Abstract

The Ti:sapphire (TISA) laser transmitter of the mobile, three-dimensional-scanning water–vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) of the University of Hohenheim is described in detail. The dynamically-stable, unidirectional ring resonator contains a single Brewster-cut TISA crystal, which is pumped from both sides with 250 Hz using a diode-pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The resonator is injection seeded and actively frequency-stabilized using a phase-sensitive technique. The TISA laser is operating near 820 nm, which is optimum for ground-based water–vapor DIAL measurements. An average output power of up to 6.75 W with a beam quality factor of M2<2 is reached. The pointing stability is <13μrad (rms), the depolarization <1%. The overall optical–optical conversion efficiency is up to 19%. The pulse length is 40 ns with a pulse linewidth of <157MHz. The short- and long-term frequency stabilities are 10 MHz (rms). A spectral purity of 99.9% was determined by pointing to a stratus cloud in low-elevation scanning mode with a cloud bottom height of 2.4km.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. M. Schotland, “Some observations of the vertical profile of water vapor by means of a ground based optical radar,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 12–24 April, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (University of Michigan, 1966), pp. 273–283.
  2. E. V. Browell, T. D. Wilkerson, and T. J. Mcilrath, “Water vapor differential absorption lidar development and evaluation,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3474–3483 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Bösenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor and temperature profiling: methodology,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3845–3860 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Wulfmeyer, and J. Bösenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution, and meteorological applications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3825–3844 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. The HITRAN Database URL, http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/hitran/ .
  6. S. Ismail, and E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water vapor profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603–3615 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. É. Gérard, D. G. H. Tan, L. Garand, V. Wulfmeyer, G. Ehret, and P. Di Girolamo, “Major advances foreseen in humidity profiling from the water vapor lidar experiment in space (WALES),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 237–251 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Wulfmeyer, H. Bauer, P. Di Girolamo, and C. Serio, “Comparison of active and passive remote sensing from space: an analysis based on the simulated performance of IASI and space borne differential absorption lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 211–230 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, C. Flamant, T. Schaberl, H.-S. Bauer, S. Kooi, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, and D. N. Whiteman, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part II: airborne-to-airborne systems,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 22–39 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. “GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN),” http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/index.php?name=GRUAN .
  14. W. Eichinger, D. Cooper, J. Kao, L. C. Chen, L. Hipps, and J. Prueger, “Estimation of spatially distributed latent heat flux over complex terrain from a Raman lidar,” Agr. For. Meteorol. 105, 145–159 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. I. Cooper, W. E. Eichinger, J. Archuleta, L. Hipps, C. M. U. Neale, and J. H. Prueger, “An advanced method for deriving latent energy flux from a scanning Raman lidar,” Agron. J. 99, 272–284 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Hauck, C. Barthlott, L. Krauss, and N. Kalthoff, “Soil moisture variability and its influence on convective precipitation over complex terrain,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 42–56 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. Wulfmeyer, “Investigation of turbulent processes in the lower troposphere with water vapor DIAL and Radar-RASS,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 1055–1076 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. Wulfmeyer, S. Pal, D. D. Turner, and E. Wagner, “Can water vapour Raman lidar resolve profiles of turbulent variables in the convective boundary layer?,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 136, 253–284 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Fix, S. Rahm, U. Corsmeier, and P. Di Girolamo, “Latent heat flux measurements over complex terrain by airborne water vapour and wind lidars,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 190–203 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. Kalthoff, K. Träumner, S. Späth, B. Adler, A. Wieser, J. Handwerker, A. Behrendt, F. Madonna, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Dry and moist convection in the boundary layer over the Black Forest—a combined analysis of in-situ and remote sensing data,” Meteorol. Z (2013) (to be published).
  22. A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Kamineni, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and E. V. Browell, “Impact of high resolution water vapor cross-sectional data on hurricane forecasting,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1234–1237 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. Wulfmeyer, H.-S. Bauer, M. Grzeschik, A. Behrendt, F. Vandenberghe, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and R. Ferrare, “Four-dimensional variational assimilation of water vapor differential absorption lidar data. The first case study within IHOP 2002,” Mon. Weather Rev. 134, 209–230 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1437–1453 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Behrendt, T. Nakamura, M. Onishi, R. Baumgart, and T. Tsuda, “Combined Raman lidar for the measurement of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, particle extinction coefficient, and particle backscatter coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7657–7666 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, I. Mattis, B. Hilber, and R. Begbie, “RAMSES: German Meteorological Service autonomous Raman lidar for water vapor, temperature, aerosol, and cloud measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8111–8131 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  30. “LASE Project,” http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/lase/ASDlase.html .
  31. R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. Bruneau, H. Cazeneuve, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, “Double-pulse dual-wavelength alexandrite laser for atmospheric water vapor measurement,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3930–3937 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. Bruneau, T. Arnaud des Lions, P. Quaglia, and J. Pelon, “Injection-seeded pulsed alexandrite laser for differential absorption lidar application,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3941–3950 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. Bruneau, P. Quaglia, C. Flament, M. Meissonnier, and J. Pelon, “Airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water-vapor profiling in the troposphere. I. System description,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3450–3461 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. Bruneau, P. Quaglia, C. Flament, and J. Pelon, “Airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water-vapor profiling in the troposphere. II. First results,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3462–3475 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  36. G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 165–172 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B. 96, 201–213 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  38. V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bösenberg, S. Lehmann, C. Senff, and St. Schmitz, “Injection-seeded alexandrite ring laser: performance and application in a water-vapor differential absorption lidar,” Opt. Lett. 20, 638–640 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  39. V. Wulfmeyer and J. Bösenberg, “Single-mode operation of an injection-seeded alexandrite ring laser for application in water-vapor and temperature differential absorption lidar,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1150–1152 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  40. V. Wulfmeyer, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor and temperature profiling: development and specifications of a high-performance laser transmitter,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3804–3824 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  41. K. Ertel, H. Linné, and J. Bösenberg, “Injection-seeded pulsed Ti:sapphire laser with novel stabilization scheme and capability of dual-wavelength operation,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5120–5126 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  42. H. Vogelmann and T. Trickl, “Wide-range sounding of free-tropospheric water vapor with a differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) at a high-altitude station,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2116–2132 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  43. J. L. Machol, T. Ayers, K. T. Schwenz, K. W. Koenig, R. M. Hardesty, C. J. Senff, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, H. E. Bravo, and S. P. Sandberg, “Preliminary measurements with an automated compact differential absorption lidar for the profiling of water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3110–3121(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  44. J. L. Machol, T. Ayers, K. T. Schwenz, K. W. Koenig, R. M. Hardesty, C. J. Senff, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, H. E. Bravo, and S. P. Sandberg, “Preliminary measurements with an automated compact differential absorption lidar for the profiling of water vapor: errata,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3544 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  45. A. Dinovitser, M. W. Hamilton, and R. A. Vincent, “Stabilized master laser system for differential absorption lidar,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3274–3281 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  46. A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  47. M. D. Obland, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, J. L. Carlsten, and J. A. Shaw, “Development of a widely tunable amplified diode laser differential absorption lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4, 043515 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  48. A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, “Micropulse water vapor differential absorption lidar: transmitter design performance,” Opt. Express 20, 25137–25151 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  49. P. F. Moulton, “Spectroscopic and laser characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 125–133 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  50. W. R. Rapoport and C. P. Khattak, “Titanium sapphire laser characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2677–2684 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  51. V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  52. COPS Field Campaign, “COPS: Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study,” http://www.uni-hohenheim.de/cops .
  53. A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “3-Dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  54. FLUXPAT 2009 within SFB TR 32, “Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 32,” http://www.tr32.uni-koeln.de .
  55. V. Wulfmeyer and C. Walther, “Future performance of ground-based and airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar. I. Overview and theory,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5304–5320 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  56. V. Wulfmeyer and C. Walther, “Future performance of ground-based and airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar. II. Simulations of the precision of a near-infrared, high-power system,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5321–5336 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  57. G. Wagner, V. Wulfmeyer, and A. Behrendt, “Detailed performance modeling of a pulsed high-power single-frequency Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5921–5937 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  58. H. Kogelnik, “Imaging of optical modes—resonators with internal lenses,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 455–494 (1965).
  59. H. Kogelnik and T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1550–1567 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  60. J. P. Lörtscher and J. Steffen, “Dynamic stable resonators: a design procedure,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 505–514 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  61. H. P. Kortz, R. Iffländer, and H. Weber, “Stability and beam divergence of multimode lasers with internal variable lenses,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4124–4134 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  62. V. Magni, “Resonators for solid-state lasers with large-volume fundamental mode and high alignment stability,” Appl. Opt. 25, 107–117 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  63. D. Metcalf, P. de Giovanni, J. Zachorowski, and M. Leduc, “Laser resonators containing self-focusing elements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4508–4517 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  64. W. Koechner, “Longitudinal modes,” in Solid-State Laser Engineering, T. Tamir and A. L. Schawlow, eds., (Springer-Verlag, 1999), pp. 236–259.
  65. A. Riede, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, A. Meister, and M. Schiller, “Transmitter-receiver unit of the UHOH water vapor DIAL with a scanning 800 mm telescope mirror,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), Porto Heli, Greece, 25–29 June (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2012), paper S1P-12.
  66. A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, G. Wagner, S. Pal, and M. Schiller are preparing a manuscript to be called “3D-scanning, water-vapor DIAL of Hohenheim University”.
  67. M. Ostermeyer, P. Kappe, R. Menzel, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier with high pulse energy, excellent beam quality, and frequency-stabilized master oscillator as a basis for a next-generation lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 44, 582–590 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  68. M. Ostermeyer, P. Kappe, R. Menzel, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier with high pulse energy, excellent beam quality, and frequency-stabilized master oscillator as a basis for a next-generation lidar system—erratum,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7451 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  69. V. Wulfmeyer, M. Randall, A. Brewer, and R. M. Hardesty, “2 μm Doppler lidar transmitter with high frequency stability and low chirp,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1228–1230 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  70. “IBL Innovative Berlin Laser GmbH,” http://www.ib-laser.com/ .
  71. H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  72. F. Späth, “Development of injection seeders for water vapor and carbon dioxide DIAL systems based on DFB lasers,” Diploma thesis (in German) (University of Stuttgart, 2010).
  73. F. Späth, G. Wagner, H.-D. Wizemann, A. Behrendt, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Injection seeders based on DFB lasers for DIAL of water vapor at 820 nm and CO2 at 1580 nm,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2010), pp. 231–234.
  74. R. Matthey, S. Schilt, D. Werner, C. Affolderbach, L. Thévenaz, and G. Miletti, “Diode laser frequency stabilisation for water-vapour differential absorption sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 477–485 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  75. F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, A. Behrendt, H.-D. Wizemann, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Online/offine injection seeding system with high frequency-stability and low crosstalk for water vapor DIAL,” Opt. Commun. (2012) (in revision).
  76. L. A. Rahn, “Feedback stabilization of an injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 24, 940–942 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  77. R. L. Schmitt and L. A. Rahn, “Diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser injection seeding system,” Appl. Opt. 25, 629–633(1986).
    [CrossRef]
  78. T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 437–444 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  79. S. W. Henderson, E. H. Yuen, and E. S. Fry, “Fast resonance-detection technique for single-frequency operation of injection-seeded Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 11, 715–717 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  80. T. Walther, M. P. Larsen, and E. S. Fry, “Generation of Fourier-transform-limited 35 ns pulses with a ramp-hold-fire seeding technique in a Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3046–3050 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  81. P. Esherick and A. Owyoung, “Polarization feedback stabilization of an injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser for spectroscopic applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 41–47(1987).
    [CrossRef]
  82. T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  83. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  84. A. Strässer, T. Waltinger, and M. Ostermeyer, “Injection seeded frequency stabilized Nd:YAG ring oscillator following a Pound-Drever-Hall scheme,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8358–8363 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  85. M. Ostermeyer, T. Waltinger, and M. Gregor, “Frequency stabilization of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser oscillator with stability better 300 kHz following an rf-sideband scheme,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3302–3307 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  86. M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  87. Fibertech, LEONI Fiber Optics GmbH, http://www.fibertech.de/ .

2012 (2)

2011 (6)

G. Wagner, V. Wulfmeyer, and A. Behrendt, “Detailed performance modeling of a pulsed high-power single-frequency Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5921–5937 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Hauck, C. Barthlott, L. Krauss, and N. Kalthoff, “Soil moisture variability and its influence on convective precipitation over complex terrain,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 42–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Fix, S. Rahm, U. Corsmeier, and P. Di Girolamo, “Latent heat flux measurements over complex terrain by airborne water vapour and wind lidars,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 190–203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

V. Wulfmeyer, S. Pal, D. D. Turner, and E. Wagner, “Can water vapour Raman lidar resolve profiles of turbulent variables in the convective boundary layer?,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 136, 253–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Obland, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, J. L. Carlsten, and J. A. Shaw, “Development of a widely tunable amplified diode laser differential absorption lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4, 043515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Dinovitser, M. W. Hamilton, and R. A. Vincent, “Stabilized master laser system for differential absorption lidar,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3274–3281 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “3-Dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B. 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ostermeyer, T. Waltinger, and M. Gregor, “Frequency stabilization of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser oscillator with stability better 300 kHz following an rf-sideband scheme,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3302–3307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1437–1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Vogelmann and T. Trickl, “Wide-range sounding of free-tropospheric water vapor with a differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) at a high-altitude station,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2116–2132 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

A. Strässer, T. Waltinger, and M. Ostermeyer, “Injection seeded frequency stabilized Nd:YAG ring oscillator following a Pound-Drever-Hall scheme,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8358–8363 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Cooper, W. E. Eichinger, J. Archuleta, L. Hipps, C. M. U. Neale, and J. H. Prueger, “An advanced method for deriving latent energy flux from a scanning Raman lidar,” Agron. J. 99, 272–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, C. Flamant, T. Schaberl, H.-S. Bauer, S. Kooi, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, and D. N. Whiteman, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part II: airborne-to-airborne systems,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 22–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 437–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

R. Matthey, S. Schilt, D. Werner, C. Affolderbach, L. Thévenaz, and G. Miletti, “Diode laser frequency stabilisation for water-vapour differential absorption sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 477–485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, H.-S. Bauer, M. Grzeschik, A. Behrendt, F. Vandenberghe, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and R. Ferrare, “Four-dimensional variational assimilation of water vapor differential absorption lidar data. The first case study within IHOP 2002,” Mon. Weather Rev. 134, 209–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Machol, T. Ayers, K. T. Schwenz, K. W. Koenig, R. M. Hardesty, C. J. Senff, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, H. E. Bravo, and S. P. Sandberg, “Preliminary measurements with an automated compact differential absorption lidar for the profiling of water vapor: errata,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3544 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

2004 (3)

É. Gérard, D. G. H. Tan, L. Garand, V. Wulfmeyer, G. Ehret, and P. Di Girolamo, “Major advances foreseen in humidity profiling from the water vapor lidar experiment in space (WALES),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 237–251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Machol, T. Ayers, K. T. Schwenz, K. W. Koenig, R. M. Hardesty, C. J. Senff, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, H. E. Bravo, and S. P. Sandberg, “Preliminary measurements with an automated compact differential absorption lidar for the profiling of water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3110–3121(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Kamineni, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and E. V. Browell, “Impact of high resolution water vapor cross-sectional data on hurricane forecasting,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1234–1237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 165–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, T. Nakamura, M. Onishi, R. Baumgart, and T. Tsuda, “Combined Raman lidar for the measurement of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, particle extinction coefficient, and particle backscatter coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7657–7666 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

2000 (2)

V. Wulfmeyer, M. Randall, A. Brewer, and R. M. Hardesty, “2 μm Doppler lidar transmitter with high frequency stability and low chirp,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1228–1230 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Eichinger, D. Cooper, J. Kao, L. C. Chen, L. Hipps, and J. Prueger, “Estimation of spatially distributed latent heat flux over complex terrain from a Raman lidar,” Agr. For. Meteorol. 105, 145–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

V. Wulfmeyer, “Investigation of turbulent processes in the lower troposphere with water vapor DIAL and Radar-RASS,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 1055–1076 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

1986 (4)

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1975 (1)

J. P. Lörtscher and J. Steffen, “Dynamic stable resonators: a design procedure,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 505–514 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Imaging of optical modes—resonators with internal lenses,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 455–494 (1965).

Abshire, J. B.

Adam, M.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adler, B.

N. Kalthoff, K. Träumner, S. Späth, B. Adler, A. Wieser, J. Handwerker, A. Behrendt, F. Madonna, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Dry and moist convection in the boundary layer over the Black Forest—a combined analysis of in-situ and remote sensing data,” Meteorol. Z (2013) (to be published).

Affolderbach, C.

R. Matthey, S. Schilt, D. Werner, C. Affolderbach, L. Thévenaz, and G. Miletti, “Diode laser frequency stabilisation for water-vapour differential absorption sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 477–485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1437–1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Riede, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, A. Meister, and M. Schiller, “Transmitter-receiver unit of the UHOH water vapor DIAL with a scanning 800 mm telescope mirror,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), Porto Heli, Greece, 25–29 June (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2012), paper S1P-12.

Aoshima, F.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Apagaus, M.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Archuleta, J.

D. I. Cooper, W. E. Eichinger, J. Archuleta, L. Hipps, C. M. U. Neale, and J. H. Prueger, “An advanced method for deriving latent energy flux from a scanning Raman lidar,” Agron. J. 99, 272–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnaud des Lions, T.

Arpagaus, M.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Assion, A.

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 165–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ayers, T.

Barrick, J. D. W.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barthlott, C.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Hauck, C. Barthlott, L. Krauss, and N. Kalthoff, “Soil moisture variability and its influence on convective precipitation over complex terrain,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 42–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, H.

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “3-Dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, H. Bauer, P. Di Girolamo, and C. Serio, “Comparison of active and passive remote sensing from space: an analysis based on the simulated performance of IASI and space borne differential absorption lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 211–230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, H.-S.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1437–1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, C. Flamant, T. Schaberl, H.-S. Bauer, S. Kooi, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, and D. N. Whiteman, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part II: airborne-to-airborne systems,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 22–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, H.-S. Bauer, M. Grzeschik, A. Behrendt, F. Vandenberghe, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and R. Ferrare, “Four-dimensional variational assimilation of water vapor differential absorption lidar data. The first case study within IHOP 2002,” Mon. Weather Rev. 134, 209–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baumgart, R.

Begbie, R.

Behrendt, A.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Wagner, V. Wulfmeyer, and A. Behrendt, “Detailed performance modeling of a pulsed high-power single-frequency Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5921–5937 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “3-Dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, C. Flamant, T. Schaberl, H.-S. Bauer, S. Kooi, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, and D. N. Whiteman, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part II: airborne-to-airborne systems,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 22–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, H.-S. Bauer, M. Grzeschik, A. Behrendt, F. Vandenberghe, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and R. Ferrare, “Four-dimensional variational assimilation of water vapor differential absorption lidar data. The first case study within IHOP 2002,” Mon. Weather Rev. 134, 209–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, T. Nakamura, M. Onishi, R. Baumgart, and T. Tsuda, “Combined Raman lidar for the measurement of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, particle extinction coefficient, and particle backscatter coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7657–7666 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Späth, G. Wagner, H.-D. Wizemann, A. Behrendt, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Injection seeders based on DFB lasers for DIAL of water vapor at 820 nm and CO2 at 1580 nm,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2010), pp. 231–234.

A. Riede, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, A. Meister, and M. Schiller, “Transmitter-receiver unit of the UHOH water vapor DIAL with a scanning 800 mm telescope mirror,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), Porto Heli, Greece, 25–29 June (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2012), paper S1P-12.

F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, A. Behrendt, H.-D. Wizemann, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Online/offine injection seeding system with high frequency-stability and low crosstalk for water vapor DIAL,” Opt. Commun. (2012) (in revision).

N. Kalthoff, K. Träumner, S. Späth, B. Adler, A. Wieser, J. Handwerker, A. Behrendt, F. Madonna, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Dry and moist convection in the boundary layer over the Black Forest—a combined analysis of in-situ and remote sensing data,” Meteorol. Z (2013) (to be published).

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, G. Wagner, S. Pal, and M. Schiller are preparing a manuscript to be called “3D-scanning, water-vapor DIAL of Hohenheim University”.

Bender, M.

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, L.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhawar, R.

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blyth, A.

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bösenberg, J.

Bosser, P.

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brackett, V. G.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brandau, C.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Brasseur, L. H.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bravo, H. E.

Brewer, A.

Browell, E.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, C. Flamant, T. Schaberl, H.-S. Bauer, S. Kooi, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, and D. N. Whiteman, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part II: airborne-to-airborne systems,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 22–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, H.-S. Bauer, M. Grzeschik, A. Behrendt, F. Vandenberghe, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and R. Ferrare, “Four-dimensional variational assimilation of water vapor differential absorption lidar data. The first case study within IHOP 2002,” Mon. Weather Rev. 134, 209–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kamineni, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and E. V. Browell, “Impact of high resolution water vapor cross-sectional data on hurricane forecasting,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1234–1237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Ismail, and E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water vapor profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603–3615 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, T. D. Wilkerson, and T. J. Mcilrath, “Water vapor differential absorption lidar development and evaluation,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3474–3483 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bruneau, D.

Cacciani, M.

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cadirola, M.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carlsten, J. L.

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, “Micropulse water vapor differential absorption lidar: transmitter design performance,” Opt. Express 20, 25137–25151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Obland, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, J. L. Carlsten, and J. A. Shaw, “Development of a widely tunable amplified diode laser differential absorption lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4, 043515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cazeneuve, H.

Champollion, C.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

W. Eichinger, D. Cooper, J. Kao, L. C. Chen, L. Hipps, and J. Prueger, “Estimation of spatially distributed latent heat flux over complex terrain from a Raman lidar,” Agr. For. Meteorol. 105, 145–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clayton, M. B.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Comer, J.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Connell, R.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D.

W. Eichinger, D. Cooper, J. Kao, L. C. Chen, L. Hipps, and J. Prueger, “Estimation of spatially distributed latent heat flux over complex terrain from a Raman lidar,” Agr. For. Meteorol. 105, 145–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. I.

D. I. Cooper, W. E. Eichinger, J. Archuleta, L. Hipps, C. M. U. Neale, and J. H. Prueger, “An advanced method for deriving latent energy flux from a scanning Raman lidar,” Agron. J. 99, 272–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Corsmeier, U.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Fix, S. Rahm, U. Corsmeier, and P. Di Girolamo, “Latent heat flux measurements over complex terrain by airborne water vapour and wind lidars,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 190–203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Couillaud, B.

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Craig, G.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Craig, G. C.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Crewell, S.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cuesta, J.

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

de Giovanni, P.

Demoz, B.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Demoz, B. B.

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Di Girolamo, P.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Fix, S. Rahm, U. Corsmeier, and P. Di Girolamo, “Latent heat flux measurements over complex terrain by airborne water vapour and wind lidars,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 190–203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, H. Bauer, P. Di Girolamo, and C. Serio, “Comparison of active and passive remote sensing from space: an analysis based on the simulated performance of IASI and space borne differential absorption lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 211–230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

É. Gérard, D. G. H. Tan, L. Garand, V. Wulfmeyer, G. Ehret, and P. Di Girolamo, “Major advances foreseen in humidity profiling from the water vapor lidar experiment in space (WALES),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 237–251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Di Iorio, T.

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dick, G.

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Dinovitser, A.

Diskin, G. S.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dorninger, M.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dufournet, Y.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Ehret, G.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B. 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, C. Flamant, T. Schaberl, H.-S. Bauer, S. Kooi, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, and D. N. Whiteman, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part II: airborne-to-airborne systems,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 22–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

É. Gérard, D. G. H. Tan, L. Garand, V. Wulfmeyer, G. Ehret, and P. Di Girolamo, “Major advances foreseen in humidity profiling from the water vapor lidar experiment in space (WALES),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 237–251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 165–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eichinger, W.

W. Eichinger, D. Cooper, J. Kao, L. C. Chen, L. Hipps, and J. Prueger, “Estimation of spatially distributed latent heat flux over complex terrain from a Raman lidar,” Agr. For. Meteorol. 105, 145–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eichinger, W. E.

D. I. Cooper, W. E. Eichinger, J. Archuleta, L. Hipps, C. M. U. Neale, and J. H. Prueger, “An advanced method for deriving latent energy flux from a scanning Raman lidar,” Agron. J. 99, 272–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eigenmann, R.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Engelbart, D.

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1437–1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Engelmann, R.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1437–1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ertel, K.

Esherick, P.

Evans, K.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R.

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, C. Flamant, T. Schaberl, H.-S. Bauer, S. Kooi, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, and D. N. Whiteman, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part II: airborne-to-airborne systems,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 22–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, H.-S. Bauer, M. Grzeschik, A. Behrendt, F. Vandenberghe, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and R. Ferrare, “Four-dimensional variational assimilation of water vapor differential absorption lidar data. The first case study within IHOP 2002,” Mon. Weather Rev. 134, 209–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R. A.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kamineni, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and E. V. Browell, “Impact of high resolution water vapor cross-sectional data on hurricane forecasting,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1234–1237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fields, R. A.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fincher, C. L.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fix, A.

C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Fix, S. Rahm, U. Corsmeier, and P. Di Girolamo, “Latent heat flux measurements over complex terrain by airborne water vapour and wind lidars,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 190–203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B. 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 165–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, C.

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, C. Flamant, T. Schaberl, H.-S. Bauer, S. Kooi, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, and D. N. Whiteman, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part II: airborne-to-airborne systems,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 22–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flament, C.

Foken, T.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Forno, R.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Garand, L.

É. Gérard, D. G. H. Tan, L. Garand, V. Wulfmeyer, G. Ehret, and P. Di Girolamo, “Major advances foreseen in humidity profiling from the water vapor lidar experiment in space (WALES),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 237–251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gärtner, V.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gentry, B.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gérard, É.

É. Gérard, D. G. H. Tan, L. Garand, V. Wulfmeyer, G. Ehret, and P. Di Girolamo, “Major advances foreseen in humidity profiling from the water vapor lidar experiment in space (WALES),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 237–251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gorgas, T.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W. B.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gregor, M.

M. Ostermeyer, T. Waltinger, and M. Gregor, “Frequency stabilization of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser oscillator with stability better 300 kHz following an rf-sideband scheme,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3302–3307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grzeschik, M.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1437–1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, H.-S. Bauer, M. Grzeschik, A. Behrendt, F. Vandenberghe, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and R. Ferrare, “Four-dimensional variational assimilation of water vapor differential absorption lidar data. The first case study within IHOP 2002,” Mon. Weather Rev. 134, 209–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, M.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, M. W.

Handwerker, J.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Kalthoff, K. Träumner, S. Späth, B. Adler, A. Wieser, J. Handwerker, A. Behrendt, F. Madonna, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Dry and moist convection in the boundary layer over the Black Forest—a combined analysis of in-situ and remote sensing data,” Meteorol. Z (2013) (to be published).

Hänsch, T. W.

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hardesty, R. M.

Hauck, C.

C. Hauck, C. Barthlott, L. Krauss, and N. Kalthoff, “Soil moisture variability and its influence on convective precipitation over complex terrain,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 42–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hauck C, C.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, S. W.

Hense, A.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herold, C.

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hilber, B.

Hipps, L.

D. I. Cooper, W. E. Eichinger, J. Archuleta, L. Hipps, C. M. U. Neale, and J. H. Prueger, “An advanced method for deriving latent energy flux from a scanning Raman lidar,” Agron. J. 99, 272–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Eichinger, D. Cooper, J. Kao, L. C. Chen, L. Hipps, and J. Prueger, “Estimation of spatially distributed latent heat flux over complex terrain from a Raman lidar,” Agr. For. Meteorol. 105, 145–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Höller, H.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iffländer, R.

Innocenzi, M. E.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, C. Flamant, T. Schaberl, H.-S. Bauer, S. Kooi, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, and D. N. Whiteman, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part II: airborne-to-airborne systems,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 22–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, H.-S. Bauer, M. Grzeschik, A. Behrendt, F. Vandenberghe, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and R. Ferrare, “Four-dimensional variational assimilation of water vapor differential absorption lidar data. The first case study within IHOP 2002,” Mon. Weather Rev. 134, 209–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kamineni, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and E. V. Browell, “Impact of high resolution water vapor cross-sectional data on hurricane forecasting,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1234–1237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Ismail, and E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water vapor profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603–3615 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Junkermann, W.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Kalthoff, N.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Hauck, C. Barthlott, L. Krauss, and N. Kalthoff, “Soil moisture variability and its influence on convective precipitation over complex terrain,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 42–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Kalthoff, K. Träumner, S. Späth, B. Adler, A. Wieser, J. Handwerker, A. Behrendt, F. Madonna, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Dry and moist convection in the boundary layer over the Black Forest—a combined analysis of in-situ and remote sensing data,” Meteorol. Z (2013) (to be published).

Kamineni, R.

R. Kamineni, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and E. V. Browell, “Impact of high resolution water vapor cross-sectional data on hurricane forecasting,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1234–1237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kao, J.

W. Eichinger, D. Cooper, J. Kao, L. C. Chen, L. Hipps, and J. Prueger, “Estimation of spatially distributed latent heat flux over complex terrain from a Raman lidar,” Agr. For. Meteorol. 105, 145–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kappe, P.

Khalesifard, H. R.

H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khattak, C. P.

Khodayar, S.

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kiemle, C.

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Fix, S. Rahm, U. Corsmeier, and P. Di Girolamo, “Latent heat flux measurements over complex terrain by airborne water vapour and wind lidars,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 190–203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, C. Flamant, T. Schaberl, H.-S. Bauer, S. Kooi, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, and D. N. Whiteman, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part II: airborne-to-airborne systems,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 22–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 165–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klein, V.

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, I. Mattis, B. Hilber, and R. Begbie, “RAMSES: German Meteorological Service autonomous Raman lidar for water vapor, temperature, aerosol, and cloud measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8111–8131 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Riede, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, A. Meister, and M. Schiller, “Transmitter-receiver unit of the UHOH water vapor DIAL with a scanning 800 mm telescope mirror,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), Porto Heli, Greece, 25–29 June (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2012), paper S1P-12.

Klink, S.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, “Longitudinal modes,” in Solid-State Laser Engineering, T. Tamir and A. L. Schawlow, eds., (Springer-Verlag, 1999), pp. 236–259.

Koenig, K. W.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1550–1567 (1966).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik, “Imaging of optical modes—resonators with internal lenses,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 455–494 (1965).

König, M.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kooi, S.

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, C. Flamant, T. Schaberl, H.-S. Bauer, S. Kooi, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, and D. N. Whiteman, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part II: airborne-to-airborne systems,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 22–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kooi, S. A.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kortz, H. P.

Kottmeier, C.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Krainak, M. A.

Krauss, L.

C. Hauck, C. Barthlott, L. Krauss, and N. Kalthoff, “Soil moisture variability and its influence on convective precipitation over complex terrain,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 42–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurti, T. N.

R. Kamineni, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and E. V. Browell, “Impact of high resolution water vapor cross-sectional data on hurricane forecasting,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1234–1237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, M. P.

Leblanc, T.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leduc, M.

Lehmann, S.

Lemmerz, C.

T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 437–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lesht, B. M.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

Lin, R.-F.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linné, H.

Long, C. N.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Lörtscher, J. P.

J. P. Lörtscher and J. Steffen, “Dynamic stable resonators: a design procedure,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 505–514 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Loth, C.

Machol, J. L.

Madonna, F.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Kalthoff, K. Träumner, S. Späth, B. Adler, A. Wieser, J. Handwerker, A. Behrendt, F. Madonna, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Dry and moist convection in the boundary layer over the Black Forest—a combined analysis of in-situ and remote sensing data,” Meteorol. Z (2013) (to be published).

Magni, V.

Mahnke, P.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B. 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mannstein, H.

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matthey, R.

R. Matthey, S. Schilt, D. Werner, C. Affolderbach, L. Thévenaz, and G. Miletti, “Diode laser frequency stabilisation for water-vapour differential absorption sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 477–485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mattis, I.

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, I. Mattis, B. Hilber, and R. Begbie, “RAMSES: German Meteorological Service autonomous Raman lidar for water vapor, temperature, aerosol, and cloud measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8111–8131 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1437–1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McDermid, S.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mcilrath, T. J.

McIntire, G.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meissonnier, M.

Meister, A.

A. Riede, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, A. Meister, and M. Schiller, “Transmitter-receiver unit of the UHOH water vapor DIAL with a scanning 800 mm telescope mirror,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), Porto Heli, Greece, 25–29 June (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2012), paper S1P-12.

Menzel, R.

Metcalf, D.

Metzendorf, S.

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, G. Wagner, S. Pal, and M. Schiller are preparing a manuscript to be called “3D-scanning, water-vapor DIAL of Hohenheim University”.

F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, A. Behrendt, H.-D. Wizemann, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Online/offine injection seeding system with high frequency-stability and low crosstalk for water vapor DIAL,” Opt. Commun. (2012) (in revision).

Mielke, B.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miletti, G.

R. Matthey, S. Schilt, D. Werner, C. Affolderbach, L. Thévenaz, and G. Miletti, “Diode laser frequency stabilisation for water-vapour differential absorption sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 477–485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miloshevich, L. M.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mobbs, S.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Montani, A.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

Neale, C. M. U.

D. I. Cooper, W. E. Eichinger, J. Archuleta, L. Hipps, C. M. U. Neale, and J. H. Prueger, “An advanced method for deriving latent energy flux from a scanning Raman lidar,” Agron. J. 99, 272–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nehrir, A. R.

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, “Micropulse water vapor differential absorption lidar: transmitter design performance,” Opt. Express 20, 25137–25151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Obland, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, J. L. Carlsten, and J. A. Shaw, “Development of a widely tunable amplified diode laser differential absorption lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4, 043515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neininger, B.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Obland, M. D.

M. D. Obland, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, J. L. Carlsten, and J. A. Shaw, “Development of a widely tunable amplified diode laser differential absorption lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4, 043515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Onishi, M.

Ostermeyer, M.

Owyoung, A.

Pal, S.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, S. Pal, D. D. Turner, and E. Wagner, “Can water vapour Raman lidar resolve profiles of turbulent variables in the convective boundary layer?,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 136, 253–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “3-Dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, G. Wagner, S. Pal, and M. Schiller are preparing a manuscript to be called “3D-scanning, water-vapor DIAL of Hohenheim University”.

Pelon, J.

Peters, G.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Pigeon, G.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Poberaj, G.

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 165–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Podolske, J. R.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prueger, J.

W. Eichinger, D. Cooper, J. Kao, L. C. Chen, L. Hipps, and J. Prueger, “Estimation of spatially distributed latent heat flux over complex terrain from a Raman lidar,” Agr. For. Meteorol. 105, 145–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prueger, J. H.

D. I. Cooper, W. E. Eichinger, J. Archuleta, L. Hipps, C. M. U. Neale, and J. H. Prueger, “An advanced method for deriving latent energy flux from a scanning Raman lidar,” Agron. J. 99, 272–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quaglia, P.

Rabenhorst, S.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Radlach, M.

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “3-Dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rahm, S.

C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Fix, S. Rahm, U. Corsmeier, and P. Di Girolamo, “Latent heat flux measurements over complex terrain by airborne water vapour and wind lidars,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 190–203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, L. A.

Randall, M.

Rapoport, W. R.

Reichardt, J.

Reitebuch, O.

T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 437–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Repasky, K. S.

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, “Micropulse water vapor differential absorption lidar: transmitter design performance,” Opt. Express 20, 25137–25151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Obland, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, J. L. Carlsten, and J. A. Shaw, “Development of a widely tunable amplified diode laser differential absorption lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4, 043515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Revercomb, H. E.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richard, E.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riede, A.

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “3-Dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1437–1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, G. Wagner, S. Pal, and M. Schiller are preparing a manuscript to be called “3D-scanning, water-vapor DIAL of Hohenheim University”.

A. Riede, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, A. Meister, and M. Schiller, “Transmitter-receiver unit of the UHOH water vapor DIAL with a scanning 800 mm telescope mirror,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), Porto Heli, Greece, 25–29 June (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2012), paper S1P-12.

Rotach, M. W.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rush, K.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Russchenberg, H.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Russo, F.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sabatino, D.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, G. W.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sandberg, S. P.

Schaberl, T.

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, C. Flamant, T. Schaberl, H.-S. Bauer, S. Kooi, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, and D. N. Whiteman, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part II: airborne-to-airborne systems,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 22–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, M.

H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, G. Wagner, S. Pal, and M. Schiller are preparing a manuscript to be called “3D-scanning, water-vapor DIAL of Hohenheim University”.

A. Riede, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, A. Meister, and M. Schiller, “Transmitter-receiver unit of the UHOH water vapor DIAL with a scanning 800 mm telescope mirror,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), Porto Heli, Greece, 25–29 June (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2012), paper S1P-12.

Schilt, S.

R. Matthey, S. Schilt, D. Werner, C. Affolderbach, L. Thévenaz, and G. Miletti, “Diode laser frequency stabilisation for water-vapour differential absorption sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 477–485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schlüssel, P.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidlin, F. J.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, R. L.

Schmitz, St.

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, “Some observations of the vertical profile of water vapor by means of a ground based optical radar,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 12–24 April, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (University of Michigan, 1966), pp. 273–283.

Schrandt, F.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B. 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, T.

T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 437–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schumann, U.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzer, H.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B. 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schwemmer, G.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwenz, K. T.

Schwitalla, T.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Senff, C.

Senff, C. J.

Serio, C.

V. Wulfmeyer, H. Bauer, P. Di Girolamo, and C. Serio, “Comparison of active and passive remote sensing from space: an analysis based on the simulated performance of IASI and space borne differential absorption lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 211–230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. A.

M. D. Obland, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, J. L. Carlsten, and J. A. Shaw, “Development of a widely tunable amplified diode laser differential absorption lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4, 043515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simmer, C.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Späth, F.

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “3-Dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, A. Behrendt, H.-D. Wizemann, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Online/offine injection seeding system with high frequency-stability and low crosstalk for water vapor DIAL,” Opt. Commun. (2012) (in revision).

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, G. Wagner, S. Pal, and M. Schiller are preparing a manuscript to be called “3D-scanning, water-vapor DIAL of Hohenheim University”.

F. Späth, “Development of injection seeders for water vapor and carbon dioxide DIAL systems based on DFB lasers,” Diploma thesis (in German) (University of Stuttgart, 2010).

F. Späth, G. Wagner, H.-D. Wizemann, A. Behrendt, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Injection seeders based on DFB lasers for DIAL of water vapor at 820 nm and CO2 at 1580 nm,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2010), pp. 231–234.

Späth, S.

N. Kalthoff, K. Träumner, S. Späth, B. Adler, A. Wieser, J. Handwerker, A. Behrendt, F. Madonna, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Dry and moist convection in the boundary layer over the Black Forest—a combined analysis of in-situ and remote sensing data,” Meteorol. Z (2013) (to be published).

Steffen, J.

J. P. Lörtscher and J. Steffen, “Dynamic stable resonators: a design procedure,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 505–514 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Stein, B.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steinacker, R.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strässer, A.

Summa, D.

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D. G. H.

É. Gérard, D. G. H. Tan, L. Garand, V. Wulfmeyer, G. Ehret, and P. Di Girolamo, “Major advances foreseen in humidity profiling from the water vapor lidar experiment in space (WALES),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 237–251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tesche, M.

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1437–1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, L.

R. Matthey, S. Schilt, D. Werner, C. Affolderbach, L. Thévenaz, and G. Miletti, “Diode laser frequency stabilisation for water-vapour differential absorption sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 477–485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Träumner, K.

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Kalthoff, K. Träumner, S. Späth, B. Adler, A. Wieser, J. Handwerker, A. Behrendt, F. Madonna, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Dry and moist convection in the boundary layer over the Black Forest—a combined analysis of in-situ and remote sensing data,” Meteorol. Z (2013) (to be published).

Treichel, R.

T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 437–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trentmann, J.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T.

Tsuda, T.

Turner, D. D.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, S. Pal, D. D. Turner, and E. Wagner, “Can water vapour Raman lidar resolve profiles of turbulent variables in the convective boundary layer?,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 136, 253–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Baelen, J.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Vandenberghe, F.

V. Wulfmeyer, H.-S. Bauer, M. Grzeschik, A. Behrendt, F. Vandenberghe, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and R. Ferrare, “Four-dimensional variational assimilation of water vapor differential absorption lidar data. The first case study within IHOP 2002,” Mon. Weather Rev. 134, 209–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Venable, D.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Veselovskii, I.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, R. A.

Vogelmann, H.

Vogt, S.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Volkert, H.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Vömel, H.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, E.

V. Wulfmeyer, S. Pal, D. D. Turner, and E. Wagner, “Can water vapour Raman lidar resolve profiles of turbulent variables in the convective boundary layer?,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 136, 253–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G.

G. Wagner, V. Wulfmeyer, and A. Behrendt, “Detailed performance modeling of a pulsed high-power single-frequency Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5921–5937 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “3-Dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, A. Behrendt, H.-D. Wizemann, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Online/offine injection seeding system with high frequency-stability and low crosstalk for water vapor DIAL,” Opt. Commun. (2012) (in revision).

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, G. Wagner, S. Pal, and M. Schiller are preparing a manuscript to be called “3D-scanning, water-vapor DIAL of Hohenheim University”.

F. Späth, G. Wagner, H.-D. Wizemann, A. Behrendt, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Injection seeders based on DFB lasers for DIAL of water vapor at 820 nm and CO2 at 1580 nm,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2010), pp. 231–234.

Walther, C.

Walther, T.

Waltinger, T.

M. Ostermeyer, T. Waltinger, and M. Gregor, “Frequency stabilization of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser oscillator with stability better 300 kHz following an rf-sideband scheme,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3302–3307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Strässer, T. Waltinger, and M. Ostermeyer, “Injection seeded frequency stabilized Nd:YAG ring oscillator following a Pound-Drever-Hall scheme,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8358–8363 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, I. Mattis, B. Hilber, and R. Begbie, “RAMSES: German Meteorological Service autonomous Raman lidar for water vapor, temperature, aerosol, and cloud measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8111–8131 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1437–1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Riede, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, A. Meister, and M. Schiller, “Transmitter-receiver unit of the UHOH water vapor DIAL with a scanning 800 mm telescope mirror,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), Porto Heli, Greece, 25–29 June (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2012), paper S1P-12.

Wang, J.

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H.

Weckwerth, T.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Welch, W.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Werner, D.

R. Matthey, S. Schilt, D. Werner, C. Affolderbach, L. Thévenaz, and G. Miletti, “Diode laser frequency stabilisation for water-vapour differential absorption sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 477–485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wernli, H.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D. N.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, C. Flamant, T. Schaberl, H.-S. Bauer, S. Kooi, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, and D. N. Whiteman, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part II: airborne-to-airborne systems,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 22–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wieser, A.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Kalthoff, K. Träumner, S. Späth, B. Adler, A. Wieser, J. Handwerker, A. Behrendt, F. Madonna, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Dry and moist convection in the boundary layer over the Black Forest—a combined analysis of in-situ and remote sensing data,” Meteorol. Z (2013) (to be published).

Wilkerson, T. D.

Wirth, M.

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Fix, S. Rahm, U. Corsmeier, and P. Di Girolamo, “Latent heat flux measurements over complex terrain by airborne water vapour and wind lidars,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 190–203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B. 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 437–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 165–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wizemann, H.-D.

F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, A. Behrendt, H.-D. Wizemann, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Online/offine injection seeding system with high frequency-stability and low crosstalk for water vapor DIAL,” Opt. Commun. (2012) (in revision).

F. Späth, G. Wagner, H.-D. Wizemann, A. Behrendt, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Injection seeders based on DFB lasers for DIAL of water vapor at 820 nm and CO2 at 1580 nm,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2010), pp. 231–234.

Wührer, C.

T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 437–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wulfmeyer, V.

G. Wagner, V. Wulfmeyer, and A. Behrendt, “Detailed performance modeling of a pulsed high-power single-frequency Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5921–5937 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, S. Pal, D. D. Turner, and E. Wagner, “Can water vapour Raman lidar resolve profiles of turbulent variables in the convective boundary layer?,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 136, 253–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “3-Dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1437–1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, C. Flamant, T. Schaberl, H.-S. Bauer, S. Kooi, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, and D. N. Whiteman, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part II: airborne-to-airborne systems,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 22–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, H.-S. Bauer, M. Grzeschik, A. Behrendt, F. Vandenberghe, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and R. Ferrare, “Four-dimensional variational assimilation of water vapor differential absorption lidar data. The first case study within IHOP 2002,” Mon. Weather Rev. 134, 209–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ostermeyer, P. Kappe, R. Menzel, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier with high pulse energy, excellent beam quality, and frequency-stabilized master oscillator as a basis for a next-generation lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 44, 582–590 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, H. Bauer, P. Di Girolamo, and C. Serio, “Comparison of active and passive remote sensing from space: an analysis based on the simulated performance of IASI and space borne differential absorption lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 211–230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Ostermeyer, P. Kappe, R. Menzel, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier with high pulse energy, excellent beam quality, and frequency-stabilized master oscillator as a basis for a next-generation lidar system—erratum,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7451 (2005).
[CrossRef]

É. Gérard, D. G. H. Tan, L. Garand, V. Wulfmeyer, G. Ehret, and P. Di Girolamo, “Major advances foreseen in humidity profiling from the water vapor lidar experiment in space (WALES),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 237–251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer and C. Walther, “Future performance of ground-based and airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar. I. Overview and theory,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5304–5320 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer and C. Walther, “Future performance of ground-based and airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar. II. Simulations of the precision of a near-infrared, high-power system,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5321–5336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, M. Randall, A. Brewer, and R. M. Hardesty, “2 μm Doppler lidar transmitter with high frequency stability and low chirp,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1228–1230 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, “Investigation of turbulent processes in the lower troposphere with water vapor DIAL and Radar-RASS,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 1055–1076 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor and temperature profiling: development and specifications of a high-performance laser transmitter,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3804–3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, and J. Bösenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution, and meteorological applications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3825–3844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer and J. Bösenberg, “Single-mode operation of an injection-seeded alexandrite ring laser for application in water-vapor and temperature differential absorption lidar,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1150–1152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bösenberg, S. Lehmann, C. Senff, and St. Schmitz, “Injection-seeded alexandrite ring laser: performance and application in a water-vapor differential absorption lidar,” Opt. Lett. 20, 638–640 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, A. Behrendt, H.-D. Wizemann, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Online/offine injection seeding system with high frequency-stability and low crosstalk for water vapor DIAL,” Opt. Commun. (2012) (in revision).

N. Kalthoff, K. Träumner, S. Späth, B. Adler, A. Wieser, J. Handwerker, A. Behrendt, F. Madonna, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Dry and moist convection in the boundary layer over the Black Forest—a combined analysis of in-situ and remote sensing data,” Meteorol. Z (2013) (to be published).

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, G. Wagner, S. Pal, and M. Schiller are preparing a manuscript to be called “3D-scanning, water-vapor DIAL of Hohenheim University”.

F. Späth, G. Wagner, H.-D. Wizemann, A. Behrendt, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Injection seeders based on DFB lasers for DIAL of water vapor at 820 nm and CO2 at 1580 nm,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2010), pp. 231–234.

A. Riede, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, A. Meister, and M. Schiller, “Transmitter-receiver unit of the UHOH water vapor DIAL with a scanning 800 mm telescope mirror,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), Porto Heli, Greece, 25–29 June (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2012), paper S1P-12.

Yuen, E. H.

Yura, H. T.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zachorowski, J.

Agr. For. Meteorol. (1)

W. Eichinger, D. Cooper, J. Kao, L. C. Chen, L. Hipps, and J. Prueger, “Estimation of spatially distributed latent heat flux over complex terrain from a Raman lidar,” Agr. For. Meteorol. 105, 145–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Agron. J. (1)

D. I. Cooper, W. E. Eichinger, J. Archuleta, L. Hipps, C. M. U. Neale, and J. H. Prueger, “An advanced method for deriving latent energy flux from a scanning Raman lidar,” Agron. J. 99, 272–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (30)

H. Kogelnik and T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1550–1567 (1966).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, T. D. Wilkerson, and T. J. Mcilrath, “Water vapor differential absorption lidar development and evaluation,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3474–3483 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Kortz, R. Iffländer, and H. Weber, “Stability and beam divergence of multimode lasers with internal variable lenses,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4124–4134 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. Magni, “Resonators for solid-state lasers with large-volume fundamental mode and high alignment stability,” Appl. Opt. 25, 107–117 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Schmitt and L. A. Rahn, “Diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser injection seeding system,” Appl. Opt. 25, 629–633(1986).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Rapoport and C. P. Khattak, “Titanium sapphire laser characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2677–2684 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Ismail, and E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water vapor profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603–3615 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Walther, M. P. Larsen, and E. S. Fry, “Generation of Fourier-transform-limited 35 ns pulses with a ramp-hold-fire seeding technique in a Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3046–3050 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Bruneau, P. Quaglia, C. Flament, M. Meissonnier, and J. Pelon, “Airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water-vapor profiling in the troposphere. I. System description,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3450–3461 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Bruneau, P. Quaglia, C. Flament, and J. Pelon, “Airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water-vapor profiling in the troposphere. II. First results,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3462–3475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer and C. Walther, “Future performance of ground-based and airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar. I. Overview and theory,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5304–5320 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer and C. Walther, “Future performance of ground-based and airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar. II. Simulations of the precision of a near-infrared, high-power system,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5321–5336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, T. Nakamura, M. Onishi, R. Baumgart, and T. Tsuda, “Combined Raman lidar for the measurement of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, particle extinction coefficient, and particle backscatter coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7657–7666 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Machol, T. Ayers, K. T. Schwenz, K. W. Koenig, R. M. Hardesty, C. J. Senff, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, H. E. Bravo, and S. P. Sandberg, “Preliminary measurements with an automated compact differential absorption lidar for the profiling of water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3110–3121(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Ostermeyer, P. Kappe, R. Menzel, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier with high pulse energy, excellent beam quality, and frequency-stabilized master oscillator as a basis for a next-generation lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 44, 582–590 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Ertel, H. Linné, and J. Bösenberg, “Injection-seeded pulsed Ti:sapphire laser with novel stabilization scheme and capability of dual-wavelength operation,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5120–5126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Ostermeyer, P. Kappe, R. Menzel, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier with high pulse energy, excellent beam quality, and frequency-stabilized master oscillator as a basis for a next-generation lidar system—erratum,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7451 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Machol, T. Ayers, K. T. Schwenz, K. W. Koenig, R. M. Hardesty, C. J. Senff, M. A. Krainak, J. B. Abshire, H. E. Bravo, and S. P. Sandberg, “Preliminary measurements with an automated compact differential absorption lidar for the profiling of water vapor: errata,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3544 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Strässer, T. Waltinger, and M. Ostermeyer, “Injection seeded frequency stabilized Nd:YAG ring oscillator following a Pound-Drever-Hall scheme,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8358–8363 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Vogelmann and T. Trickl, “Wide-range sounding of free-tropospheric water vapor with a differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) at a high-altitude station,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2116–2132 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, “Feedback stabilization of an injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 24, 940–942 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Dinovitser, M. W. Hamilton, and R. A. Vincent, “Stabilized master laser system for differential absorption lidar,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3274–3281 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Wagner, V. Wulfmeyer, and A. Behrendt, “Detailed performance modeling of a pulsed high-power single-frequency Ti:sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5921–5937 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Bruneau, H. Cazeneuve, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, “Double-pulse dual-wavelength alexandrite laser for atmospheric water vapor measurement,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3930–3937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Bruneau, T. Arnaud des Lions, P. Quaglia, and J. Pelon, “Injection-seeded pulsed alexandrite laser for differential absorption lidar application,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3941–3950 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor and temperature profiling: development and specifications of a high-performance laser transmitter,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3804–3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, and J. Bösenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution, and meteorological applications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3825–3844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor and temperature profiling: methodology,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3845–3860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Metcalf, P. de Giovanni, J. Zachorowski, and M. Leduc, “Laser resonators containing self-focusing elements,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4508–4517 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, I. Mattis, B. Hilber, and R. Begbie, “RAMSES: German Meteorological Service autonomous Raman lidar for water vapor, temperature, aerosol, and cloud measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8111–8131 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (5)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Matthey, S. Schilt, D. Werner, C. Affolderbach, L. Thévenaz, and G. Miletti, “Diode laser frequency stabilisation for water-vapour differential absorption sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 477–485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 437–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 165–172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B. 96, 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Imaging of optical modes—resonators with internal lenses,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 455–494 (1965).

Boundary-Layer Meteorol. (1)

V. Wulfmeyer, S. Pal, D. D. Turner, and E. Wagner, “Can water vapour Raman lidar resolve profiles of turbulent variables in the convective boundary layer?,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 136, 253–284 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (2)

É. Gérard, D. G. H. Tan, L. Garand, V. Wulfmeyer, G. Ehret, and P. Di Girolamo, “Major advances foreseen in humidity profiling from the water vapor lidar experiment in space (WALES),” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 237–251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: the convective and orographically induced precipitation study: a research and development project of the world weather research program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

R. Kamineni, T. N. Krishnamurti, R. A. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and E. V. Browell, “Impact of high resolution water vapor cross-sectional data on hurricane forecasting,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1234–1237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Remote Sens. (1)

M. D. Obland, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, J. L. Carlsten, and J. A. Shaw, “Development of a widely tunable amplified diode laser differential absorption lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4, 043515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (7)

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. A. Kooi, L. H. Brasseur, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, J. E. M. Goldsmith, B. M. Lesht, J. R. Podolske, G. W. Sachse, F. J. Schmidlin, D. D. Turner, D. N. Whiteman, D. Tobin, L. M. Miloshevich, H. E. Revercomb, B. B. Demoz, and P. Di Girolamo, “Characterization of upper-troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1790–1808 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, S. Ismail, and J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the international H2O project. II: case studies,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, and J. A. Shaw, “Water vapor profiling using a widely tunable, amplified diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 733–745 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Grzeschik, H.-S. Bauer, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Engelbart, U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Tesche, and A. Riede, “Four-dimensional variational data analysis of water vapor Raman lidar data and their impact on mesoscale forecasts,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1437–1453 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, P. Di Girolamo, C. Kiemle, H.-S. Bauer, T. Schaberl, D. Summa, D. N. Whiteman, B. B. Demoz, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, S. Kooi, G. Ehret, and J. Wang, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part I: airborne to ground-based lidar systems and comparisons with chilled-mirror hygrometer radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 3–21 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, C. Flamant, T. Schaberl, H.-S. Bauer, S. Kooi, S. Ismail, R. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, and D. N. Whiteman, “Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP 2002. Part II: airborne-to-airborne systems,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 22–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

V. Wulfmeyer, “Investigation of turbulent processes in the lower troposphere with water vapor DIAL and Radar-RASS,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 1055–1076 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Mon. Weather Rev. (1)

V. Wulfmeyer, H.-S. Bauer, M. Grzeschik, A. Behrendt, F. Vandenberghe, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and R. Ferrare, “Four-dimensional variational assimilation of water vapor differential absorption lidar data. The first case study within IHOP 2002,” Mon. Weather Rev. 134, 209–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Ostermeyer, T. Waltinger, and M. Gregor, “Frequency stabilization of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser oscillator with stability better 300 kHz following an rf-sideband scheme,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3302–3307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. P. Lörtscher and J. Steffen, “Dynamic stable resonators: a design procedure,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 505–514 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “3-Dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (5)

A. Behrendt, S. Pal, F. Aoshima, M. Bender, A. Blyth, U. Corsmeier, J. Cuesta, G. Dick, M. Dorninger, C. Flamant, P. Di Girolamo, T. Gorgas, Y. Huang, N. Kalthoff, S. Khodayar, H. Mannstein, K. Träumner, A. Wieser, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 81–100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Fix, S. Rahm, U. Corsmeier, and P. Di Girolamo, “Latent heat flux measurements over complex terrain by airborne water vapour and wind lidars,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 190–203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Bhawar, P. Di Girolamo, D. Summa, C. Flamant, D. Althausen, A. Behrendt, C. Kiemle, P. Bosser, M. Cacciani, C. Champollion, T. Di Iorio, R. Engelmann, C. Herold, S. Pal, A. Riede, M. Wirth, and V. Wulfmeyer, “The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 325–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, C. Barthlott, G. C. Craig, M. Hagen, D. Althausen, F. Aoshima, M. Apagaus, H.-S. Bauer, L. Bennett, A. Blyth, C. Brandau, C. Champollion, S. Crewell, G. Dick, P. Di Girolamo, M. Dorninger, Y. Dufournet, R. Eigenmann, R. Engelmann, C. Flamant, T. Foken, T. Gorgas, M. Grzeschik, J. Handwerker, C. Hauck C, H. Höller, W. Junkermann, N. Kalthoff, C. Kiemle, S. Klink, M. König, L. Krauss, C. N. Long, F. Madonna, S. Mobbs, B. Neininger, S. Pal, G. Peters, G. Pigeon, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, H. Russchenberg, T. Schwitalla, V. Smith, R. Steinacker, J. Trentmann, D. D. Turner, J. van Baelen, S. Vogt, H. Volkert, T. Weckwerth, H. Wernli, A. Wieser, and M. Wirth, “The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase and research highlights,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 3–30(2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Hauck, C. Barthlott, L. Krauss, and N. Kalthoff, “Soil moisture variability and its influence on convective precipitation over complex terrain,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 42–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

V. Wulfmeyer, H. Bauer, P. Di Girolamo, and C. Serio, “Comparison of active and passive remote sensing from space: an analysis based on the simulated performance of IASI and space borne differential absorption lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 211–230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. R. Khalesifard, A. Fix, G. Ehret, M. Schiller, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Fast-switching system for injection seeding of a high-power Ti:sapphire laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

F. Späth, “Development of injection seeders for water vapor and carbon dioxide DIAL systems based on DFB lasers,” Diploma thesis (in German) (University of Stuttgart, 2010).

F. Späth, G. Wagner, H.-D. Wizemann, A. Behrendt, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Injection seeders based on DFB lasers for DIAL of water vapor at 820 nm and CO2 at 1580 nm,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2010), pp. 231–234.

FLUXPAT 2009 within SFB TR 32, “Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 32,” http://www.tr32.uni-koeln.de .

F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, A. Behrendt, H.-D. Wizemann, G. Wagner, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Online/offine injection seeding system with high frequency-stability and low crosstalk for water vapor DIAL,” Opt. Commun. (2012) (in revision).

N. Kalthoff, K. Träumner, S. Späth, B. Adler, A. Wieser, J. Handwerker, A. Behrendt, F. Madonna, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Dry and moist convection in the boundary layer over the Black Forest—a combined analysis of in-situ and remote sensing data,” Meteorol. Z (2013) (to be published).

“GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN),” http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/index.php?name=GRUAN .

W. Koechner, “Longitudinal modes,” in Solid-State Laser Engineering, T. Tamir and A. L. Schawlow, eds., (Springer-Verlag, 1999), pp. 236–259.

A. Riede, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, A. Meister, and M. Schiller, “Transmitter-receiver unit of the UHOH water vapor DIAL with a scanning 800 mm telescope mirror,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Laser and Radar Conference (ILRC), Porto Heli, Greece, 25–29 June (International Coordination-group on Laser Atmospheric Studies, 2012), paper S1P-12.

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, F. Späth, S. Metzendorf, G. Wagner, S. Pal, and M. Schiller are preparing a manuscript to be called “3D-scanning, water-vapor DIAL of Hohenheim University”.

“IBL Innovative Berlin Laser GmbH,” http://www.ib-laser.com/ .

COPS Field Campaign, “COPS: Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study,” http://www.uni-hohenheim.de/cops .

R. M. Schotland, “Some observations of the vertical profile of water vapor by means of a ground based optical radar,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 12–24 April, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (University of Michigan, 1966), pp. 273–283.

The HITRAN Database URL, http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/hitran/ .

“LASE Project,” http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/lase/ASDlase.html .

Fibertech, LEONI Fiber Optics GmbH, http://www.fibertech.de/ .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of DIAL system. A DIAL system consists of three units: frequency converter, receiver (telescope), and data acquisition system (including data analysis). APD, avalanche photodiode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pump laser setup on breadboard (dimensions: 120 cm × 60 cm ). Master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) design. IS, injection seeder; FI, Faraday isolator; λ / 2 , half-wave plate; EOM, electro-optical phase modulator; TL, telescope lens; HR, high-reflecting mirror (1064 or 532 nm); PR, partial-reflecting mirror; PZT-HR99, high-reflecting mirror mounted on piezo actuator; I/A, iris/aperture; λ / 4 , quarter-wave plate; Nd:YAG PC1, pump chamber of master oscillator; TFP, thin-film polarizer; RTP-PC, RTP Pockels cell; SHUTTER, beam shutter; OC, output coupler (reflectivity R = 70 % ); Nd:YAG PC2/3, pump chambers of preamplifier stage; QR, quartz rotator (90°); Nd:YAG PC4/5, pump chambers of main amplifier stage; M λ / 2 , motorized half-wave plate; W, window; SHG1/2, second-harmonic generation; DM, dichroic mirror; DET-MO, DET-WT, silicon detectors of master oscillator and frequency stabilization; CCD-MO, CCD-AMP, CCD cameras for monitoring beam profiles of master oscillator and preamplifier stage.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a)–(c) Intensity distributions (in arbitrary units) of the pump laser, IS, and TISA laser. (a) Frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pump laser, (b) external cavity diode laser (IS), (c) TISA laser. Circles with diameters of 1.5 mm are shown for comparison.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Focal length of the thermal lens f t h of the Brewster-cut TISA crystal for different values of the single-side pump power P 0 at 532 nm. FEA calculated thermal lensing [57] in comparison with experimentally determined values for sagittal and tangential plane, respectively. The thermal lensing was determined from the deflection of a probe beam. Pump-beam radius ω p = 0.75 mm . Comparison with model of Innocenzi et al. [86].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Beam propagation and stability zone of TISA ring resonator. Mode radius ω m for resonator position z starting at the first principal plane of TISA crystal. Mode radius ω m , 0 on TISA crystal for different values of focal length of thermal lens f t h .

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

TISA laser setup on breadboard (dimensions: 120 cm × 60 cm ). T-L1, T-L2, pump beam telescope lenses; BS, beam splitter ( 50 50 % ); HR, high reflecting mirror (532 or 820 nm); DC, dichroic mirror (shortpass characteristic); TISA, Ti:sapphire crystal; HR/G, high reflecting mirror or gold mirror; I/A, iris/aperture; BF, birefringent filter; FR, Faraday rotator; λ / 2 ( 45 ° ) , half-wave plate aligned to 45° retardation; PZT-HR, high reflecting mirror mounted on piezo actuator; PZT-DRI, piezo actuator driver; OC, output coupler; FI, Faraday isolator; POL, thin-film polarizer; L , lens; BD, beam dump/optical shutter; PM, phase modulator; CHO, optical chopper; PR, partial reflecting mirror; CCD-532, CCD-820, CCD-FIB, CCD cameras for monitoring beam profiles of pump laser, TISA laser (resonator), and TISA laser profile at fiber coupling; FC-SEED, FC-FIB, FC-WAV, fiber couplers of IS, TISA laser fiber, and wavemeter, respectively; DET-PM, silicon detector for phase modulator; PM-RF, phase modulator rf driver; WT-DET, WT-PHA, Wulfmeyer frequency stabilization technique (WT) forward resonance detector and phase signal; DET-CHO, DET-DAQ, silicon detector of optical chopper signal and silicon detector of data acquisition.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Active frequency stabilization of resonator. (a) Synthetic triangle signal at piezo voltage driver (zoomed in), (b) resulting phase under triangle signal with zero crossing at cavity resonance with zero frequency shift and frequency shift of ± 40 MHz at location of sidebands, (c) phase signal, and (d) piezo driver signal at closed frequency stabilization loop operation.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

TISA laser operation: laser performance calculations according to [57] versus experimental results. E o u t , TISA output pulse energy; E p u m p , pump pulse energy; η 0 , optical coupling efficiency; L , dissipative resonator loss ( L = 0.05 ).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Fabry–Perot fringe pattern of (a) IS and (b) TISA laser.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Frequency stability of TISA laser and IS (standard deviations): σ TISA = 9.3 MHz , σ seeder = 7.8 MHz ; (b) histogram of (a).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

TISA laser operation at an output power level of 2 W . (a) Pulse shape and (b) resulting linewidth.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Cloud measurement to determine SP of the laser transmitter. Offline and online signal (range-corrected signal intensity P · r 2 ); r , range; h , height above ground level; P , signal intensity. Telescope position: elevation 70 ° . 15,000 laser pulses averaged (60 s averaging).

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Example of a 16.5 h long vertically pointed measurement with the UHOH DIAL: absolute humidity (AH) field measured between 8:58 UTC August 1, 2007, and 1:30 UTC August 2, 2007, during the COPS campaign. h is the height above ground level. The temporal resolution of this dataset is 10 s. The range resolution is 15 m. The humidity data were analyzed here using a window width of 150 m for each data point. Dashed lines mark gaps in the data.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Comparison of 10 s UHOH DIAL measurements with data of radiosondes launched at the lidar site at (a) 10:57 UTC and (b) 17:10 UTC on August 1, 2007. h , height above ground level; AH, absolute humidity.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Example of a scanning measurement with the UHOH DIAL: absolute humidity (AH) field measured at 7:12 UTC on September 9, 2009, during the FLUXPAT campaign. h is the height above ground level, r the horizontal distance to the lidar. The temporal resolution of these data is 10 s while the azimuth angle was changed with 0.1 ° / s giving an angle resolution of 1°. The range resolution is 15 m. The humidity data were analyzed with a window width of 150 m for each data point.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of Operated Water–Vapor DIAL Systems a

Tables Icon

Table 2. Transmitter Requirements for Ground-Based Water–Vapor DIAL from Ground to the Upper Troposphere According to [55,56], and Achieved Transmitter Specifications of the UHOH DIAL Transmitter a

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SP = 1 P ON , IMP P OFF ,

Metrics