Abstract

A method capable of delivering relative optical path length metrology with nanometer precision is demonstrated. Unlike conventional dual-wavelength metrology, which employs heterodyne detection, the method developed in this work utilizes direct detection of interference fringes of two He–Ne lasers as well as a less precise stepper motor open-loop position control system to perform its measurement. Although the method may be applicable to a variety of circumstances, the specific application in which this metrology is essential is in an astrometric optical long baseline stellar interferometer dedicated to precise measurement of stellar positions. In our example application of this metrology to a narrow-angle astrometric interferometer, measurement of nanometer precision could be achieved without frequency-stabilized lasers, although the use of such lasers would extend the range of optical path length the metrology can accurately measure. Implementation of the method requires very little additional optics or electronics, thus minimizing the cost and effort of implementation. Furthermore, the optical path traversed by the metrology lasers is identical to that of the starlight or science beams, even down to using the same photodetectors, thereby minimizing the noncommon path between metrology and science channels.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

1999 (2)

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, “The Sydney University Stellar Interferometer—I. The instrument,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773–782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

M. Shao, M. M. Colavita, B. E. Hines, D. H. Staelin, and D. J. Hutter, “The Mark III stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. 193, 357–371 (1988).

R. Daendliker, R. Thalmann, and D. Prongue, “Two-wavelength laser interferometry using superheterodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 13, 339–341 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1966 (1)

B. Edlén, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

Armstrong, J. T.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benson, J. A.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boden, A. F.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Booth, A. J.

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, “The Sydney University Stellar Interferometer—I. The instrument,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773–782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, P. F.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buscher, D. F.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cheetham, A.

J. G. Robertson, M. J. Ireland, W. J. Tango, P. G. Tuthill, B. A. Warrington, Y. Kok, A. C. Rizzuto, A. Cheetham, and A. P. Jacob, “Science and technology progress at the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84450N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. H.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Colavita, M.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Colavita, M. M.

M. Shao, M. M. Colavita, B. E. Hines, D. H. Staelin, and D. J. Hutter, “The Mark III stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. 193, 357–371 (1988).

Daendliker, R.

Dändliker, R.

Davis, J.

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, “The Sydney University Stellar Interferometer—I. The instrument,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773–782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, P. J.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Edlén, B.

B. Edlén, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Eisenhauer, F.

S. Gillessen, M. Lippa, F. Eisenhauer, O. Pfuhl, M. Haug, S. Kellner, T. Ott, E. Wieprecht, E. Sturm, F. Haußmann, C. F. Kister, D. Moch, and M. Thiel, “GRAVITY: metrology,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84451O (2012).
[CrossRef]

Elias, N. M.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, K. E.

Gillessen, S.

S. Gillessen, M. Lippa, F. Eisenhauer, O. Pfuhl, M. Haug, S. Kellner, T. Ott, E. Wieprecht, E. Sturm, F. Haußmann, C. F. Kister, D. Moch, and M. Thiel, “GRAVITY: metrology,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84451O (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

Gubler, J.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gursel, Y.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ha, L.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haug, M.

S. Gillessen, M. Lippa, F. Eisenhauer, O. Pfuhl, M. Haug, S. Kellner, T. Ott, E. Wieprecht, E. Sturm, F. Haußmann, C. F. Kister, D. Moch, and M. Thiel, “GRAVITY: metrology,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84451O (2012).
[CrossRef]

Haußmann, F.

S. Gillessen, M. Lippa, F. Eisenhauer, O. Pfuhl, M. Haug, S. Kellner, T. Ott, E. Wieprecht, E. Sturm, F. Haußmann, C. F. Kister, D. Moch, and M. Thiel, “GRAVITY: metrology,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84451O (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hines, B.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hines, B. E.

M. Shao, M. M. Colavita, B. E. Hines, D. H. Staelin, and D. J. Hutter, “The Mark III stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. 193, 357–371 (1988).

Holzwarth, R.

Hummel, C. A.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hutter, D. J.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Shao, M. M. Colavita, B. E. Hines, D. H. Staelin, and D. J. Hutter, “The Mark III stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. 193, 357–371 (1988).

Ireland, M. J.

J. G. Robertson, M. J. Ireland, W. J. Tango, P. G. Tuthill, B. A. Warrington, Y. Kok, A. C. Rizzuto, A. Cheetham, and A. P. Jacob, “Science and technology progress at the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84450N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, A. P.

J. G. Robertson, M. J. Ireland, W. J. Tango, P. G. Tuthill, B. A. Warrington, Y. Kok, A. C. Rizzuto, A. Cheetham, and A. P. Jacob, “Science and technology progress at the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84450N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, K. J.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kellner, S.

S. Gillessen, M. Lippa, F. Eisenhauer, O. Pfuhl, M. Haug, S. Kellner, T. Ott, E. Wieprecht, E. Sturm, F. Haußmann, C. F. Kister, D. Moch, and M. Thiel, “GRAVITY: metrology,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84451O (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kister, C. F.

S. Gillessen, M. Lippa, F. Eisenhauer, O. Pfuhl, M. Haug, S. Kellner, T. Ott, E. Wieprecht, E. Sturm, F. Haußmann, C. F. Kister, D. Moch, and M. Thiel, “GRAVITY: metrology,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84451O (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kok, Y.

J. G. Robertson, M. J. Ireland, W. J. Tango, P. G. Tuthill, B. A. Warrington, Y. Kok, A. C. Rizzuto, A. Cheetham, and A. P. Jacob, “Science and technology progress at the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84450N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koresko, C. D.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, S. R.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lane, B. F.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lévêque, S.

Ling, L.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lippa, M.

S. Gillessen, M. Lippa, F. Eisenhauer, O. Pfuhl, M. Haug, S. Kellner, T. Ott, E. Wieprecht, E. Sturm, F. Haußmann, C. F. Kister, D. Moch, and M. Thiel, “GRAVITY: metrology,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84451O (2012).
[CrossRef]

Malbet, F.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Minard, R. A.

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, “The Sydney University Stellar Interferometer—I. The instrument,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773–782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, D. W.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moch, D.

S. Gillessen, M. Lippa, F. Eisenhauer, O. Pfuhl, M. Haug, S. Kellner, T. Ott, E. Wieprecht, E. Sturm, F. Haußmann, C. F. Kister, D. Moch, and M. Thiel, “GRAVITY: metrology,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84451O (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mozurkewich, D.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ott, T.

S. Gillessen, M. Lippa, F. Eisenhauer, O. Pfuhl, M. Haug, S. Kellner, T. Ott, E. Wieprecht, E. Sturm, F. Haußmann, C. F. Kister, D. Moch, and M. Thiel, “GRAVITY: metrology,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84451O (2012).
[CrossRef]

Owens, S. M.

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, “The Sydney University Stellar Interferometer—I. The instrument,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773–782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, D.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pan, X.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pfuhl, O.

S. Gillessen, M. Lippa, F. Eisenhauer, O. Pfuhl, M. Haug, S. Kellner, T. Ott, E. Wieprecht, E. Sturm, F. Haußmann, C. F. Kister, D. Moch, and M. Thiel, “GRAVITY: metrology,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84451O (2012).
[CrossRef]

Prongue, D.

Rickard, L. J.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rizzuto, A. C.

J. G. Robertson, M. J. Ireland, W. J. Tango, P. G. Tuthill, B. A. Warrington, Y. Kok, A. C. Rizzuto, A. Cheetham, and A. P. Jacob, “Science and technology progress at the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84450N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, J. G.

J. G. Robertson, M. J. Ireland, W. J. Tango, P. G. Tuthill, B. A. Warrington, Y. Kok, A. C. Rizzuto, A. Cheetham, and A. P. Jacob, “Science and technology progress at the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84450N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Salvadé, Y.

Schuhler, N.

N. Schuhler, Y. Salvadé, S. Lévêque, R. Dändliker, and R. Holzwarth, “Frequency-comb-referenced two-wavelength source for absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3101–3103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Schuhler, “Frequency-comb stabilized laser sources for absolute distance metrology at the very large telescope interferometer,” Ph.D. thesis (Universite Louis Pasteur, 2006).

Shao, M.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shao, M. M. Colavita, B. E. Hines, D. H. Staelin, and D. J. Hutter, “The Mark III stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. 193, 357–371 (1988).

Simon, R. S.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Staelin, D. H.

M. Shao, M. M. Colavita, B. E. Hines, D. H. Staelin, and D. J. Hutter, “The Mark III stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. 193, 357–371 (1988).

Sturm, E.

S. Gillessen, M. Lippa, F. Eisenhauer, O. Pfuhl, M. Haug, S. Kellner, T. Ott, E. Wieprecht, E. Sturm, F. Haußmann, C. F. Kister, D. Moch, and M. Thiel, “GRAVITY: metrology,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84451O (2012).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 4th ed. (Plenum, 1998).

Tango, W. J.

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, “The Sydney University Stellar Interferometer—I. The instrument,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773–782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Robertson, M. J. Ireland, W. J. Tango, P. G. Tuthill, B. A. Warrington, Y. Kok, A. C. Rizzuto, A. Cheetham, and A. P. Jacob, “Science and technology progress at the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84450N (2012).
[CrossRef]

ten Brummelaar, T. A.

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, “The Sydney University Stellar Interferometer—I. The instrument,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773–782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thalmann, R.

Thiel, M.

S. Gillessen, M. Lippa, F. Eisenhauer, O. Pfuhl, M. Haug, S. Kellner, T. Ott, E. Wieprecht, E. Sturm, F. Haußmann, C. F. Kister, D. Moch, and M. Thiel, “GRAVITY: metrology,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84451O (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tuthill, P. G.

J. G. Robertson, M. J. Ireland, W. J. Tango, P. G. Tuthill, B. A. Warrington, Y. Kok, A. C. Rizzuto, A. Cheetham, and A. P. Jacob, “Science and technology progress at the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84450N (2012).
[CrossRef]

van Belle, G. T.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walkup, J. F.

Wallace, J.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Warrington, B. A.

J. G. Robertson, M. J. Ireland, W. J. Tango, P. G. Tuthill, B. A. Warrington, Y. Kok, A. C. Rizzuto, A. Cheetham, and A. P. Jacob, “Science and technology progress at the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84450N (2012).
[CrossRef]

White, N. M.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wieprecht, E.

S. Gillessen, M. Lippa, F. Eisenhauer, O. Pfuhl, M. Haug, S. Kellner, T. Ott, E. Wieprecht, E. Sturm, F. Haußmann, C. F. Kister, D. Moch, and M. Thiel, “GRAVITY: metrology,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84451O (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zaber,

Zaber, T-Series Positioning Products Technical Notes, 2006th ed. (Zaber Technologies Inc., 2006).

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

M. Shao, M. M. Colavita, B. E. Hines, D. H. Staelin, and D. J. Hutter, “The Mark III stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. 193, 357–371 (1988).

Astrophys. J. (2)

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L. Ling, N. M. White, and R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Colavita, J. Wallace, B. Hines, Y. Gursel, F. Malbet, D. Palmer, X. Pan, M. Shao, J. Yu, A. F. Boden, P. J. Dumont, J. Gubler, C. D. Koresko, S. R. Kulkarni, B. F. Lane, D. W. Mobley, and G. T. van Belle, “The Palomar testbed interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 510, 505–521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Metrologia (1)

B. Edlén, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2, 71–80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, T. A. ten Brummelaar, R. A. Minard, and S. M. Owens, “The Sydney University Stellar Interferometer—I. The instrument,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 773–782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (12)

J. G. Robertson, M. J. Ireland, W. J. Tango, P. G. Tuthill, B. A. Warrington, Y. Kok, A. C. Rizzuto, A. Cheetham, and A. P. Jacob, “Science and technology progress at the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84450N (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Kurucz, “Linelists,” http://kurucz.harvard.edu/linelists.html (2012).

N. Schuhler, “Frequency-comb stabilized laser sources for absolute distance metrology at the very large telescope interferometer,” Ph.D. thesis (Universite Louis Pasteur, 2006).

S. Gillessen, M. Lippa, F. Eisenhauer, O. Pfuhl, M. Haug, S. Kellner, T. Ott, E. Wieprecht, E. Sturm, F. Haußmann, C. F. Kister, D. Moch, and M. Thiel, “GRAVITY: metrology,” Proc. SPIE8445, 84451O (2012).
[CrossRef]

http://www.zaber.com .

http://www.mathworks.com/products/matlab .

http://www.gnu.org/software/octave .

Zaber, T-Series Positioning Products Technical Notes, 2006th ed. (Zaber Technologies Inc., 2006).

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 4th ed. (Plenum, 1998).

http://www.thorlab.com .

http://www.newport.com .

http://www.npl.co.uk .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical setup of the dual-wavelength metrology and the astrometric beam combiner in SUSI.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Consecutive scans of laser fringes (top) and the phases (bottom), ϕri and ϕgi, extracted from each scan. The internal laboratory seeing was poor at the time of measurement.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Uncertainty of Δψi and Δφi measured with different number of scans of laser fringes. The measurement of the latter is more susceptible to internal seeing conditions in the lab.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Difference between the OPD measured by the dual-laser metrology described in this section, d, and the OPD estimated with the stepper motor metrology of the Zaber stage, dzaber, at different stage position.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Look-Up Table for δ(ΔN)0 in Eq. (7)Ea

Equations (9)

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di=1nrσr(Nri+ϕri2π)=1ngσg(Ngi+ϕgi2π).
d=d1d0=(Δφ1Δφ0)/2π+ΔNnrσrngσg,
ΔNgαΔNr=(Δψ1Δψ0)/2π,
NAR=min(ΔNr,max/σr,ΔNg,max/σg),
|αΔNr[αΔNr]|>δ(Δψ)/2π,|ΔNg/α[ΔNg/α]|>δ(Δψ)/2π,
ΔN=ΔN+δ(ΔN).
δ(ΔN)=δ(ΔN)0+{1ifΔϕr<0,Δϕg0;0ifΔϕr<0,Δϕg<0;orΔϕr0,Δϕg0;1ifΔϕr0,Δϕg<0.
δ(Δσrg)Δσrg3.6×106,
δd=(|d(Δϕ)|δ(Δϕ))2+(|d(Δσrg)|δ(Δσrg))2=(δ(Δϕ)2πΔσrg)2+(δ(Δσrg)Δσrgd)2,δd|δ(Δϕ)2πΔσrg|,(δ(Δϕ)>0.001,d<0.5mm).

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