Abstract

The problem of simultaneous physical retrieval of surface emissivity, skin temperature, and temperature, water–vapor, and ozone atmospheric profiles from high-spectral-resolution observations in the infrared is formulated according to an inverse problem with multiple regularization parameters. A methodology has been set up, which seeks an effective solution to the inverse problem in a generalized L-curve criterion framework. The a priori information for the surface emissivity is obtained on the basis of laboratory data alone, and that for the atmospheric parameters by climatology or weather forecasts. To ensure that we deal with a problem of fewer unknowns than observations, the dimensionality of the emissivity is reduced through expansion in Fourier series. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the simultaneous retrieval of emissivity, skin temperature, and atmospheric parameters with a two-dimensional L-curve criterion. The procedure has been demonstrated with spectra observed from the infrared atmospheric sounder interferometer, flying onboard the European Meteorological Operational satellite. To check the quality and reliability of the methodology, we have used spectra recorded over regions characterized by known or stable emissivity. These include sea surface, for which effective emissivity models are known, and arid lands (Sahara and Namib Deserts) that are known to exhibit the characteristic spectral signature of quartz-rich sand.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (4)

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Masiello, C. Serio, and P. Antonelli, “Inversion for atmospheric thermodynamical parameters of IASI data in the principal components space,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 138, 103–117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Masiello, C. Serio, F. Esposito, and L. Palchetti, “Validation of line and continuum spectroscopic parameters with measurements of atmospheric emitted spectral radiance from far to mid infrared wave number range,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1286–1299 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Tyuterev, A. M. Perrin, and L. S. Rothman, eds., “Three leaders in spectroscopy,” (Special Issue), J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 821–1406 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, and C. Serio, “The use of IASI data to identify systematic errors in the ECMWF forecasts of temperature in the upper stratosphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 1009–1021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Zhou, A. M. Larar, X. Liu, W. L. Smith, L. L. Strow, P. Yang, P. Schlüssel, and X. Calbet, “Global land surface emissivity retrieved from satellite ultraspectral IR measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1277–1290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

G. Grieco, G. Masiello, and C. Serio, “Interferometric vs spectral IASI radiances: effective data-reduction approaches for the satellite sounding of atmospheric thermodynamical parameters,” Remote Sens. 2, 2323–2346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

U. Amato, A. Antoniadis, I. De Feis, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, and C. Serio, “Technical note: Functional sliced inverse regression to infer temperature, water vapour and ozone from IASI data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 5321–5330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Masiello, C. Serio, A. Carissimo, G. Grieco, and M. Matricardi, “Application of φ-IASI to IASI: retrieval products evaluation and radiative transfer consistency,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 8771–8783 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Hulley, S. J. Hook, E. Manning, S.-Y. Lee, and E. Fetzer, “Validation of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) version 5 land surface emissivity product over the Namib and Kalahari deserts,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D19104(2009).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Hulley and S. J. Hook, “Intercomparison of versions 4, 4.1 and 5 of the MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity products and validation with laboratory measurements of sand samples from the Namib desert, Namibia,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 1313–1318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Hulley and S. J. Hook, “The North American ASTER Land Surface Emissivity database (NAALSED) version 2.0,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 1967–1975 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Baldridge, S. J. Hook, C. I. Grove, and G. Rivera, “The ASTER spectral library version 2.0,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 711–715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

L. Zhou, M. Goldberg, C. Barnet, Z. Cheng, F. Sun, W. Wolf, T. King, X. Liu, H. Sun, and M. Divakarla, “Regression of surface spectral emissivity from hyperspectral instruments,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 328–333 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wan, “New refinements and validation of the MODIS land-surface temperature/emissivity products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 59–74 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Hulley, S. J. Hook, and A. M. Baldridge, “ASTER land surface emissivity database of California and Nevada,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L13401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Péquignot, A. Chédin, and N. A. Scott, “Infrared continental surface emissivity spectra retrieved from AIRS hyperspectral sensor,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 47, 1619–1633 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

K. White, J. Walden, and S. D. Gurney, “Spectral properties, iron oxide content and provenance of Namib dune sands,” Geomorphology 86, 219–229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Seemann, E. F. Borbas, R. O. Knuteson, G. R. Stephenson, and H.-L. Huang, “Development of a global infrared land surface emissivity database for application to clear sky sounding retrievals from multispectral satellite radiance measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 47, 108–123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, J. Li, E. Weisz, and D. K. Zhou, “Physical retrieval of surface emissivity spectrum from hyperspectral infrared radiances,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L16812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. M. Newman, J. A. Smith, M. D. Glew, S. M. Rogers, and J. P. Taylor, “Temperature and salinity dependence of sea surface emissivity in the thermal infrared,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131, 2539–2557 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Carissimo, I. De Feis, and C. Serio, “The physical retrieval methodology for IASI: the δ-IASI code,” Environ. Modell. Software 20, 1111–1126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

G. Masiello, C. Serio, and H. Shimoda, “Qualifying IMG tropical spectra for clear sky,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 131–148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

M. Belge, M. E. Kilmer, and E. L. Miller, “Efficient determination of multiple regularization parameters in a generalized L-curve framework,” Inverse Probl. 18, 1161–1183 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshimori, S. Tamba, and R. Yokoyama, “Simultaneous measurements of skin sea surface temperature and sea surface emissivity from a single thermal imagery,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4937–4944 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Amato, G. Masiello, C. Serio, and M. Viggiano, “The σ-IASI code for the calculation of infrared atmospheric radiance and its derivatives,” Environ. Modell. Software 17, 651–667 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Ma, Z. Wan, C. C. Moeller, W. P. Menzel, and L. E. Gumley, “Simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric profiles, land-surface temperature, and surface emissivity from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer thermal infrared data: extension of a two-step physical algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 41, 909–924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, and O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: a high-accuracy, seagoing infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. M. Lubrano, C. Serio, S. A. Clough, and H. Kobayashi, “Simultaneous inversion for temperature and water vapor from IMG radiances,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2533–2536(2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

U. Amato, V. Cuomo, I. De Feis, F. Romano, C. Serio, and H. Kobayashi, “Inverting for geophysical parameters from IMG radiances,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1620–1632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sobrino and J. Cuenca, “Angular variation of thermal infrared emissivity for some natural surfaces from experimental measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3931–3936 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Gillespie, S. Rokugawa, T. Matsunaga, J. S. Cothern, S. Hook, and A. B. Kahle, “A temperature and emissivity separation algorithm for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1113–1126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Snyder and Z. Wan, “BRDF models to predict spectral reflectance and emissivity in the thermal infrared,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 214–225 (1998).
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1997 (1)

L. Fiedler and S. Bakan, “Interferometric measurements of sea surface temperature and emissivity,” Dtsch. Hydrogr. Z. 49, 357–365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–51 (1996).
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A. R. Korb, P. Dybwad, W. Wadsworth, and J. W. Salisbury, “Portable Fourier transform infrared spectroradiometer for field measurements of radiance and emissivity,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1679–1692 (1996).
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S. Clausen, A. Morgenstjerne, and O. Rathmann, “Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity by a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5683–5691 (1996).
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1992 (2)

J. W. Salisbury and D. M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 8–14 μm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 83–106 (1992).
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P. C. Hansen, “Analysis of discrete ill-posed problems by means of the L-curve,” SIAM Rev. 34, 561–580 (1992).
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1988 (1)

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, and Y. Takayma, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313–329(1988).
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1981 (1)

N. Lancaster, “Grain size characteristics of Namib Desert linear dunes,” Sedimentology 28, 115–122 (1981).
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Amato, U.

U. Amato, A. Antoniadis, I. De Feis, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, and C. Serio, “Technical note: Functional sliced inverse regression to infer temperature, water vapour and ozone from IASI data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 5321–5330 (2009).
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U. Amato, G. Masiello, C. Serio, and M. Viggiano, “The σ-IASI code for the calculation of infrared atmospheric radiance and its derivatives,” Environ. Modell. Software 17, 651–667 (2002).
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U. Amato, V. Cuomo, I. De Feis, F. Romano, C. Serio, and H. Kobayashi, “Inverting for geophysical parameters from IMG radiances,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1620–1632 (1999).
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C. Serio, G. Grieco, G. Masiello, U. Amato, and I. De Feis, “Consolidation of scientific baseline for MTG-IRS level 2 processing: role of OE with background state and associated error from climatology: final report” (EUMETSAT, 2010), available online at http://www2.unibas.it/gmasiello/assite/rep/Delivery%2017_final_report.pdf

Amoroso, M.

G. Masiello, M. Amoroso, P. Di Girolamo, C. Serio, S. Venafra, and T. Deleporte, “IASI Retrieval of temperature, water vapor and ozone profiles over land with φ-IASI package during the COPS campaign,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling (ESA, 2012), http://cetemps.aquila.infn.it/istp/proceedings/Session_I_Water_vapor_ozone_and_trace_gases/SI_02_Masiello.pdf .

I. De Feis, G. Masiello, C. Serio, M. Amoroso, and S. Venafra, “Spatio-temporal constraints for emissivity and surface temperature retrieval: preliminary results and comparisons for SEVIRI and IASI observations,” presented at the 3rd IASI International Conference, Hyères, France, 4–8 February 2013, available online at http://www.iasi2013.com/oral/08_03-De_Feis_Italia.pdf .

Antonelli, P.

G. Masiello, C. Serio, and P. Antonelli, “Inversion for atmospheric thermodynamical parameters of IASI data in the principal components space,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 138, 103–117 (2012).
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Antoniadis, A.

U. Amato, A. Antoniadis, I. De Feis, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, and C. Serio, “Technical note: Functional sliced inverse regression to infer temperature, water vapour and ozone from IASI data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 5321–5330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Armante, R.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arpagaus, M.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
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August, T.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bakan, S.

L. Fiedler and S. Bakan, “Interferometric measurements of sea surface temperature and emissivity,” Dtsch. Hydrogr. Z. 49, 357–365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baldridge, A. M.

A. M. Baldridge, S. J. Hook, C. I. Grove, and G. Rivera, “The ASTER spectral library version 2.0,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 711–715 (2009).
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G. C. Hulley, S. J. Hook, and A. M. Baldridge, “ASTER land surface emissivity database of California and Nevada,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L13401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnet, C.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, M. Goldberg, C. Barnet, Z. Cheng, F. Sun, W. Wolf, T. King, X. Liu, H. Sun, and M. Divakarla, “Regression of surface spectral emissivity from hyperspectral instruments,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 328–333 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, H.-S.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beer, R.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Behrendt, A.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
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Belge, M.

M. Belge, M. E. Kilmer, and E. L. Miller, “Efficient determination of multiple regularization parameters in a generalized L-curve framework,” Inverse Probl. 18, 1161–1183 (2002).
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Bell, R. J.

R. J. Bell, Introductory Fourier Transform Spectroscopy(Academic, 1972).

Best, F. A.

R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, D. H. DeSlover, B. J. Osborne, H. E. Revercomb, and W. L. Smith, “Infrared land surface remote sensing using high spectral resolution aircraft observations,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1114–1119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, and O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: a high-accuracy, seagoing infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blyth, A.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
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Borbas, E. E.

E. E. Borbas and B. C. Ruston, “The RTTOV UWiremis IR land surface emissivity module,” Doc. NWPSAF-MO-VS-042 (EUMETSAT, 2010).

Borbas, E. F.

S. W. Seemann, E. F. Borbas, R. O. Knuteson, G. R. Stephenson, and H.-L. Huang, “Development of a global infrared land surface emissivity database for application to clear sky sounding retrievals from multispectral satellite radiance measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 47, 108–123 (2007).
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Bouchard, A.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, K.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, and O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: a high-accuracy, seagoing infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, P. D.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cady-Pereira, K. E.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Calbet, X.

D. K. Zhou, A. M. Larar, X. Liu, W. L. Smith, L. L. Strow, P. Yang, P. Schlüssel, and X. Calbet, “Global land surface emissivity retrieved from satellite ultraspectral IR measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1277–1290 (2011).
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Camy-Peyret, C.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Capelle, V.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carissimo, A.

G. Masiello, C. Serio, A. Carissimo, G. Grieco, and M. Matricardi, “Application of φ-IASI to IASI: retrieval products evaluation and radiative transfer consistency,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 8771–8783 (2009).
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A. Carissimo, I. De Feis, and C. Serio, “The physical retrieval methodology for IASI: the δ-IASI code,” Environ. Modell. Software 20, 1111–1126 (2005).
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Chédin, A.

E. Péquignot, A. Chédin, and N. A. Scott, “Infrared continental surface emissivity spectra retrieved from AIRS hyperspectral sensor,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 47, 1619–1633 (2008).
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Cheng, Z.

L. Zhou, M. Goldberg, C. Barnet, Z. Cheng, F. Sun, W. Wolf, T. King, X. Liu, H. Sun, and M. Divakarla, “Regression of surface spectral emissivity from hyperspectral instruments,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 328–333 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clarisse, L.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clausen, S.

Clerbaux, C.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Lubrano, C. Serio, S. A. Clough, and H. Kobayashi, “Simultaneous inversion for temperature and water vapor from IMG radiances,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2533–2536(2000).
[CrossRef]

Coheur, P.-F.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Collard, A.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Corsmeier, U.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cothern, J. S.

A. Gillespie, S. Rokugawa, T. Matsunaga, J. S. Cothern, S. Hook, and A. B. Kahle, “A temperature and emissivity separation algorithm for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1113–1126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Craig, G.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crevoisier, C.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Crewell, S.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cuenca, J.

Cuomo, V.

G. Masiello, C. Serio, and V. Cuomo, “Exploiting quartz spectral signature for the detection of cloud-affected satellite infrared observations over African desert areas,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2305–2315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Amato, V. Cuomo, I. De Feis, F. Romano, C. Serio, and H. Kobayashi, “Inverting for geophysical parameters from IMG radiances,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1620–1632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Masiello, G. Grieco, C. Serio, and V. Cuomo, “Canopy emissivity characterization from hyper spectral infrared observations,” presented at the 12th Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Madison, Wisconsin, 10–14 July 2006, http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/112642.pdf .

D’Aria, D. M.

J. W. Salisbury and D. M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 8–14 μm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 83–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

De Feis, I.

U. Amato, A. Antoniadis, I. De Feis, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, and C. Serio, “Technical note: Functional sliced inverse regression to infer temperature, water vapour and ozone from IASI data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 5321–5330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Carissimo, I. De Feis, and C. Serio, “The physical retrieval methodology for IASI: the δ-IASI code,” Environ. Modell. Software 20, 1111–1126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Amato, V. Cuomo, I. De Feis, F. Romano, C. Serio, and H. Kobayashi, “Inverting for geophysical parameters from IMG radiances,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1620–1632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Serio, G. Grieco, G. Masiello, U. Amato, and I. De Feis, “Consolidation of scientific baseline for MTG-IRS level 2 processing: role of OE with background state and associated error from climatology: final report” (EUMETSAT, 2010), available online at http://www2.unibas.it/gmasiello/assite/rep/Delivery%2017_final_report.pdf

I. De Feis, G. Masiello, C. Serio, M. Amoroso, and S. Venafra, “Spatio-temporal constraints for emissivity and surface temperature retrieval: preliminary results and comparisons for SEVIRI and IASI observations,” presented at the 3rd IASI International Conference, Hyères, France, 4–8 February 2013, available online at http://www.iasi2013.com/oral/08_03-De_Feis_Italia.pdf .

Dedecker, R. G.

R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, W. F. Feltz, B. J. Osbourne, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, “Infrared land surface emissivity in the vicinity of the ARM SGP central facility,” presented at the 13th ARM Science Team Meeting, Broomfield, Colorado, 31 March–4 April 2003.

Deleporte, T.

G. Masiello, M. Amoroso, P. Di Girolamo, C. Serio, S. Venafra, and T. Deleporte, “IASI Retrieval of temperature, water vapor and ozone profiles over land with φ-IASI package during the COPS campaign,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling (ESA, 2012), http://cetemps.aquila.infn.it/istp/proceedings/Session_I_Water_vapor_ozone_and_trace_gases/SI_02_Masiello.pdf .

DeSlover, D. H.

R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, D. H. DeSlover, B. J. Osborne, H. E. Revercomb, and W. L. Smith, “Infrared land surface remote sensing using high spectral resolution aircraft observations,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1114–1119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Di Girolamo, P.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Masiello, M. Amoroso, P. Di Girolamo, C. Serio, S. Venafra, and T. Deleporte, “IASI Retrieval of temperature, water vapor and ozone profiles over land with φ-IASI package during the COPS campaign,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling (ESA, 2012), http://cetemps.aquila.infn.it/istp/proceedings/Session_I_Water_vapor_ozone_and_trace_gases/SI_02_Masiello.pdf .

Divakarla, M.

L. Zhou, M. Goldberg, C. Barnet, Z. Cheng, F. Sun, W. Wolf, T. King, X. Liu, H. Sun, and M. Divakarla, “Regression of surface spectral emissivity from hyperspectral instruments,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 328–333 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dorninger, M.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dufour, G.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dybwad, P.

Edwards, D.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eldering, A.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elsasser, W. M.

W. M. Elsasser, Heat Transfer by Infrared Radiation in the Atmosphere (Harvard University, 1942).

Esposito, F.

G. Masiello, C. Serio, F. Esposito, and L. Palchetti, “Validation of line and continuum spectroscopic parameters with measurements of atmospheric emitted spectral radiance from far to mid infrared wave number range,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1286–1299 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Faijan, F.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feltz, W.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feltz, W. F.

R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, W. F. Feltz, B. J. Osbourne, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, “Infrared land surface emissivity in the vicinity of the ARM SGP central facility,” presented at the 13th ARM Science Team Meeting, Broomfield, Colorado, 31 March–4 April 2003.

Fetzer, E.

G. C. Hulley, S. J. Hook, E. Manning, S.-Y. Lee, and E. Fetzer, “Validation of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) version 5 land surface emissivity product over the Namib and Kalahari deserts,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D19104(2009).
[CrossRef]

Fiedler, L.

L. Fiedler and S. Bakan, “Interferometric measurements of sea surface temperature and emissivity,” Dtsch. Hydrogr. Z. 49, 357–365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, C.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flanders, H.

H. Flanders, Differential Forms with Applications to the Physical Sciences (Dover, 1989).

Fourrié, N.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gambacorta, A.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gärtner, V.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, A.

A. Gillespie, S. Rokugawa, T. Matsunaga, J. S. Cothern, S. Hook, and A. B. Kahle, “A temperature and emissivity separation algorithm for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1113–1126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glew, M. D.

S. M. Newman, J. A. Smith, M. D. Glew, S. M. Rogers, and J. P. Taylor, “Temperature and salinity dependence of sea surface emissivity in the thermal infrared,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131, 2539–2557 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, M.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, M. Goldberg, C. Barnet, Z. Cheng, F. Sun, W. Wolf, T. King, X. Liu, H. Sun, and M. Divakarla, “Regression of surface spectral emissivity from hyperspectral instruments,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 328–333 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grieco, G.

G. Grieco, G. Masiello, and C. Serio, “Interferometric vs spectral IASI radiances: effective data-reduction approaches for the satellite sounding of atmospheric thermodynamical parameters,” Remote Sens. 2, 2323–2346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Masiello, C. Serio, A. Carissimo, G. Grieco, and M. Matricardi, “Application of φ-IASI to IASI: retrieval products evaluation and radiative transfer consistency,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 8771–8783 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Serio, G. Grieco, G. Masiello, U. Amato, and I. De Feis, “Consolidation of scientific baseline for MTG-IRS level 2 processing: role of OE with background state and associated error from climatology: final report” (EUMETSAT, 2010), available online at http://www2.unibas.it/gmasiello/assite/rep/Delivery%2017_final_report.pdf

G. Masiello, G. Grieco, C. Serio, and V. Cuomo, “Canopy emissivity characterization from hyper spectral infrared observations,” presented at the 12th Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Madison, Wisconsin, 10–14 July 2006, http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/112642.pdf .

Grove, C. I.

A. M. Baldridge, S. J. Hook, C. I. Grove, and G. Rivera, “The ASTER spectral library version 2.0,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 711–715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guidard, V.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gumley, L. E.

Gurney, S. D.

K. White, J. Walden, and S. D. Gurney, “Spectral properties, iron oxide content and provenance of Namib dune sands,” Geomorphology 86, 219–229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, M.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hanafin, J. A.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, and O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: a high-accuracy, seagoing infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, P. C.

P. C. Hansen, “Analysis of discrete ill-posed problems by means of the L-curve,” SIAM Rev. 34, 561–580 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hense, A.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hilton, F.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hook, S.

A. Gillespie, S. Rokugawa, T. Matsunaga, J. S. Cothern, S. Hook, and A. B. Kahle, “A temperature and emissivity separation algorithm for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1113–1126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hook, S. J.

G. C. Hulley, S. J. Hook, E. Manning, S.-Y. Lee, and E. Fetzer, “Validation of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) version 5 land surface emissivity product over the Namib and Kalahari deserts,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D19104(2009).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Hulley and S. J. Hook, “The North American ASTER Land Surface Emissivity database (NAALSED) version 2.0,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 1967–1975 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Hulley and S. J. Hook, “Intercomparison of versions 4, 4.1 and 5 of the MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity products and validation with laboratory measurements of sand samples from the Namib desert, Namibia,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 1313–1318 (2009).
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Hulley, G. C.

G. C. Hulley and S. J. Hook, “Intercomparison of versions 4, 4.1 and 5 of the MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity products and validation with laboratory measurements of sand samples from the Namib desert, Namibia,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 1313–1318 (2009).
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F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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Knuteson, R. O.

S. W. Seemann, E. F. Borbas, R. O. Knuteson, G. R. Stephenson, and H.-L. Huang, “Development of a global infrared land surface emissivity database for application to clear sky sounding retrievals from multispectral satellite radiance measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 47, 108–123 (2007).
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R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, D. H. DeSlover, B. J. Osborne, H. E. Revercomb, and W. L. Smith, “Infrared land surface remote sensing using high spectral resolution aircraft observations,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1114–1119 (2004).
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Kobayashi, H.

A. M. Lubrano, C. Serio, S. A. Clough, and H. Kobayashi, “Simultaneous inversion for temperature and water vapor from IMG radiances,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2533–2536(2000).
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U. Amato, V. Cuomo, I. De Feis, F. Romano, C. Serio, and H. Kobayashi, “Inverting for geophysical parameters from IMG radiances,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1620–1632 (1999).
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V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
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S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
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Lavanant, L.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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Lee, S.-Y.

G. C. Hulley, S. J. Hook, E. Manning, S.-Y. Lee, and E. Fetzer, “Validation of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) version 5 land surface emissivity product over the Namib and Kalahari deserts,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D19104(2009).
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Liu, X.

D. K. Zhou, A. M. Larar, X. Liu, W. L. Smith, L. L. Strow, P. Yang, P. Schlüssel, and X. Calbet, “Global land surface emissivity retrieved from satellite ultraspectral IR measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1277–1290 (2011).
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L. Zhou, M. Goldberg, C. Barnet, Z. Cheng, F. Sun, W. Wolf, T. King, X. Liu, H. Sun, and M. Divakarla, “Regression of surface spectral emissivity from hyperspectral instruments,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 328–333 (2008).
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A. M. Lubrano, C. Serio, S. A. Clough, and H. Kobayashi, “Simultaneous inversion for temperature and water vapor from IMG radiances,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2533–2536(2000).
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S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
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Manning, E.

G. C. Hulley, S. J. Hook, E. Manning, S.-Y. Lee, and E. Fetzer, “Validation of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) version 5 land surface emissivity product over the Namib and Kalahari deserts,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D19104(2009).
[CrossRef]

Masiello, G.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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G. Masiello, C. Serio, and P. Antonelli, “Inversion for atmospheric thermodynamical parameters of IASI data in the principal components space,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 138, 103–117 (2012).
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G. Masiello, C. Serio, F. Esposito, and L. Palchetti, “Validation of line and continuum spectroscopic parameters with measurements of atmospheric emitted spectral radiance from far to mid infrared wave number range,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1286–1299 (2012).
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G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, and C. Serio, “The use of IASI data to identify systematic errors in the ECMWF forecasts of temperature in the upper stratosphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 1009–1021 (2011).
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G. Grieco, G. Masiello, and C. Serio, “Interferometric vs spectral IASI radiances: effective data-reduction approaches for the satellite sounding of atmospheric thermodynamical parameters,” Remote Sens. 2, 2323–2346 (2010).
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G. Masiello, C. Serio, A. Carissimo, G. Grieco, and M. Matricardi, “Application of φ-IASI to IASI: retrieval products evaluation and radiative transfer consistency,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 8771–8783 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Amato, A. Antoniadis, I. De Feis, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, and C. Serio, “Technical note: Functional sliced inverse regression to infer temperature, water vapour and ozone from IASI data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 5321–5330 (2009).
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G. Masiello, C. Serio, and V. Cuomo, “Exploiting quartz spectral signature for the detection of cloud-affected satellite infrared observations over African desert areas,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2305–2315 (2004).
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G. Masiello, C. Serio, and H. Shimoda, “Qualifying IMG tropical spectra for clear sky,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 131–148 (2003).
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U. Amato, G. Masiello, C. Serio, and M. Viggiano, “The σ-IASI code for the calculation of infrared atmospheric radiance and its derivatives,” Environ. Modell. Software 17, 651–667 (2002).
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C. Serio, G. Grieco, G. Masiello, U. Amato, and I. De Feis, “Consolidation of scientific baseline for MTG-IRS level 2 processing: role of OE with background state and associated error from climatology: final report” (EUMETSAT, 2010), available online at http://www2.unibas.it/gmasiello/assite/rep/Delivery%2017_final_report.pdf

G. Masiello, M. Amoroso, P. Di Girolamo, C. Serio, S. Venafra, and T. Deleporte, “IASI Retrieval of temperature, water vapor and ozone profiles over land with φ-IASI package during the COPS campaign,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling (ESA, 2012), http://cetemps.aquila.infn.it/istp/proceedings/Session_I_Water_vapor_ozone_and_trace_gases/SI_02_Masiello.pdf .

I. De Feis, G. Masiello, C. Serio, M. Amoroso, and S. Venafra, “Spatio-temporal constraints for emissivity and surface temperature retrieval: preliminary results and comparisons for SEVIRI and IASI observations,” presented at the 3rd IASI International Conference, Hyères, France, 4–8 February 2013, available online at http://www.iasi2013.com/oral/08_03-De_Feis_Italia.pdf .

G. Masiello, G. Grieco, C. Serio, and V. Cuomo, “Canopy emissivity characterization from hyper spectral infrared observations,” presented at the 12th Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Madison, Wisconsin, 10–14 July 2006, http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/112642.pdf .

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F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, and C. Serio, “The use of IASI data to identify systematic errors in the ECMWF forecasts of temperature in the upper stratosphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 1009–1021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Masiello, C. Serio, A. Carissimo, G. Grieco, and M. Matricardi, “Application of φ-IASI to IASI: retrieval products evaluation and radiative transfer consistency,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 8771–8783 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Amato, A. Antoniadis, I. De Feis, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, and C. Serio, “Technical note: Functional sliced inverse regression to infer temperature, water vapour and ozone from IASI data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 5321–5330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Matricardi, ECMWF, Reading, UK (personal communication, 2012).

Matsunaga, T.

A. Gillespie, S. Rokugawa, T. Matsunaga, J. S. Cothern, S. Hook, and A. B. Kahle, “A temperature and emissivity separation algorithm for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1113–1126 (1998).
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McKeown, W.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–51 (1996).
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F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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Menzel, W. P.

X. L. Ma, Z. Wan, C. C. Moeller, W. P. Menzel, and L. E. Gumley, “Simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric profiles, land-surface temperature, and surface emissivity from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer thermal infrared data: extension of a two-step physical algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 41, 909–924 (2002).
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W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miller, E. L.

M. Belge, M. E. Kilmer, and E. L. Miller, “Efficient determination of multiple regularization parameters in a generalized L-curve framework,” Inverse Probl. 18, 1161–1183 (2002).
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Miller, M.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
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W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–51 (1996).
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P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, and O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: a high-accuracy, seagoing infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
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S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
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V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, C. C.

Montani, A.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morgenstjerne, A.

Newman, S.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Newman, S. M.

S. M. Newman, J. A. Smith, M. D. Glew, S. M. Rogers, and J. P. Taylor, “Temperature and salinity dependence of sea surface emissivity in the thermal infrared,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131, 2539–2557 (2005).
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Osborne, B. J.

R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, D. H. DeSlover, B. J. Osborne, H. E. Revercomb, and W. L. Smith, “Infrared land surface remote sensing using high spectral resolution aircraft observations,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1114–1119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, and O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: a high-accuracy, seagoing infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
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R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, W. F. Feltz, B. J. Osbourne, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, “Infrared land surface emissivity in the vicinity of the ARM SGP central facility,” presented at the 13th ARM Science Team Meeting, Broomfield, Colorado, 31 March–4 April 2003.

Osterman, G.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
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G. Masiello, C. Serio, F. Esposito, and L. Palchetti, “Validation of line and continuum spectroscopic parameters with measurements of atmospheric emitted spectral radiance from far to mid infrared wave number range,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1286–1299 (2012).
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Pavelin, E.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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Payan, S.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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E. Péquignot, A. Chédin, and N. A. Scott, “Infrared continental surface emissivity spectra retrieved from AIRS hyperspectral sensor,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 47, 1619–1633 (2008).
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F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, D. H. DeSlover, B. J. Osborne, H. E. Revercomb, and W. L. Smith, “Infrared land surface remote sensing using high spectral resolution aircraft observations,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1114–1119 (2004).
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R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, W. F. Feltz, B. J. Osbourne, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, “Infrared land surface emissivity in the vicinity of the ARM SGP central facility,” presented at the 13th ARM Science Team Meeting, Broomfield, Colorado, 31 March–4 April 2003.

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S. M. Newman, J. A. Smith, M. D. Glew, S. M. Rogers, and J. P. Taylor, “Temperature and salinity dependence of sea surface emissivity in the thermal infrared,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131, 2539–2557 (2005).
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V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
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V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
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C. Serio, G. Grieco, G. Masiello, U. Amato, and I. De Feis, “Consolidation of scientific baseline for MTG-IRS level 2 processing: role of OE with background state and associated error from climatology: final report” (EUMETSAT, 2010), available online at http://www2.unibas.it/gmasiello/assite/rep/Delivery%2017_final_report.pdf

G. Masiello, M. Amoroso, P. Di Girolamo, C. Serio, S. Venafra, and T. Deleporte, “IASI Retrieval of temperature, water vapor and ozone profiles over land with φ-IASI package during the COPS campaign,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling (ESA, 2012), http://cetemps.aquila.infn.it/istp/proceedings/Session_I_Water_vapor_ozone_and_trace_gases/SI_02_Masiello.pdf .

I. De Feis, G. Masiello, C. Serio, M. Amoroso, and S. Venafra, “Spatio-temporal constraints for emissivity and surface temperature retrieval: preliminary results and comparisons for SEVIRI and IASI observations,” presented at the 3rd IASI International Conference, Hyères, France, 4–8 February 2013, available online at http://www.iasi2013.com/oral/08_03-De_Feis_Italia.pdf .

G. Masiello, G. Grieco, C. Serio, and V. Cuomo, “Canopy emissivity characterization from hyper spectral infrared observations,” presented at the 12th Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Madison, Wisconsin, 10–14 July 2006, http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/112642.pdf .

Shephard, M. W.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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G. Masiello, C. Serio, and H. Shimoda, “Qualifying IMG tropical spectra for clear sky,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 131–148 (2003).
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R. Siegel and J. R. Howell, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer (McGraw-Hill, 1972).

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Simmer, C.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
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S. M. Newman, J. A. Smith, M. D. Glew, S. M. Rogers, and J. P. Taylor, “Temperature and salinity dependence of sea surface emissivity in the thermal infrared,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131, 2539–2557 (2005).
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Smith, W. L.

D. K. Zhou, A. M. Larar, X. Liu, W. L. Smith, L. L. Strow, P. Yang, P. Schlüssel, and X. Calbet, “Global land surface emissivity retrieved from satellite ultraspectral IR measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1277–1290 (2011).
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R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, D. H. DeSlover, B. J. Osborne, H. E. Revercomb, and W. L. Smith, “Infrared land surface remote sensing using high spectral resolution aircraft observations,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1114–1119 (2004).
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W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–51 (1996).
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Snyder, W. C.

W. C. Snyder and Z. Wan, “BRDF models to predict spectral reflectance and emissivity in the thermal infrared,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 214–225 (1998).
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Steinacker, R.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
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S. W. Seemann, E. F. Borbas, R. O. Knuteson, G. R. Stephenson, and H.-L. Huang, “Development of a global infrared land surface emissivity database for application to clear sky sounding retrievals from multispectral satellite radiance measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 47, 108–123 (2007).
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F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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Strow, L. L.

D. K. Zhou, A. M. Larar, X. Liu, W. L. Smith, L. L. Strow, P. Yang, P. Schlüssel, and X. Calbet, “Global land surface emissivity retrieved from satellite ultraspectral IR measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1277–1290 (2011).
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Stubenrauch, C.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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Sun, F.

L. Zhou, M. Goldberg, C. Barnet, Z. Cheng, F. Sun, W. Wolf, T. King, X. Liu, H. Sun, and M. Divakarla, “Regression of surface spectral emissivity from hyperspectral instruments,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 328–333 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

L. Zhou, M. Goldberg, C. Barnet, Z. Cheng, F. Sun, W. Wolf, T. King, X. Liu, H. Sun, and M. Divakarla, “Regression of surface spectral emissivity from hyperspectral instruments,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 328–333 (2008).
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K. Masuda, T. Takashima, and Y. Takayma, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313–329(1988).
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Takayma, Y.

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, and Y. Takayma, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313–329(1988).
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Tamba, S.

Tarantola, A.

A. Tarantola, Inverse Problem Theory: Methods for Data Fitting and Model Parameter Estimation (Elsevier, 1987).

Taylor, J.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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Taylor, J. P.

S. M. Newman, J. A. Smith, M. D. Glew, S. M. Rogers, and J. P. Taylor, “Temperature and salinity dependence of sea surface emissivity in the thermal infrared,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131, 2539–2557 (2005).
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Tobin, D.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
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Tobin, D. C.

R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, W. F. Feltz, B. J. Osbourne, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, “Infrared land surface emissivity in the vicinity of the ARM SGP central facility,” presented at the 13th ARM Science Team Meeting, Broomfield, Colorado, 31 March–4 April 2003.

Turner, D. D.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
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Venafra, S.

I. De Feis, G. Masiello, C. Serio, M. Amoroso, and S. Venafra, “Spatio-temporal constraints for emissivity and surface temperature retrieval: preliminary results and comparisons for SEVIRI and IASI observations,” presented at the 3rd IASI International Conference, Hyères, France, 4–8 February 2013, available online at http://www.iasi2013.com/oral/08_03-De_Feis_Italia.pdf .

G. Masiello, M. Amoroso, P. Di Girolamo, C. Serio, S. Venafra, and T. Deleporte, “IASI Retrieval of temperature, water vapor and ozone profiles over land with φ-IASI package during the COPS campaign,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling (ESA, 2012), http://cetemps.aquila.infn.it/istp/proceedings/Session_I_Water_vapor_ozone_and_trace_gases/SI_02_Masiello.pdf .

Viggiano, M.

U. Amato, G. Masiello, C. Serio, and M. Viggiano, “The σ-IASI code for the calculation of infrared atmospheric radiance and its derivatives,” Environ. Modell. Software 17, 651–667 (2002).
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Wadsworth, W.

Walden, J.

K. White, J. Walden, and S. D. Gurney, “Spectral properties, iron oxide content and provenance of Namib dune sands,” Geomorphology 86, 219–229 (2007).
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Wan, Z.

Z. Wan, “New refinements and validation of the MODIS land-surface temperature/emissivity products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 59–74 (2008).
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X. L. Ma, Z. Wan, C. C. Moeller, W. P. Menzel, and L. E. Gumley, “Simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric profiles, land-surface temperature, and surface emissivity from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer thermal infrared data: extension of a two-step physical algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 41, 909–924 (2002).
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W. C. Snyder and Z. Wan, “BRDF models to predict spectral reflectance and emissivity in the thermal infrared,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 214–225 (1998).
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Weckwerth, T.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
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Weisz, E.

J. Li, J. Li, E. Weisz, and D. K. Zhou, “Physical retrieval of surface emissivity spectrum from hyperspectral infrared radiances,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L16812 (2007).
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White, K.

K. White, J. Walden, and S. D. Gurney, “Spectral properties, iron oxide content and provenance of Namib dune sands,” Geomorphology 86, 219–229 (2007).
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Wolf, W.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, M. Goldberg, C. Barnet, Z. Cheng, F. Sun, W. Wolf, T. King, X. Liu, H. Sun, and M. Divakarla, “Regression of surface spectral emissivity from hyperspectral instruments,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 328–333 (2008).
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Worden, H. M.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Worden, J.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, J. Worden, P. D. Brown, H. M. Worden, M. Luo, C. D. Rodgers, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, L. Brown, S. S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, M. Lampel, G. Osterman, R. Beer, K. Bowman, K. E. Cady-Pereira, and E. J. Mlawer, “Forward model and Jacobians for tropospheric emission spectrometer retrievals,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1308–1323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wulfmeyer, V.

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

D. K. Zhou, A. M. Larar, X. Liu, W. L. Smith, L. L. Strow, P. Yang, P. Schlüssel, and X. Calbet, “Global land surface emissivity retrieved from satellite ultraspectral IR measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1277–1290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, R.

Yoshimori, K.

Zhou, D.

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D. K.

D. K. Zhou, A. M. Larar, X. Liu, W. L. Smith, L. L. Strow, P. Yang, P. Schlüssel, and X. Calbet, “Global land surface emissivity retrieved from satellite ultraspectral IR measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 1277–1290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, J. Li, E. Weisz, and D. K. Zhou, “Physical retrieval of surface emissivity spectrum from hyperspectral infrared radiances,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L16812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, M. Goldberg, C. Barnet, Z. Cheng, F. Sun, W. Wolf, T. King, X. Liu, H. Sun, and M. Divakarla, “Regression of surface spectral emissivity from hyperspectral instruments,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 328–333 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, D. H. DeSlover, B. J. Osborne, H. E. Revercomb, and W. L. Smith, “Infrared land surface remote sensing using high spectral resolution aircraft observations,” Adv. Space Res. 33, 1114–1119 (2004).
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Appl. Opt. (7)

A. R. Korb, P. Dybwad, W. Wadsworth, and J. W. Salisbury, “Portable Fourier transform infrared spectroradiometer for field measurements of radiance and emissivity,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1679–1692 (1996).
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J. Cuenca and J. A. Sobrino, “Experimental measurements for studying angular and spectral variation of thermal infrared emissivity,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4598–4602 (2004).
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G. Masiello, C. Serio, and V. Cuomo, “Exploiting quartz spectral signature for the detection of cloud-affected satellite infrared observations over African desert areas,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2305–2315 (2004).
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X. L. Ma, Z. Wan, C. C. Moeller, W. P. Menzel, and L. E. Gumley, “Simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric profiles, land-surface temperature, and surface emissivity from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer thermal infrared data: extension of a two-step physical algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 41, 909–924 (2002).
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Atmos. Chem. Phys. (3)

U. Amato, A. Antoniadis, I. De Feis, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, and C. Serio, “Technical note: Functional sliced inverse regression to infer temperature, water vapour and ozone from IASI data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 5321–5330 (2009).
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G. Masiello, C. Serio, A. Carissimo, G. Grieco, and M. Matricardi, “Application of φ-IASI to IASI: retrieval products evaluation and radiative transfer consistency,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 8771–8783 (2009).
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G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, and C. Serio, “The use of IASI data to identify systematic errors in the ECMWF forecasts of temperature in the upper stratosphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 1009–1021 (2011).
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Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (3)

V. Wulfmeyer, A. Behrendt, H.-S. Bauer, C. Kottmeier, U. Corsmeier, A. Blyth, G. Craig, U. Schumann, M. Hagen, S. Crewell, P. Di Girolamo, C. Flamant, M. Miller, A. Montani, S. Mobbs, E. Richard, M. W. Rotach, M. Arpagaus, H. Russchenberg, P. Schlüssel, M. König, V. Gärtner, R. Steinacker, M. Dorninger, D. D. Turner, T. Weckwerth, A. Hense, and C. Simmer, “The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study: a research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 1477–1486 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Hilton, R. Armante, T. August, C. Barnet, A. Bouchard, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Capelle, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, A. Collard, C. Crevoisier, G. Dufour, D. Edwards, F. Faijan, N. Fourrié, A. Gambacorta, M. Goldberg, V. Guidard, D. Hurtmans, S. Illingworth, N. Jacquinet-Husson, T. Kerzenmacher, D. Klaes, L. Lavanant, G. Masiello, M. Matricardi, A. McNally, S. Newman, E. Pavelin, S. Payan, E. Péquignot, S. Peyridieu, T. Phulpin, J. Remedios, P. Schlüssel, C. Serio, L. Strow, C. Stubenrauch, J. Taylor, D. Tobin, W. Wolf, and D. Zhou, “Hyperspectral Earth observation from IASI: five years of accomplishments,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 347–370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–51 (1996).
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Dtsch. Hydrogr. Z. (1)

L. Fiedler and S. Bakan, “Interferometric measurements of sea surface temperature and emissivity,” Dtsch. Hydrogr. Z. 49, 357–365 (1997).
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Environ. Modell. Software (2)

U. Amato, G. Masiello, C. Serio, and M. Viggiano, “The σ-IASI code for the calculation of infrared atmospheric radiance and its derivatives,” Environ. Modell. Software 17, 651–667 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Carissimo, I. De Feis, and C. Serio, “The physical retrieval methodology for IASI: the δ-IASI code,” Environ. Modell. Software 20, 1111–1126 (2005).
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Figures (20)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Masuda model for the sea emissivity spectrum and its representation with 20, 40, and 60 Fourier coefficients.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Desert-sand emissivity spectrum (laboratory measurement from MODIS group of Institute for Computational Earth System Science, UCSB, http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/modis/EMIS/html/em.html) and its representation with 60, 200, and 400 Fourier coefficients.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Background emissivity for three surface types: sea, savanna, and desert. (a) Emissivity spectrum. (b) Logit transform of emissivity. (c) Fourier coefficients of the discrete cosine transform of z ( σ ) . (d) Standard deviation of the Fourier coefficients.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Retrieved skin temperature for sea surface. (a) Scatterplot between T s obtained by imposing Masuda’s model over the retrieval and that obtained by simultaneously retrieving emissivity and T s . (b) Comparison with the ARIES retrieval for the 3 days considered in the exercise. In the key, “FG” stands for first guess and “Ret.” for retrieval.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of the retrieved emissivity spectrum and Masuda’s model for a series of six IASI soundings at nadir. The retrieval has been averaged over the six soundings. The circles individuate the spectral ranges, which were not used in the retrieval analysis. (a) Comparison between the retrieved and modeled emissivity spectra. (b) Retrieval-minus-model difference and the corresponding error bars.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Same as Fig. 5, but for the series of 19 IASI soundings at a viewing angle of 22.5 deg.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Mean-temperature retrieval over the three IASI soundings at viewing angle of 22.5 deg on 4 May 2007. (a) Comparison of the dropsonde (extended with ECMWF forecast above 400 hPa) profile with that simultaneously retrieved with the emissivity spectrum (“S. Retrieval”) and that assuming the Masuda model for emissivity (“M. Retrieval”). (b) Illustration of the bias, where “S-D” refers to S. Retrieval—( dropsonde + ECMWF ) and “M-D” to M. Retrieval—( dropsonde + ECMWF ).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Sahara target area showing the IASI footprints (circles). (b) Namib target area showing the IASI footprints (circles). (c) Sahara target area (Ouargla Province, Algeria) showing the SEVIRI pixels (square boxes) and the colocated IASI footprints.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Emissivity retrieval for the Namib Desert case study. The position (latitude, longitude in degrees) and the field of view (FOV, in degrees) of each sounding are shown in the key.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Exemplification of the retrieval precision for the emissivity spectrum over desert soil. For one of the spectra shown in Fig. 8 the figure shows the ± 1 σ tolerance interval, computed according to Eq. (45). The key gives the position (latitude, longitude in degrees) and the field of view (FOV, in degrees) of the sounding.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Sahara Desert case study: emissivity-spectrum retrieval for three different soundings, exemplifying the presence of fine- and coarse-grained quartz particles. The position (latitude, longitude in degrees) and the field of view (FOV, in degrees) of each sounding are shown in the key.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Sahara Desert case study: map of skin temperature. (a) ECMWF. (b) IASI retrieval.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Sahara Desert case study: comparison for a single IASI footprint of the observed spectrum with the calculation performed with the skin temperature, temperature profile, water–vapor profile, and ozone profile derived from the ECMWF analysis. (a)  645 2230 cm 1 . (b) Atmospheric window. The field-of-view angle is 1.43 deg.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Sahara Desert case study: temperature retrieval and comparison with the ECMWF analysis and the first guess. (a) Profiles. (b) Differences retrieval–ECMWF and (first guess)–ECMWF. The results have been averaged over the 120 corresponding profiles.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Same as Fig. 14, but for water vapor.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Same as Fig. 14, but for ozone.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Sahara Desert case study. (a) Observed and retrieved spectrum in the range 645 1250 cm 1 . (b) Spectral residual: observed minus retrieved and observed minus first guess. The results have been averaged over the 120 IASI soundings.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Same as Fig. 17, but for 1450 2230 cm 1 .

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Comparison of SEVIRI (top) and IASI (bottom) emissivity maps for the window channels at 12 and 10.8 μm.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Comparison of SEVIRI (top) and IASI (bottom) emissivity (channel at 8.7 μm) and skin temperature.

Equations (61)

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v = ( v 1 , v 2 ) t ,
R = ( R ( σ 1 ) , , R ( σ M ) ) t .
min v [ 1 2 ( R F ( v ) ) t S ϵ 1 ( R F ( v ) ) + 1 2 ( v v a ) t S a 1 ( v v a ) ] .
R = R 0 + F ( v ) v | v = v 0 ( v v 0 ) + higher order terms ,
K = F ( v ) v | v = v 0 ,
min x 1 2 [ ( y K x ) t ] S ϵ 1 ( y K x ) + ( x x a ) t S a 1 ( x x a ) ,
y = R R 0 , x = v v 0 , x a = v a v 0 .
R ( σ ) = R s ( σ ) + R a ( σ ) + R r ( σ ) ,
R s ( σ ) = ε ( σ ) B ( σ ; T s ) τ 0 ( σ )
R a ( σ ) = 0 + B ( σ , T ) τ h d h
R r ( σ ) = ( 1 ε ) τ 0 2 0 + B ( σ , T ) 1 τ 2 τ h d h .
R r ( σ ) = τ 0 ( 1 ε ) + 0 B ( σ , T ) τ * f h d h
τ * f ( h ) = 2 0 1 τ * ( μ , h ) μ d μ ,
τ * f ( μ , h ) = τ * ( μ ¯ , h ) ,
R r ( σ ) = τ 0 ( 1 ε ) + 0 B ( σ , T ) τ * ( μ ¯ , h ) h d h .
y = K x ,
K = ( K 1 , K 2 ) ,
x = ( x 1 x 2 ) = ( v 1 v 01 v 2 v 02 ) ,
z ( i ) = logit ( ε ( i ) ) = log ( ε ( i ) 1 ε ( i ) ) , i = 1 , , M ,
ε ( i ) = exp ( z ( i ) ) 1 + exp ( z ( i ) ) , i = 1 , , M ,
R ( i ) z ( i ) = R ( i ) ε ( i ) ( z ( i ) ε ( i ) ) 1 = R ( i ) ε ( i ) ε ( i ) ( 1 ε ( i ) ) .
R ( i ) z ( i ) ( z ( i ) z 0 ( i ) ) ,
z ( i ) = j = 1 M cut w ( j ) c ( j ) cos π ( 2 i 1 ) ( j 1 ) 2 M i = 1 , , M ,
w ( j ) = { 1 / M for j = 1 2 / M for j = 2 , , M cut
c ( j ) = w ( j ) i = 1 M z ( i ) cos π ( 2 i 1 ) ( j 1 ) 2 M i = 1 , , M ,
w ( j ) = { 1 / M for j = 1 2 / M for j = 2 , , M
R ( i ) z ( i ) ( j = 1 M cut w ( j ) ( c ( j ) c 0 ( j ) ) cos π ( 2 i 1 ) ( j 1 ) 2 M ) ,
K 2 , i j = R ( i ) z ( i ) ( w ( j ) cos π ( 2 i 1 ) ( j 1 ) 2 M ) ,
K 2 ( c c 0 ) ,
M M cut δ σ ε .
S a = ( γ 1 1 S a ( 1 ) 0 0 γ 2 1 S a ( 2 ) ) .
S a 1 = ( γ 1 ( S a ( 1 ) ) 1 0 0 γ 2 ( S a ( 2 ) ) 1 ) .
S ˜ a 1 = ( ( S a ( 1 ) ) 1 0 0 ( S a ( 2 ) ) 1 ) ,
S a 1 = Γ S ˜ a 1 ,
S ^ c = S ν 1 ( Γ 2 S ˜ a 1 + K t S ϵ 1 K ) S ν 1
S ν = ( Γ S ˜ a 1 + K t S ϵ 1 K ) ,
S ^ c = ( S a 1 + K t S ϵ 1 K ) 1 ,
z = A F c ,
A F ; i j = w ( j ) cos π ( 2 i 1 ) ( j 1 ) 2 M , i = 1 , , M ; j = 1 , , M cut ,
( v 1 z ) = ( I 1 0 0 A F ) ( v 1 c ) ,
A T = ( I 1 0 0 A F ) ,
S ^ z = A T S ^ c A T t
Δ ε ( i ) = ( 1 ε ( i ) ) ε ( i ) Δ z ( i ) .
Δ i i = { 1 , i = 1 , , N 1 , ( 1 ε ( i N 1 ) ) ε ( i N 1 ) , i = N 1 + 1 , , M + N 1 ,
S ^ = Δ S ^ z Δ t .
G = S ϵ 1 / 2 K S ˜ a 1 / 2
( γ 1 I γ 1 + γ 2 I γ 2 + G t G ) u ^ = G t y ˜ ,
u ^ = S ˜ a 1 / 2 ( v v a ) ,
y ˜ = S ϵ 1 / 2 ( y + K ( v 0 v a ) ) .
L ( γ 1 , γ 2 ) = def { ζ = Φ ( γ 1 , γ 2 ) = ( G u ^ y ˜ ) t ( G u ^ y ˜ ) ξ = Ψ ( γ 1 , γ 2 ) = u ^ t I γ 1 u ^ υ = Ω ( γ 1 , γ 2 ) = u ^ t I γ 2 u ^ .
κ ( γ 1 , γ 2 ) = | det P | w 4
w 2 = 1 + ( ζ ξ ) 2 + ( ζ υ ) 2
P i j = 2 ζ χ i χ j
{ Ξ i = Ξ γ i , i = 1 , 2 , Ξ i j = 2 Ξ γ i γ j , i , j = 1 , 2 ,
{ ζ ξ = g = Φ 1 Ψ 1 + Φ 2 Ψ 2 ζ υ = g * = Φ 1 Ω 1 + Φ 2 Ω 2 .
{ 2 ζ ξ 2 = g 1 Ψ 1 + g 2 Ψ 2 ; 2 ζ ξ υ = g 1 * Ψ 1 + g 2 * Ψ 2 2 ζ υ 2 = g 1 * Ω 1 + g 2 * Ω 2 ; 2 ζ υ ξ = g 1 Ω 1 + g 2 Ω 2
{ g 1 = Φ 11 Ψ 1 Φ 1 Ψ 11 Ψ 1 2 + Φ 12 Ψ 2 Φ 2 Ψ 12 Ψ 2 2 g 2 = Φ 22 Ψ 2 Φ 2 Ψ 22 Ψ 2 2 + Φ 21 Ψ 1 Φ 1 Ψ 21 Ψ 1 2 g 1 * = Φ 11 Ω 1 Φ 1 Ω 11 Ω 1 2 + Φ 12 Ω 2 Φ 2 Ω 12 Ω 2 2 g 2 * = Φ 22 Ω 2 Φ 2 Ω 22 Ω 2 2 + Φ 21 Ω 1 Φ 1 Ω 21 Ω 1 2 .
{ Φ 1 = ( G u ^ 1 ) t ( G u ^ y ˜ ) + ( G u ^ y ˜ ) t ( G u ^ 1 ) Φ 2 = ( G u ^ 2 ) t ( G u ^ y ˜ ) + ( G u ^ y ˜ ) t ( G u ^ 2 ) Φ 11 = ( G u ^ 11 ) t ( G u ^ y ˜ ) + 2 ( G u ^ 1 ) t ( G u ^ 1 ) + ( G u ^ y ˜ ) t ( G u ^ 11 ) Φ 22 = ( G u ^ 22 ) t ( G u ^ y ˜ ) + 2 ( G u ^ 2 ) t ( G u ^ 2 ) + ( G u ^ y ˜ ) t ( G u ^ 22 ) Φ 12 = ( G u ^ 12 ) t ( G u ^ y ˜ ) + ( G u ^ 2 ) t ( G u ^ 1 ) + ( G u ^ 1 ) t ( G u ^ 2 ) + ( G u ^ y ˜ ) t ( G u ^ 12 ) Φ 21 = ( G u ^ 21 ) t ( G u ^ y ˜ ) + ( G u ^ 1 ) t ( G u ^ 2 ) + ( G u ^ 2 ) t ( G u ^ 1 ) + ( G u ^ y ˜ ) t ( G u ^ 21 ) .
{ Ψ 1 = u ^ 1 t I γ 1 u ^ + u ^ t I γ 1 u ^ 1 Ψ 2 = u ^ 2 t I γ 1 u ^ + u ^ t I γ 1 u ^ 2 Ψ 11 = u ^ 11 t I γ 1 u ^ + 2 u ^ 1 t I γ 1 u ^ 1 + u ^ t I γ 1 u ^ 11 Ψ 22 = u ^ 22 t I γ 1 u ^ + 2 u ^ 2 t I γ 1 u ^ 2 + u ^ t I γ 1 u ^ 22 Ψ 12 = u ^ 12 t I γ 1 u ^ + u ^ 2 t I γ 1 u ^ 1 + u ^ 1 t I γ 1 u ^ 2 + u ^ t I γ 1 u ^ 12 Ψ 21 = u ^ 21 t I γ 1 u ^ + u ^ 1 t I γ 1 u ^ 2 + u ^ 2 t I γ 1 u ^ 2 + u ^ t I γ 1 u ^ 21 .
{ A u ^ 1 = I γ 1 u ^ A u ^ 2 = I γ 2 u ^ A u ^ 11 = 2 I γ 1 u ^ 1 A u ^ 22 = 2 I γ 2 u ^ 2 A u ^ 12 = I γ 1 u ^ 2 I γ 2 u ^ 1 A u ^ 21 = I γ 2 u ^ 1 I γ 1 u ^ 2 .
( γ 1 i , γ 2 j ) = ( 10 2 i / ( n 1 ) , 10 2 j / ( n 1 ) ) , i = 1 , , n ; j = 1 , , n .

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