Abstract

An actively Q-switched thulium–holmium-codoped fiber laser incorporating an Si-based variable optical attenuator (VOA) is experimentally demonstrated. It has been shown that an Si-based VOA with a response time of hundreds of nanoseconds can be used as a cost-effective 2 μm Q switch due to its extremely wide operating bandwidth from 1.5 to 2 μm, and low electrical power consumption. In our study, the laser’s slope efficiency was measured to be 17% at an operating wavelength of 1.89 μm. The repetition rate tuning range was from 20 to 80 kHz, which was limited by the optical damage threshold and the response time. The minimum temporal pulsewidth was measured to be 184ns at a modulation frequency of 20 kHz, and the corresponding maximum peak power was 10W.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

K. D. Polder and S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1,927 nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 199–206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakata, S. Araki, R. Toyama, and M. Tomiki, “All-fiber Q-switched operation of thulium-doped silica fiber laser by piezoelectric microbending,” Appl. Opt. 51, 1067–1070 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

A. Creunteanu, D. Bouyge, D. Sabourdy, P. Blondy, V. Couderc, L. Grossard, P. H. Pioger, and A. Barthelemy, “Deformable micro-electro-mechanical mirror integration in a fibre laser Q-switch system,” J. Opt. A 8, S347–S351 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, “Active Q switching of a fiber laser with a microsphere resonator,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3568–3570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, “High-energy, high-brightness Q-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser using an electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Commun. 218, 337–344 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Huang, W. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1153–1155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Abdolvand, A.

J. Sahu, V. Philippov, J. Kim, C. Codemard, P. Dupriez, J. Nilsson, A. Abdolvand, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Passively Q-switched thulium-doped silica fiber laser,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThGG7.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

Amzajerdian, F.

Andrés, M. V.

Araki, S.

Asghari, M.

M. Asghari, “Silicon photonics: a low cost integration platform for datacom and telecom applications,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (IEEE, 2008), paper NThA4.

Bammer, F.

Barnes, N. P.

Barthelemy, A.

A. Creunteanu, D. Bouyge, D. Sabourdy, P. Blondy, V. Couderc, L. Grossard, P. H. Pioger, and A. Barthelemy, “Deformable micro-electro-mechanical mirror integration in a fibre laser Q-switch system,” J. Opt. A 8, S347–S351 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blondy, P.

A. Creunteanu, D. Bouyge, D. Sabourdy, P. Blondy, V. Couderc, L. Grossard, P. H. Pioger, and A. Barthelemy, “Deformable micro-electro-mechanical mirror integration in a fibre laser Q-switch system,” J. Opt. A 8, S347–S351 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouyge, D.

A. Creunteanu, D. Bouyge, D. Sabourdy, P. Blondy, V. Couderc, L. Grossard, P. H. Pioger, and A. Barthelemy, “Deformable micro-electro-mechanical mirror integration in a fibre laser Q-switch system,” J. Opt. A 8, S347–S351 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

Bruce, S.

K. D. Polder and S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1,927 nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 199–206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. M.

Chen, Z. J.

Choi, Y.

Christensen, L. E.

Codemard, C.

J. Sahu, V. Philippov, J. Kim, C. Codemard, P. Dupriez, J. Nilsson, A. Abdolvand, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Passively Q-switched thulium-doped silica fiber laser,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThGG7.

Couderc, V.

A. Creunteanu, D. Bouyge, D. Sabourdy, P. Blondy, V. Couderc, L. Grossard, P. H. Pioger, and A. Barthelemy, “Deformable micro-electro-mechanical mirror integration in a fibre laser Q-switch system,” J. Opt. A 8, S347–S351 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Creunteanu, A.

A. Creunteanu, D. Bouyge, D. Sabourdy, P. Blondy, V. Couderc, L. Grossard, P. H. Pioger, and A. Barthelemy, “Deformable micro-electro-mechanical mirror integration in a fibre laser Q-switch system,” J. Opt. A 8, S347–S351 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Young, R. J.

Díez, A.

Duchowicz, R.

Dupriez, P.

J. Sahu, V. Philippov, J. Kim, C. Codemard, P. Dupriez, J. Nilsson, A. Abdolvand, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Passively Q-switched thulium-doped silica fiber laser,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThGG7.

Eichhorn, M.

El-Sherif, A. F.

A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, “High-energy, high-brightness Q-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser using an electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Commun. 218, 337–344 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geng, J.

Grossard, L.

A. Creunteanu, D. Bouyge, D. Sabourdy, P. Blondy, V. Couderc, L. Grossard, P. H. Pioger, and A. Barthelemy, “Deformable micro-electro-mechanical mirror integration in a fibre laser Q-switch system,” J. Opt. A 8, S347–S351 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, A. B.

Herda, R.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, W. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1153–1155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.-I.

Jackson, S. D.

Jacob, J.

Jhon, Y. M.

Jiang, S.

Kieu, K.

Kim, J.

J. Sahu, V. Philippov, J. Kim, C. Codemard, P. Dupriez, J. Nilsson, A. Abdolvand, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Passively Q-switched thulium-doped silica fiber laser,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThGG7.

King, T. A.

A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, “High-energy, high-brightness Q-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser using an electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Commun. 218, 337–344 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kivistö, S.

Kou, R.

Kuleshov, N. V.

J. Sahu, V. Philippov, J. Kim, C. Codemard, P. Dupriez, J. Nilsson, A. Abdolvand, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Passively Q-switched thulium-doped silica fiber laser,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThGG7.

Lee, J.

Lee, J. H.

Liu, W.

D. Huang, W. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1153–1155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

Mansuripur, M.

Menzies, R. T.

Minelly, J. D.

Nilsson, J.

J. Sahu, V. Philippov, J. Kim, C. Codemard, P. Dupriez, J. Nilsson, A. Abdolvand, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Passively Q-switched thulium-doped silica fiber laser,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThGG7.

Nishi, H.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Park, S.

Pérez-Millán, P.

Petkovsek, R.

Philippov, V.

J. Sahu, V. Philippov, J. Kim, C. Codemard, P. Dupriez, J. Nilsson, A. Abdolvand, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Passively Q-switched thulium-doped silica fiber laser,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThGG7.

Phillips, M. W.

Pioger, P. H.

A. Creunteanu, D. Bouyge, D. Sabourdy, P. Blondy, V. Couderc, L. Grossard, P. H. Pioger, and A. Barthelemy, “Deformable micro-electro-mechanical mirror integration in a fibre laser Q-switch system,” J. Opt. A 8, S347–S351 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polder, K. D.

K. D. Polder and S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1,927 nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 199–206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Porta, J.

Sabourdy, D.

A. Creunteanu, D. Bouyge, D. Sabourdy, P. Blondy, V. Couderc, L. Grossard, P. H. Pioger, and A. Barthelemy, “Deformable micro-electro-mechanical mirror integration in a fibre laser Q-switch system,” J. Opt. A 8, S347–S351 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J.

J. Sahu, V. Philippov, J. Kim, C. Codemard, P. Dupriez, J. Nilsson, A. Abdolvand, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Passively Q-switched thulium-doped silica fiber laser,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThGG7.

Sakata, H.

Shinojima, H.

Smith, J.

Spiers, G. D.

Tomiki, M.

Toyama, R.

Tsuchizawa, T.

Wang, Q.

Watanabe, T.

Yamada, K.

Yang, C. C.

D. Huang, W. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1153–1155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zalvidea, D.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Dermatol. Surg. (1)

K. D. Polder and S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1,927 nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 38, 199–206 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Huang, W. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1153–1155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

A. Creunteanu, D. Bouyge, D. Sabourdy, P. Blondy, V. Couderc, L. Grossard, P. H. Pioger, and A. Barthelemy, “Deformable micro-electro-mechanical mirror integration in a fibre laser Q-switch system,” J. Opt. A 8, S347–S351 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, “High-energy, high-brightness Q-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser using an electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Commun. 218, 337–344 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (3)

M. Asghari, “Silicon photonics: a low cost integration platform for datacom and telecom applications,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (IEEE, 2008), paper NThA4.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

J. Sahu, V. Philippov, J. Kim, C. Codemard, P. Dupriez, J. Nilsson, A. Abdolvand, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Passively Q-switched thulium-doped silica fiber laser,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThGG7.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental schematic of the Q -switched THDF laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Optical attenuation of the Si-based VOA as a function of driving voltage, measured at an operating wavelength of 1.9 μm. (b) Measured transient response.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured (a) oscilloscope trace and (b) optical spectrum of Q -switched pulses at 50 kHz. For these measurements, the pump power was fixed at 500 mW.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured average output power and pulse peak power versus pump power at a repetition rate of 50 kHz. (b) Measured temporal width of the output pulses versus pump power at 50 kHz.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Measured average output power and pulse peak power as a function of repetition rate. (b) Measured temporal width of the output pulses as a function of repetition rate. For these measurements, the pump power was fixed at 500 mW.

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