

Fisher, W. G.

Fix, A.

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1∶57  μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Spaceborne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: asensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flittner, D.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fuelberg, H. E.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fung, I. Y.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gibert, F.

Gibson, G.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilerson, A.

R. Agishev, B. Gross, F. Moshary, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Atmospheric CW-FM-LD-RR ladar for trace-constituent detection: a concept development,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 695–703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, D.

M. Dobbs, J. Pruitt, N. Blume, D. Gregory, and W. Sharp, “Matched filter enhanced fiber-based lidar for earth, weather and exploration,” presented at the AGU Fall Meeting, A1194, San Francisco, California, 11–15 December2006.

Gross, B.

R. Agishev, B. Gross, F. Moshary, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Atmospheric CW-FM-LD-RR ladar for trace-constituent detection: a concept development,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 695–703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gypson, M.

J. Pruitt, M. E. Dobbs, M. Gypson, B. R. Neff, and W. E. Sharp, “High-speed CW lidar retrieval using spectral lock-in algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5154, 138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, F. W.

M. Dobbs, W. Krabill, M. Cisewski, F. W. Harrison, C. K. Shum, D. McGregor, M. Neal, and S. Stokes, “A multifunctional fiber laser lidar for earth science and exploration,” presented at the Proceedings of Earth Science Technology Conference, College Park, Maryland, 24–26 June2008.

E. V. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne validation of laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” presented at the 25th International Laser Radar Conference, St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July 2010.

J. T. Dobler, J. Nagel, V. L. Temyanko, T. S. Zaccheo, E. V. Browell, F. W. Harrison, and S. A. Kooi, “Advancements in a multifunctional fiber laser lidar for measuring atmospheric CO2 and O2,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne demonstration of 1.57-micron laser absorption spectrometer for atmospheric CO2 measurements,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 23–24 June 2008.

E. V. BrowellNASA/LaRCJ. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne validation of laser CO2 and O2 column measurements,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

E. V. Browell, J. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne laser CO2 column measurements: Evaluation of precision and accuracy under wide range of conditions,” presented at the Fall AGU Meeting, San Francisco, California, 5–9 December2011.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo,” First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide, presented at the Fourth Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications,” 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, Susan A. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from Space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

E. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, M. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. Vay, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Validation of airborne CO2 laser measurements,” presented at the 5th Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications, 91st AMS Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, 23–28 January2011.

Harrison, W.

J. Dobler, M. Dobbs, S. Zaccheo, J. Nagel, W. Harrison, E. Browell, and B. Moore, “CW fiber laser absorption spectrometer for 02 column measurements in support of the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

Hasselbrack, W. E.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Helmlinger, M.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Higurashi, A.

T. Yokota, H. Oguma, I. Morino, A. Higurashi, T. Aoki, and G. Inoue, “Test measurements by a BBM of the nadir-looking SWIR FTS aboard GOSAT to monitor CO2 column density from space,” Proc. SPIE 5652, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, I. Y.

Hirano, Y.

Hostetler, C.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Houweling, S.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Spaceborne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: asensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Imaki, M.

Inoue, G.

T. Yokota, H. Oguma, I. Morino, A. Higurashi, T. Aoki, and G. Inoue, “Test measurements by a BBM of the nadir-looking SWIR FTS aboard GOSAT to monitor CO2 column density from space,” Proc. SPIE 5652, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

Jacob, D. J.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. B. A.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kameyama, S.

Kataoka, F.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kawa, S. R.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

Kenyon, D.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kiemle, C.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Spaceborne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: asensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiley, C. M.

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D20, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

Koch, G. J.

Kononov, A.

A. Kononov, L. Ulander, and L. Eriksson, “Design of Optimum Weighting Functions for LFM Signals,” in Convergence and Hybrid Information Technologies, M. Crisan, ed. (Computer and Information Science, 2010). http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/10982/InTech-Design_of_optimum_weighting_functions_for_lfm_signals.pdf .

Kooi, S.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo,” First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide, presented at the Fourth Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications,” 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

E. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, M. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. Vay, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Validation of airborne CO2 laser measurements,” presented at the 5th Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications, 91st AMS Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, 23–28 January2011.

E. V. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne validation of laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” presented at the 25th International Laser Radar Conference, St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July 2010.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne demonstration of 1.57-micron laser absorption spectrometer for atmospheric CO2 measurements,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 23–24 June 2008.

Kooi, S. A.

J. T. Dobler, J. Nagel, V. L. Temyanko, T. S. Zaccheo, E. V. Browell, F. W. Harrison, and S. A. Kooi, “Advancements in a multifunctional fiber laser lidar for measuring atmospheric CO2 and O2,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

E. V. Browell, J. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne laser CO2 column measurements: Evaluation of precision and accuracy under wide range of conditions,” presented at the Fall AGU Meeting, San Francisco, California, 5–9 December2011.

E. V. BrowellNASA/LaRCJ. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne validation of laser CO2 and O2 column measurements,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

Kooi, Susan A.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, Susan A. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from Space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

Korb, C. L.

Krabill, W.

M. Dobbs, W. Krabill, M. Cisewski, F. W. Harrison, C. K. Shum, D. McGregor, M. Neal, and S. Stokes, “A multifunctional fiber laser lidar for earth science and exploration,” presented at the Proceedings of Earth Science Technology Conference, College Park, Maryland, 24–26 June2008.

Kuang, Z.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuze, A.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Law, R. M.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lenox, K. E.

Lin, B.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maddy, E.

M. Chahine, C. Barnet, E. Olsen, L. Chen, and E. Maddy, “On the determination of atmospheric minor gases by the method of vanishing partial derivatives with application to CO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mao, J.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Masaharu, I.

Matsunaga, T.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McGregor, D.

M. Dobbs, W. Krabill, M. Cisewski, F. W. Harrison, C. K. Shum, D. McGregor, M. Neal, and S. Stokes, “A multifunctional fiber laser lidar for earth science and exploration,” presented at the Proceedings of Earth Science Technology Conference, College Park, Maryland, 24–26 June2008.

M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, M. Braun, D. McGregor, J. Overbeck, B. Moore, E. V. Browell, and T. Zaccheo, “A Modulated CW Fiber Laser-Lidar Suite for the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 24–29 July 2008.

Measures, R.

R. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications (Krieger, 1992).

Menzies, R.

Michalak, A. M.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, and R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6348  cm−1: position, intensities, and air- and self-broadening derived with constrained multispectrum analysis,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 242, 90–117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitomi, Y.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Modlin, E. A.

Monks, P. S.

M. P. Barkley, P. S. Monks, and R. J. Engelen, “Comparison of SCIAMACHY and AIRS CO2 measurements over North America during the summer and autumn of 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L20805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moore, B.

E. V. BrowellNASA/LaRCJ. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne validation of laser CO2 and O2 column measurements,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

E. V. Browell, J. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne laser CO2 column measurements: Evaluation of precision and accuracy under wide range of conditions,” presented at the Fall AGU Meeting, San Francisco, California, 5–9 December2011.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne demonstration of 1.57-micron laser absorption spectrometer for atmospheric CO2 measurements,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 23–24 June 2008.

E. V. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne validation of laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” presented at the 25th International Laser Radar Conference, St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July 2010.

M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, M. Braun, D. McGregor, J. Overbeck, B. Moore, E. V. Browell, and T. Zaccheo, “A Modulated CW Fiber Laser-Lidar Suite for the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 24–29 July 2008.

J. Dobler, M. Dobbs, S. Zaccheo, J. Nagel, W. Harrison, E. Browell, and B. Moore, “CW fiber laser absorption spectrometer for 02 column measurements in support of the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

M. Dobbs, W. Sharp, E. V. Browell, T. S. Zaccheo, and B. Moore, “A sinusoidal modulated CW integrated path differential absorption lidar for mapping sources and sinks of carbon dioxide from space,” presented at the 14th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Snowmass, Colorado, 8–13 July2007.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, Susan A. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from Space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo,” First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide, presented at the Fourth Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications,” 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

E. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, M. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. Vay, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Validation of airborne CO2 laser measurements,” presented at the 5th Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications, 91st AMS Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, 23–28 January2011.

Morino, I.

T. Yokota, H. Oguma, I. Morino, A. Higurashi, T. Aoki, and G. Inoue, “Test measurements by a BBM of the nadir-looking SWIR FTS aboard GOSAT to monitor CO2 column density from space,” Proc. SPIE 5652, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moshary, F.

R. Agishev, B. Gross, F. Moshary, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Atmospheric CW-FM-LD-RR ladar for trace-constituent detection: a concept development,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 695–703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, J.

J. T. Dobler, J. Nagel, V. L. Temyanko, T. S. Zaccheo, E. V. Browell, F. W. Harrison, and S. A. Kooi, “Advancements in a multifunctional fiber laser lidar for measuring atmospheric CO2 and O2,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

J. Dobler, M. Dobbs, S. Zaccheo, J. Nagel, W. Harrison, E. Browell, and B. Moore, “CW fiber laser absorption spectrometer for 02 column measurements in support of the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

Nakajima, M.

Natraj, V.

H. Bosch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the orbiting carbon observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neal, M.

M. Dobbs, W. Krabill, M. Cisewski, F. W. Harrison, C. K. Shum, D. McGregor, M. Neal, and S. Stokes, “A multifunctional fiber laser lidar for earth science and exploration,” presented at the Proceedings of Earth Science Technology Conference, College Park, Maryland, 24–26 June2008.

Neff, B. R.

J. Pruitt, M. E. Dobbs, M. Gypson, B. R. Neff, and W. E. Sharp, “High-speed CW lidar retrieval using spectral lock-in algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5154, 138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, M. E.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nolf, S. R.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D20, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D. M.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O’Dell, C. W.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oguma, H.

T. Yokota, H. Oguma, I. Morino, A. Higurashi, T. Aoki, and G. Inoue, “Test measurements by a BBM of the nadir-looking SWIR FTS aboard GOSAT to monitor CO2 column density from space,” Proc. SPIE 5652, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, E.

M. Chahine, C. Barnet, E. Olsen, L. Chen, and E. Maddy, “On the determination of atmospheric minor gases by the method of vanishing partial derivatives with application to CO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, S. C.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Omar, A.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Overbeck, J.

M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, M. Braun, D. McGregor, J. Overbeck, B. Moore, E. V. Browell, and T. Zaccheo, “A Modulated CW Fiber Laser-Lidar Suite for the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 24–29 July 2008.

Pawson, S.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petros, M.

Petzar, P. J.

Pfister, L.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pollock, H.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pollock, R.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Price, J. R.

Pruitt, J.

J. Pruitt, M. E. Dobbs, M. Gypson, B. R. Neff, and W. E. Sharp, “High-speed CW lidar retrieval using spectral lock-in algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5154, 138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Dobbs, J. Pruitt, N. Blume, D. Gregory, and W. Sharp, “Matched filter enhanced fiber-based lidar for earth, weather and exploration,” presented at the AGU Fall Meeting, A1194, San Francisco, California, 11–15 December2006.

Randerson, J. T.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, P.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Riris, H.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, G. W.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D20, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sakaizawa, D.

Salawitch, R. J.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sander, S. P.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Santa-Maria, M.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schroll, S.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sen, B.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Bosch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the orbiting carbon observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, W.

M. Dobbs, J. Pruitt, N. Blume, D. Gregory, and W. Sharp, “Matched filter enhanced fiber-based lidar for earth, weather and exploration,” presented at the AGU Fall Meeting, A1194, San Francisco, California, 11–15 December2006.

M. Dobbs, W. Sharp, E. V. Browell, T. S. Zaccheo, and B. Moore, “A sinusoidal modulated CW integrated path differential absorption lidar for mapping sources and sinks of carbon dioxide from space,” presented at the 14th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Snowmass, Colorado, 8–13 July2007.

Sharp, W. E.

J. Pruitt, M. E. Dobbs, M. Gypson, B. R. Neff, and W. E. Sharp, “High-speed CW lidar retrieval using spectral lock-in algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5154, 138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shiomi, K.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shum, C. K.

M. Dobbs, W. Krabill, M. Cisewski, F. W. Harrison, C. K. Shum, D. McGregor, M. Neal, and S. Stokes, “A multifunctional fiber laser lidar for earth science and exploration,” presented at the Proceedings of Earth Science Technology Conference, College Park, Maryland, 24–26 June2008.

Simpson, M. L.

Singh, H. B.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Singh, U. N.

Soja, A. J.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sprague, G.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, G. L.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, S.

M. Dobbs, W. Krabill, M. Cisewski, F. W. Harrison, C. K. Shum, D. McGregor, M. Neal, and S. Stokes, “A multifunctional fiber laser lidar for earth science and exploration,” presented at the Proceedings of Earth Science Technology Conference, College Park, Maryland, 24–26 June2008.

Storey, J. M.

Streets, D. G.

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D20, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suntharalingam, P.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suto, H.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tans, P.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tans, P. P.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, T. E.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Temyanko, V. L.

J. T. Dobler, J. Nagel, V. L. Temyanko, T. S. Zaccheo, E. V. Browell, F. W. Harrison, and S. A. Kooi, “Advancements in a multifunctional fiber laser lidar for measuring atmospheric CO2 and O2,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

Thornhill, K. L.

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D20, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toon, G. C.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Bosch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the orbiting carbon observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, and R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6348  cm−1: position, intensities, and air- and self-broadening derived with constrained multispectrum analysis,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 242, 90–117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tratt, D. M.

Trepte, C.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, Y.

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D20, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, S.

Ulander, L.

A. Kononov, L. Ulander, and L. Eriksson, “Design of Optimum Weighting Functions for LFM Signals,” in Convergence and Hybrid Information Technologies, M. Crisan, ed. (Computer and Information Science, 2010). http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/10982/InTech-Design_of_optimum_weighting_functions_for_lfm_signals.pdf .

Urabe, T.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vadrevu, K. P.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, M.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vay, S.

E. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, M. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. Vay, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Validation of airborne CO2 laser measurements,” presented at the 5th Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications, 91st AMS Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, 23–28 January2011.

Vay, S. A.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D20, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, J. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne laser CO2 column measurements: Evaluation of precision and accuracy under wide range of conditions,” presented at the Fall AGU Meeting, San Francisco, California, 5–9 December2011.

E. V. BrowellNASA/LaRCJ. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne validation of laser CO2 and O2 column measurements,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

Wachter, E. A.

Washenfelder, R. A.

H. Bosch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the orbiting carbon observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, C. J.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weimer, C.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, B.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weng, C. Y.

Wennberg, P. O.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Bosch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the orbiting carbon observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Westberg, D. J.

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D20, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, M.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Spaceborne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: asensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1∶57  μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wofsy, S. C.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Woo, J.-H.

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D20, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, T.

T. Yokota, H. Oguma, I. Morino, A. Higurashi, T. Aoki, and G. Inoue, “Test measurements by a BBM of the nadir-looking SWIR FTS aboard GOSAT to monitor CO2 column density from space,” Proc. SPIE 5652, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Yung, Y. L.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Bosch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the orbiting carbon observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zaccheo, S.

J. Dobler, M. Dobbs, S. Zaccheo, J. Nagel, W. Harrison, E. Browell, and B. Moore, “CW fiber laser absorption spectrometer for 02 column measurements in support of the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

Zaccheo, T.

M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, M. Braun, D. McGregor, J. Overbeck, B. Moore, E. V. Browell, and T. Zaccheo, “A Modulated CW Fiber Laser-Lidar Suite for the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 24–29 July 2008.

Zaccheo, T. S.

J. T. Dobler, J. Nagel, V. L. Temyanko, T. S. Zaccheo, E. V. Browell, F. W. Harrison, and S. A. Kooi, “Advancements in a multifunctional fiber laser lidar for measuring atmospheric CO2 and O2,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

E. V. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne validation of laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” presented at the 25th International Laser Radar Conference, St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July 2010.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne demonstration of 1.57-micron laser absorption spectrometer for atmospheric CO2 measurements,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 23–24 June 2008.

M. Dobbs, W. Sharp, E. V. Browell, T. S. Zaccheo, and B. Moore, “A sinusoidal modulated CW integrated path differential absorption lidar for mapping sources and sinks of carbon dioxide from space,” presented at the 14th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Snowmass, Colorado, 8–13 July2007.

E. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, M. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. Vay, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Validation of airborne CO2 laser measurements,” presented at the 5th Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications, 91st AMS Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, 23–28 January2011.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, Susan A. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from Space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo,” First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide, presented at the Fourth Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications,” 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

Adv. Space Res.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F. M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O’Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

R. Agishev, B. Gross, F. Moshary, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Atmospheric CW-FM-LD-RR ladar for trace-constituent detection: a concept development,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 695–703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Spaceborne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: asensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1∶57  μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, C. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 3593–3601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

M. P. Barkley, P. S. Monks, and R. J. Engelen, “Comparison of SCIAMACHY and AIRS CO2 measurements over North America during the summer and autumn of 2003,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L20805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Chahine, C. Barnet, E. Olsen, L. Chen, and E. Maddy, “On the determination of atmospheric minor gases by the method of vanishing partial derivatives with application to CO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

A. Kuze, D. M. O’Brien, T. E. Taylor, J. O. Day, C. W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. J. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe, and H. Suto, “Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley desert playa,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1781–1795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, K. P. Vadrevu, A. J. Soja, J.-H. Woo, S. R. Nolf, G. W. Sachse, G. W. Diskin, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, H. B. Singh, M. A. Avery, A. Fried, L. Pfister, and H. E. Fuelberg, “Characteristics of the atmospheric CO2 signal as observed over the conterminous United States during INTEX NA,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D07301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vay, J.-H. Woo, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, D. R. Blake, D. J. Westberg, C. M. Kiley, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, D. G. Streets, Y. Tsutsumi, and S. R. Nolf, “Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D20, 8801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Bosch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, “Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: testing the orbiting carbon observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

V. M. Devi, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. E. Miller, and R. A. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6348  cm−1: position, intensities, and air- and self-broadening derived with constrained multispectrum analysis,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 242, 90–117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

T. Yokota, H. Oguma, I. Morino, A. Higurashi, T. Aoki, and G. Inoue, “Test measurements by a BBM of the nadir-looking SWIR FTS aboard GOSAT to monitor CO2 column density from space,” Proc. SPIE 5652, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Pruitt, M. E. Dobbs, M. Gypson, B. R. Neff, and W. E. Sharp, “High-speed CW lidar retrieval using spectral lock-in algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5154, 138 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tellus B

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications (Krieger, 1992).

E. V. Browell, J. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne laser CO2 column measurements: Evaluation of precision and accuracy under wide range of conditions,” presented at the Fall AGU Meeting, San Francisco, California, 5–9 December2011.

E. V. BrowellNASA/LaRCJ. T. Dobler, S. A. Kooi, M. A. Fenn, Y. Choi, S. A. Vay, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore, “Airborne validation of laser CO2 and O2 column measurements,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averty, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds., Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007).

National Research Council, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (National Academies, 2007).

M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, M. Braun, D. McGregor, J. Overbeck, B. Moore, E. V. Browell, and T. Zaccheo, “A Modulated CW Fiber Laser-Lidar Suite for the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 24–29 July 2008.

J. T. Dobler, J. Nagel, V. L. Temyanko, T. S. Zaccheo, E. V. Browell, F. W. Harrison, and S. A. Kooi, “Advancements in a multifunctional fiber laser lidar for measuring atmospheric CO2 and O2,” presented at the 16th Symposium on Meteorological Observation and Instrumentation, 92nd AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 22–26 January 2012.

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne demonstration of 1.57-micron laser absorption spectrometer for atmospheric CO2 measurements,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, 23–24 June 2008.

E. V. Browell, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “Airborne validation of laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” presented at the 25th International Laser Radar Conference, St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July 2010.

M. Dobbs, J. Pruitt, N. Blume, D. Gregory, and W. Sharp, “Matched filter enhanced fiber-based lidar for earth, weather and exploration,” presented at the AGU Fall Meeting, A1194, San Francisco, California, 11–15 December2006.

J. Dobler, M. Dobbs, S. Zaccheo, J. Nagel, W. Harrison, E. Browell, and B. Moore, “CW fiber laser absorption spectrometer for 02 column measurements in support of the ASCENDS Mission,” presented at the 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

M. Dobbs, W. Krabill, M. Cisewski, F. W. Harrison, C. K. Shum, D. McGregor, M. Neal, and S. Stokes, “A multifunctional fiber laser lidar for earth science and exploration,” presented at the Proceedings of Earth Science Technology Conference, College Park, Maryland, 24–26 June2008.

Stanford Research Systems, “About lock-in amplifiers: application note,” http://www.srsys.com/html/application_notes.html .

M. Dobbs, W. Sharp, E. V. Browell, T. S. Zaccheo, and B. Moore, “A sinusoidal modulated CW integrated path differential absorption lidar for mapping sources and sinks of carbon dioxide from space,” presented at the 14th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Snowmass, Colorado, 8–13 July2007.

D. A. Hastings, P. K. Dunbar, G. M. Elphingstone, M. Bootz, H. Murakami, H. Maruyama, H. Masaharu, P. Holland, J. Payne, N. A. Bryant, T. L. Logan, J.-P. Muller, G. Schreier, and J. MacDonald, eds., “The global land one-kilometer base elevation (GLOBE) digital elevation model,” Version 1.0, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and National Geophysical Data Center (1999), http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/topo/globe.html .

E. V. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, Susan A. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from Space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo, “First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 for future active sensing of CO2 from space,” presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Jena, Germany, 13–18 September2009.

E. Browell, M. E. Dobbs, J. Dobler, S. Kooi, Y. Choi, F. W. Harrison, B. Moore, and T. S. Zaccheo,” First airborne laser remote measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide, presented at the Fourth Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications,” 89th AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, 11–15 January2009.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

MFLL conceptual architecture.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Basic block diagram of MFLL instrument as flown in 2011.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Summary of MFLL flight test campaigns.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

MFLL flight test on 22 October 2007 showing water-to-land transition. It shows the flight track in solid red line; and energy normalized on- and off-signals and OD measurements.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

MFLL measurements made over the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE/ARM) Central Facility from an altitude of 4.6 km on 31 July 2009; (a) shows the flight track; (b) shows the in situ measured CO 2 profile over the CF in red along with the CO 2 profile measured earlier on a DOE Cessna aircraft shown in blue and a tower CO 2 measurement shown in green; (c) shows the off-line surface reflectance signals with 1 s averaging from A to B; and (d) shows the variation in CO 2 OD measurements in terms of XCO 2 . The leg-averaged column XCO 2 is shown in (d) by the solid line, and dashed lines are ± 1.5 ppmv .

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of MFLL measured and modeled CO 2 OD’s on DC-8 flights over California’s Central Valley (top) and Rocky Mountains (bottom) in route to Railroad Valley (RRV), Nevada.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of measured and modeled CO 2 OD’s expressed in terms of equivalent XCO 2 from six flights during the 2011 ASCENDS DC-8 Campaign. The data for each of the flights is shown in the table along with range to flight levels, and measured—model XCO 2 differences ( ! CO 2 ). The location and dates of the flights are: Flt. 0: Central Valley, California, 26 July; Flt. 1: Central Valley, California, 28 July; Flt. 3: Railroad Valley, Nevada, 3 August; Flt. 5: Four Corners, New Mexico, 9 August; Flt. 6: NOAA WBI Tall Tower at West Branch, Iowa, 10 August; Flt. 7: NOAA LEF Tall Tower at Park Falls, Wisconsin, 11 August.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Sampled output of the lock-in processor is illustrated in red and Eq. (14) fitted to the lock-in output in blue. Only at integer multiples of the sample period do the amplitude of the lock-in output and the estimate of the amplitude (C) provided by the fit of Eq. (14) match. At all other correlation delays, the amplitude of the sampled correlation is less than the true amplitude. Range is a function of the delay to the peak of the fit.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Range estimates obtained from the off-line CO 2 return and time coincident returns from the on-board PN altimeter over the four corners region from the DC-8 on 7 August 2011. Sum square error (SSE) over this interval is 1.35 meters. Mean difference = 0.2302 m with an STD of 1.4418 m.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Examples of flight data showing the range discrimination of cloud returns from ground returns using the swept frequency IM-CW approach from the DC-8 on 4 August 2011. Panel (a) shows a 3-D representation of a large cloud return above a small ground return and panel (b) is the projection of the information in (a) onto 2-D image of signal profiles along the flight track illustrating the strong cloud and weak ground returns; panel (c) slows the distribution of signals from weak clouds and strong ground return signals and panel (d) is a superposition of data from (c) on a signal versus path length grid.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Key MFLL Instrument Parameters as Flown in 2011 DC-8 Flights

Tables Icon

Table 2. Surface Reflectance and CO 2 Measurement Precision During 2010 ASCENDS DC-8 Campaign

Equations (15)

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P rec ( λ 0 , R ) = P L A 0 R 2 * η ( λ 0 ) * ξ ( R T ) * β π ( λ 0 , R ) * Δ R * exp [ 2 0 R κ ( λ 0 , r ) d r ] ,
κ ( λ 0 , R ) = Σ α i ( λ 0 , R ) + β θ π ( λ 0 , R ) ,
P rec ( λ 0 , R ) = P L * C * β π ( λ 0 , R ) * Δ R * e 2 0 R β θ π ( λ 0 , r ) d r * e 2 0 R i 0 α i ( λ 0 , r ) d r * e 2 0 R α i = 0 ( λ 0 , r ) d r ,
P rec ( λ off , R ) P rec ( λ on , R ) = P L off P L on e 2 ( 0 R α i = 0 ( λ on , r ) d r 0 R α i = 0 ( λ off , r ) d r ) ,
0 R N ( r ) d r = 1 2 0 R i Δ σ ( λ on , λ off , r ) d r * [ 0 R α i = 0 ( λ on , r ) d r 0 R α i = 0 ( λ off , r ) d r ] ,
V psd = V sig * sin ( ω sig * t + θ sig ) * V LO * sin ( ω LO * t + θ LO ) = 1 2 * V sig * V LO * cos ( [ ω sig ω LO ] * t + θ sig θ LO ) V sig * V LO * cos ( [ ω sig + ω LO ] * t + θ sig + θ LO ) .
V psd = 1 2 * V sig * V LO * cos ( θ sig θ LO ) .
V psd 2 = 1 2 * V sig * V LO ( 90 ) * sin ( θ sig θ LO ( 90 ) ) .
R = ( I 2 + Q 2 ) 1 2 = V sig .
θ = atan ( Q / I ) ,
ω sig ( t ) = 2 * π * A * [ ( t a floor ( t a + 0.5 ) ) + 0.5 ] ,
Δ τ = 2 z = b z = t Δ σ ( λ on , λ off , T , P , z ) · η ( T , P , RH , z ) · δ z
| P ( t ) | = C | sin [ π Δ f t ( 1 | t | τ ) ] 2 π Δ f t ( 1 | t | τ ) | , 0 < t < τ
| P ( t ) | = C | sin [ π Δ f a ( t b ) ( 1 | t b | τ ) ] 2 π Δ f a ( t b ) ( 1 | t b | τ ) | ,
| P ( t ) | = C | sin [ π ( t b ) a ] [ π ( t b ) a ] | ,

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